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P2X receptor (P2XR) is a family of the ATP-gated ion channel family and can permeabilize the plasma membrane to small cations such as potassium, sodium, and calcium, resulting in cellular depolarization. There are seven P2XR that have been described and cloned, with 45% identity in amino acid...
The first comprehensive review of the ubiquitous “ecto-ATPases” by Plesner was published in 1995. A year later, a lymphoid cell activation antigen, CD39, that had been cloned previously, was shown to be an ecto-ATPase. A family of proteins, related to CD39 and a yeast GDPase, all containing the...
Psychological stress has long been associated with effects on immune function and disease. In particular, differential effects of acute and chronic stress on skin immunity occur in the rodent restraint stress model, with acute stress enhancing and chronic stress suppressing cutaneous...
Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced endogenously by heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. HO-1 is highly expressed in many inflammatory disease states, where it is broadly protective. The protective effects of HO-1 expression can be largely mimicked by the exogenous application of CO and CO-releasing...
The role of the interaction between neurons and glial cells in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases is gaining more attention. Neuroinflammation participates in the progressive nature of diverse neurologic diseases including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple...
There is evidence that gonadal hormones may affect the perception of painful stimulation, although the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. This investigation was undertaken to determine whether the adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) receptor subunit, P2X3, is involved in the modulatory action of...
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