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[Produced water is the single largest waste stream (by volume) generated in oil and gas (O&G) exploration and production (E&P) or “upstream” operations . Produced water management simultaneously drives oil production costs and, along with flaring of natural gas at oil wells, determines the...
[Although produced water is the largest waste stream in O&G production, until recently it has often been under-regulated or subject to somewhat vague “best management practices” requirements. Table 3.1 compares several regulatory standards, from various agencies and agreements throughout the...
[The fluid produced at an extraction wellhead is recovered as a pressurized mixture (often at elevated temperatures) of dissolved gases, crude oil (free, dispersed, emulsified, and dissolved), inorganic and organic solids (volatile, suspended, and dissolved), naturally occurring radioactive...
[Various processes and equipment are available from a number of manufactures in the industry. Each equipment type has advantages and disadvantages depending on the application. Details of each type of equipment and the metrics that contribute to the evaluations are discussed below.]
[Produced water is the largest volumetric waste stream in the O&G industry and the water intensity of O&G production is still rising steadily. Despite this, PW has been under-regulated or subject to somewhat vague “best management practices” and is often associated with controversy surrounding...
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