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[Figure 1.1 depicts the growing disparity between processor and memory performance in the past four decades. Innovations in microarchitecture, circuits, and fabrication technologies have led to an exponential increase in processor performance over this period. Meanwhile, DRAM has primarily...
[Instruction fetch stalls are detrimental to performance for workloads with large instruction working sets; when instruction supply slows down, the processor pipeline’s execution resources (no matter how abundant) will be wasted. Whereas desktop and scientific workloads often exhibit small...
[Data miss patterns arise from the inherent structure that algorithms and high-level programming constructs impose to organize and traverse data in memory. Whereas instruction miss patterns in conventional von Neumann computer systems tend to be quite simple, following either sequential patterns...
[Hardware prefetching has been a subject of academic research and industrial development for over 40 years. Nevertheless, because of the scaling trends that continue to widen the gap between processor performance and memory access latency, the importance of hardware prefetching and the need to...
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