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[After a brief excursion of precursors, Descartes,Descartes RenéHuygensHuygens Christiaan and a few others, Newton’sNewton Isaac epistemology is analyzed as the prototype of the view at the turn of the 18th century, both by studying his official statements in the Principia, Opticks, in other...
[The chapter deals with the way mathematicians were successful in replacing canonical philosophers nearly completely in the study of natural philosophy, both in research and academic contexts and how they invented an academic discipline that was called simply physics, concerned only with the...
[The evolution of mechanics towards what is now called classical mechanics is explored in depth. The exposition of fundaments and applications in various treatises and papers are examined, especially those of continental scientists and in particular the syntheses of Euler and...
[D’AlembertD’Alembert Jean Baptiste Le Rond counted as physics in general disciplines such optics, acoustics, positional astronomy, cosmology, magnetism and electricity. For the sake of space, this chapter deals with optics and electricity only. A good deal of the optical works, concerned the...
[Modern technology historians identify the birth of a new figure in the 18th century, the scientific engineer. His goal was the rationalization of design and implementation of processes. For this purpose, he used hypotheses and experimentations, as in the (mathematical) physical sciences. The...
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