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This study investigated the face inversion effect in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). Face stimuli consisted of ten black-and-white examples of unfamiliar rhesus monkey faces, brown capuchin faces, and human faces. Two non-face categories included ten examples of automobiles and abstract shapes....
Among social species, the capacity to detect where another individual is looking is adaptive because gaze direction often predicts what an individual is attending to, and thus what its future actions are likely to be. We used an expectancy violation procedure to determine whether cotton-top...
Using Matsuzawa’s hierarchical system of classification, I compared tool-use patterns of tufted capuchins (Cebus
apella) to those of chimpanzees (Pan
troglodytes). The results indicated that wild C. apella exhibit fewer and less complex tool-use patterns than do captive C. apella and wild and...
Two experiments investigated the spontaneous construction of precursory logicomathematical operations by human-enculturated and language-reared chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes, Pan paniscus) when they were interacting freely with objects. In experiment 1, three chimpanzees ranging in age from 6 to...
Two experiments investigated spontaneous class grouping behavior by human-enculturated and language-reared bonobos (Pan paniscus) and common chimpanzees (P. troglodytes). In experiment 1, three chimpanzees ranging in age from 6 to 18 years were presented with six objects. The objects embodied...
A typical feature of vertical orb-webs is the ‘top/bottom’ asymmetry, where the lower web region is larger than the upper web region. This asymmetry may improve prey capture success, because, sitting in the hub of the web, a spider can reach prey entangled below the hub faster than prey...
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