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Cytokines Modulate Telomerase Activity in a Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Line

Cytokines Modulate Telomerase Activity in a Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Line Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein DNA polymerase that elongates the telomeresof chromosomes to compensate for losses that occur with each round of DNA replication and maintain chromosomal stability. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are proliferative and survival factors for human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. To date, however, the effects of IGF-1 and IL-6 on telomerase activity and associated sequelae in MM cells have not been characterized. In this study, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1 and IL-6 on telomerase activity in MM cell lines (MM.1S, U266, and RPMI 8226), as well as patient MM cells. We show that these cytokines up-regulate telomerase activity without alteration of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein expression. We also demonstrate that increased telomerase activity triggered by these cytokines is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3k)/Akt/nuclear factor B (NF B) signaling. We confirm involvement of PI3k/Akt/NF B signaling because the PI3k inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 or the inhibitor of NF B (I B) kinase inhibitor PS-1145 block constitutive and cytokine-induced up-regulation of telomerase activity. Furthermore, we show that dexamethasone (Dex) reduces telomerase activity through the inhibition of hTERT expression before the induction of apoptosis. Importantly, IGF-1 and IL-6 abrogate Dex-induced down-regulation of telomerase activity and apoptosis. The protective effect of those cytokines against Dex-induced down-regulation of telomerase activity is blocked by both wortmannin and PS-1145, whereas the protection against Dex-induced apoptosis is blocked by wortmannin but not PS-1145. Therefore, our results demonstrate that telomerase activity is related not only to transcriptional regulation of hTERT by NF B but also to posttranscriptional regulation because of phosphorylation of hTERT by Akt kinase. These studies therefore demonstrate that telomerase activity is associated with cell growth, survival, and drug resistance in MM cells. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Cancer Research American Association of Cancer Research

Cytokines Modulate Telomerase Activity in a Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Line

Cytokines Modulate Telomerase Activity in a Human Multiple Myeloma Cell Line

Cancer Research , Volume 62 (13): 3876 – Jul 1, 2002

Abstract

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein DNA polymerase that elongates the telomeresof chromosomes to compensate for losses that occur with each round of DNA replication and maintain chromosomal stability. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are proliferative and survival factors for human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. To date, however, the effects of IGF-1 and IL-6 on telomerase activity and associated sequelae in MM cells have not been characterized. In this study, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1 and IL-6 on telomerase activity in MM cell lines (MM.1S, U266, and RPMI 8226), as well as patient MM cells. We show that these cytokines up-regulate telomerase activity without alteration of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein expression. We also demonstrate that increased telomerase activity triggered by these cytokines is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3k)/Akt/nuclear factor B (NF B) signaling. We confirm involvement of PI3k/Akt/NF B signaling because the PI3k inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 or the inhibitor of NF B (I B) kinase inhibitor PS-1145 block constitutive and cytokine-induced up-regulation of telomerase activity. Furthermore, we show that dexamethasone (Dex) reduces telomerase activity through the inhibition of hTERT expression before the induction of apoptosis. Importantly, IGF-1 and IL-6 abrogate Dex-induced down-regulation of telomerase activity and apoptosis. The protective effect of those cytokines against Dex-induced down-regulation of telomerase activity is blocked by both wortmannin and PS-1145, whereas the protection against Dex-induced apoptosis is blocked by wortmannin but not PS-1145. Therefore, our results demonstrate that telomerase activity is related not only to transcriptional regulation of hTERT by NF B but also to posttranscriptional regulation because of phosphorylation of hTERT by Akt kinase. These studies therefore demonstrate that telomerase activity is associated with cell growth, survival, and drug resistance in MM cells.

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Publisher
American Association of Cancer Research
Copyright
Copyright © 2002 by the American Association for Cancer Research.
ISSN
0008-5472
Publisher site

Abstract

Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein DNA polymerase that elongates the telomeresof chromosomes to compensate for losses that occur with each round of DNA replication and maintain chromosomal stability. Interleukin 6 (IL-6) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) are proliferative and survival factors for human multiple myeloma (MM) cells. To date, however, the effects of IGF-1 and IL-6 on telomerase activity and associated sequelae in MM cells have not been characterized. In this study, we evaluated the effects of IGF-1 and IL-6 on telomerase activity in MM cell lines (MM.1S, U266, and RPMI 8226), as well as patient MM cells. We show that these cytokines up-regulate telomerase activity without alteration of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein expression. We also demonstrate that increased telomerase activity triggered by these cytokines is mediated by phosphatidylinositol 3'-kinase (PI3k)/Akt/nuclear factor B (NF B) signaling. We confirm involvement of PI3k/Akt/NF B signaling because the PI3k inhibitors wortmannin and LY294002 or the inhibitor of NF B (I B) kinase inhibitor PS-1145 block constitutive and cytokine-induced up-regulation of telomerase activity. Furthermore, we show that dexamethasone (Dex) reduces telomerase activity through the inhibition of hTERT expression before the induction of apoptosis. Importantly, IGF-1 and IL-6 abrogate Dex-induced down-regulation of telomerase activity and apoptosis. The protective effect of those cytokines against Dex-induced down-regulation of telomerase activity is blocked by both wortmannin and PS-1145, whereas the protection against Dex-induced apoptosis is blocked by wortmannin but not PS-1145. Therefore, our results demonstrate that telomerase activity is related not only to transcriptional regulation of hTERT by NF B but also to posttranscriptional regulation because of phosphorylation of hTERT by Akt kinase. These studies therefore demonstrate that telomerase activity is associated with cell growth, survival, and drug resistance in MM cells.

Journal

Cancer ResearchAmerican Association of Cancer Research

Published: Jul 1, 2002

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