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Abstract The most common method used to evaluate climate models involves spinning them up under perpetual present‐day forcing and comparing the model results with present‐day observations. This approach clearly ignores any potential long‐term memory of the model ocean to past climatic...
Abstract In a number of applications several numerical modellers have recently used low‐resolution GCM or NWP analysis winds to deduce very fine structure in the distribution of chemical species and of potential vorticity. This study aims to measure the error introduced by this mismatch of...
Abstract Past research has unveiled important variations in total precipitation, often related to large‐scale shifts in atmospheric circulation, and consistent with projected responses to enhanced greenhouse warming. More recently, however, it has been realized that important and influential...
Abstract Radiative measurements were carried out continuously during a cruise from Australia to Antarctica during austral summer 1995/96. Both shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes were measured. Some of the results are: • The incoming solar radiation had a mean value of 217 W m–2; this was a...
Abstract Proxy evidence suggests a historical episode of extreme cold in the shelf waters off southeast Canada and the northeastern United States between April and August of 1882. This event is hypothesized to be the consequence of enhanced equatorward transport of cold water in the Labrador...
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