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Abstract The design of policies to improve economic efficiency using the private sector as principal agent requires a clear understanding of the role of market structure. Contestability analysis, not ten years old, provides a tool for the purpose. The concept can guide the government that wants...
Abstract Does trade with developing countries have a small and benign effect on workers in industrial countries, as most economists have maintained, or a large and adverse effect, as the general public and advocates of protection believe? A review of the evidence suggests that neither of these...
Abstract Organized labor is usually viewed as an obstacle to labor market adjustment. But unions' responses to adjustment programs in fact range from militant opposition to acquiescence or even explicit cooperation. Three sets of variables shape these responses: the strength and characteristics...
Abstract Do the economic gains brought by technological innovation and commercialization in agriculture work their way through to the poor? The prevailing optimistic view is that they do. But this view is not universal: some hold that these forces for change can interact with, or even induce,...
Abstract Economic theory provides some justification for earmarking. Some economists argue that by assigning revenue from specific sources to specific purposes, a government can facilitate agreement about increasing both revenue and expenditure in cases in which there would be no consensus about...
Abstract There is an urgent need to provide an effective safety net for the poorest in societies ranging from socialist countries undergoing reform to Sub-Saharan African economies. This article examines social security systems in industrial countries and explores their relevance to developing...
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