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This paper argues for the need to design broad economic policy instruments to reverse the trend in many developing countries toward increasing degradation and destruction of natural resources. The natural resource base, often critical for economic development, is in many cases threatened by a...
Renewable resources are being used in non-sustainable ways in many countries in the world. The costs of non-sustainability need to be enumerated and valued in order to establish the desirability or otherwise of such development paths. The appropriate concept is marginal opportunity cost (MOC), a...
Much economic activity depends on the environmentalresource base (soils, water, vegetation, climate) that ultimately underpins virtually all human endeavor. This environmental-resource support is obviously important for agriculture, forestry, fisheries and hydropower generation. It is less...
Appropriate economic incentives for millions of households, farmers, and small producers are needed in the Third World to channel development activities into sustainable patterns that preserve the productivity of natural resource assets. Incentive problems now arise both from market failures,...
This paper develops a strategy for the continuing and improved supply of woodfuels to urban and industrial consumers in Sub-Sahara Africa. It argues that continued use of these fuels is not only a necessity, but is also in the best economic interest of most of the countries in this region. It...
It has proven difficult to quantify the economic benefits of large-scale rural afforestation and to establish the priority for public sector investment in traditional rural energy supply vis-a-vis investment in the supply of modern fuels (electricity, petroleum) to the urban industrial market....
This paper argues for the need to broaden the economic analysis of afforestation projects beyond the traditional focus on the benefits of tree products themselves.
Watersheds, as integrated land and water systems, have proved difficult to manage successfully. This is in part due to the complexities of accommodating different groups of users and making use of multiple resources in spatially large areas. The paper argues, however, that watersheds have a...
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