1 - 8 of 8 Chapters
[This chapter introduces the basic concepts of virtualization, virtual machines, and virtual machine monitors. This is necessary for clarity as various articles, textbooks, and commercial product descriptions sometimes use conflicting definitions. We use the following definitions in this book.]
[In 1974, Gerald Popek and Robert Goldberg published in Communications of the ACM the seminal paper “Formal Requirements for Virtualizable Third-Generation Architectures” that defines the necessary and sufficient formal requirements to ensure that a VMM can be constructed . Precisely, their...
[This chapter is about the past. Practitioners who are only interested in understanding how virtualization operates on contemporary hardware and hypervisors may be tempted to skip to Chapter 4.]
[We now describe in a sequence of three chapters the architectural support for virtualization in x86-64 processors. This architectural support is the combination of innovation in the CPU (Chapter 4), MMU (Chapter 5), and I/O subsystem (Chapter 6).]
[Hypervisors must virtualize physical memory, so that each virtual machine has the illusion of managing its own contiguous region of physical memory. Recall the definitions of §1.6: each virtual machine is provided the abstraction of guest-physicalmemory, while the hypervisor manages...
[The previous chapters define virtual machines in terms of the three key attributes proposed by Popek and Goldberg—equivalence, safety, and performance—which help us to reason about virtualization from a CPU and MMU perspective. When introducing I/O capabilities to virtual machines, a fourth...
[This chapter describes the current, state-of-the-art support for virtualization in modern ARM processors. Much of this work is based on the original paper on KVM/ARM, the Linux kernel virtual machine for ARM . §7.1 first describes the key design principles behind ARM’s virtualization...
[This chapter presents a comparison of ARM and x86 virtualization performance on multicore server hardware, including measurements of two popular open-source ARM and x86 hypervisors, KVM and Xen. These hypervisors are useful to compare given their popularity and their different design choices....
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