1 - 10 of 16 Chapters
[Measuring mass and force, together with the measuring of the linear dimensions that will be exposed in the next chapter, represent the first step in developing science and technology. Examples of balance scales from Mesopotamia and Egypt are dated to the 5th millennium B.C. but their use became...
[As mentioned in the previous chapter, the measuring of distance (together with the measuring of mass and force) represent the first step in the development of science and technology. In addition, the first western scientists and engineers (e.g., Thaletes, Pythagoras, Archimedes etc.) were very...
[Speaking about time measurement we must, first of all, consider how the length of the day was divided in ancient times.]
[In the previous chapters the most important devices for environment measuring have been discussed. But a measure has little use if no computation devices are available. For this reason in the present chapter we will look at those that were available in ancient times.]
[The first non-muscular source of energy used by man was wind energy; examples of wind motors, in fact, are very old. By wind motors we mean all the devices that create energy by using the kinetic energy released by the movement of an aeriform mass.]
[According to the Greek concept of “motor”, one of the first liquid state motors was unquestionably the float that was transported by the current of rivers or the tides of the sea. These spontaneous machines were later copied, transforming them into blades and turbines. It soon became clear that...
[Water is without doubt the most necessary element for the existence of life; for this reason, devices to raise water from wells were among the first to be conceived. The need to raise water in large quantities from the bottom of a well or from a river bed, requiring extensive if not continuous...
[The surface of a lake, more than the sea, conveyed the perception of horizontal direction and absence of current. Rivers and torrents on the other hand illustrated the close relation between inclination, current and movement of the water. It was by following these examples that ancient...
[The solution to the need for air in order to remain underwater dates back at least to the 7th—6th century B.C. Later special pneumatic chambers were built that were described by Aristotle. As for the snorkel, this idea came from the elephant who could walk on river beds by keeping his proboscis...
[The development of a transport system is another important step towards modernity. The concept of transport may mean both vertical and horizontal movement of things and people; in this chapter both aspects will be presented.]
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