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In human and primate studies, the presence of circulating antibody and C4d staining is associated with a variety of clinical phenotypes ranging from minimal to fulminant. But even when the clinical findings are minimal the time dependency of some of these phenotypes should invite caution before...
Live donor adult liver transplantation is a sophisticated and cutting edge surgical innovation that improves and/or extends the life of the recipient but at considerable potential harm to the donor. See also article by Trotter et al in this issue on page 1882.
The role of gastroesophageal reflux and of bile acids in the bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome should now be subjected to multicenter studies to determine the effectiveness of potential therapies. See also article by D'Ovidio et al in this issue on page 1930.
Although organ transplantation has matured into a proven therapy for end‐stage organ failure, the many notable developments of the past 5 years speak to the multitude of remaining challenges. Two new procedures, islet transplantation and adult‐to‐adult living donor liver transplantation, have...
Many new insights have been gained over the past 5 years into the mechanisms that regulate immune reactivity to cell and organ transplants. This new knowledge is being applied to the development of innovative experimental strategies that may soon be evaluated in the clinic.
Human liver allografts have a lower susceptibility to rejection than other organs. In addition, in some liver transplant recipients immunosuppressive drugs can be completely withdrawn, and these patients are considered as ‘operationally’ tolerant. Careful scrutiny of accumulated clinical...
Graft arteriosclerosis (GA) remains the leading obstacle to long‐term survival of cardiac allografts. The pathogenesis of this chronic disease, though perceived to be multifactorial, is most likely immune‐driven. Based on clinical and experimental observations, the humoral arm of the immune...
The rhetoric of providing organs for transplantation is similar to that of a charity with terms such as ‘donate life’ and ‘gift of life’ frequently being used. It is argued that providing organs from deceased individuals should be and is a moral obligation or moral duty. We place high value on...
The pathogenesis of late renal allograft loss is heterogeneous and difficult to diagnose. We have analyzed renal allografts in nonhuman primates to determine the relationship between alloantibodies and the graft pathology of late graft loss. Seventeen Cynomolgus monkeys were chosen from among...
Chronic human lung allograft rejection is manifested by bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS). BOS has a multifactorial etiology. Previous studies have indicated that both cellular and humoral alloimmunity play a significant role in the pathogenesis of BOS. Recently, autoimmunity has also been...
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