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Newton certainly regarded his second law of motion in the Principia as a fundamental axiom of mechanics. Yet the works that came after the Principia, the major treatises on the foundations of mechanics in the eighteenth century—by Varignon, Hermann, Euler, Maclaurin, d’Alembert, Euler (again),...
Babylonian methods for predicting planetary phenomena using the so-called goal-year periods are well known. Texts known as Goal-Year Texts contain collections of the observational data needed to make predictions for a given year. The predictions were then recorded in Normal Star Almanacs and...
To solve the direct problem of central forces when the trajectory is an ellipse and the force is directed to its centre, Newton made use of the famous Lemma 12 (Principia, I, sect. II) that was later recognized equivalent to proposition 31 of book VII of Apollonius’s Conics. In this paper, in...
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