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Purine metabolites have been implicated as clinically relevant biomarkers of worsening or improving Parkinson’s disease (PD) progression. However, the identification of purine molecules as biomarkers in PD has largely been determined using non-targeted metabolomics analysis. The primary goal of...
P2X purinergic receptors are ATP-driven ionic channels expressed as trimers and showing various functions. A subtype, the P2X4 receptor present on microglial cells is highly involved in neuropathic pain. In this study, in order to prepare antibodies recognizing the native structure of rat P2X4...
In recent years, immunotherapy has produced many unexpected breakthroughs in oncological therapy; however, it still has many deficiencies. For example, the number of patients who are unresponsive to anti-programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1), anti-cytotoxic T-like antigen-4 (CTLA4), and...
Increased levels of ATP have been found in the bronchoalveolar lavage of patients with asthma, and subjects with this disease, but not healthy subjects, develop bronchospasm after nebulization with ATP. Because the main mechanism for controlling the noxious effects of extracellular ATP is its...
Prostate cancer is among the major malignancies that affect men around the world. Adenine nucleotides are important signaling molecules that mediate innumerous biological functions in pathophysiological conditions, including cancer. These molecules are degraded by several ectoenzymes named...
Extracellular ATP and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (β-NAD) demonstrate properties of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators in peripheral and central nervous system. It has been shown previously that ATP and β-NAD affect cardiac functioning in adult mammals. Nevertheless, the modulation of...
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