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FMRFamide‐like immunoreactivity has been demonstrated in the digenean trematode Echinostoma liei. The functions of FMRFamide‐like substances appear to be many and varied within the invertebrates, where they are involved in neurotransmission, cardiovascular regulation, muscular contraction and/or...
The freely spawned eggs of Crania go through radial cleavage, embolic gastrulation, and the posteroventral part of the archenteron forms mesoderm through modified enterocoely. The blastopore closes in the posterior end of the larva. The ciliated, lecithotrophic larva has four pairs of coelomic...
Holthuisana transversa reabsorbs much of its exoskeletal calcium in the last 3 days before ecdysis and stores it in circulating granules in the haemocoel and in non‐circulating granules in the subepidermal connective tissue. Calcium enters the epidermal cells from the moulting fluid, probably...
Two hitherto unknown ligaments that assist in holding the brain in position occur in the brachiopterygian fish Polypterus senegalus. These rounded fibrous cords, placed one behind the other, are called ligamentum intracraniale transversum and ligamentum intracraniale obliquum. The former spans...
Structural alterations accompanying the development of germ cells in representatives of two families of gamasid mites: Pergamasidae (Pergumasus barbarus. P. truatellus) and Parasitidae (Porrhostaspis lunulata) were examined by scanning electron microscopy. Spermatogenesis occurs in cysts...
In Pegea, scanning electron microscopy of what appear to be the least damaged portions of the filter shows that it has a regular rectangular mesh consisting of thick (100 nm) fibres at right angles to thinner (50 nm) fibres. The rectangular pores of the filter are around 3.3 × 0.57 μm. These...
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