Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Mitotic Arrest, Apoptosis, and Sensitization to Chemotherapy of Melanomas by Methionine Deprivation Stress

Mitotic Arrest, Apoptosis, and Sensitization to Chemotherapy of Melanomas by Methionine... Methionine deprivation stress (MDS) eliminates mitotic activity in melanoma cells regardless of stage, grade, or TP53 status, whereas it has a negligible effect on normal skin fibroblasts. In most cases, apoptosis accounts for the elimination of up to 90% of tumor cells from the culture within 72 hours after MDS, leaving a scattered population of multinucleated resistant cells. Loss of mitosis in tumor cells is associated with marked reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1 transcription and/or loss of its active form (CDK1-P-Thr 161 ), which is coincident with up-regulation of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, and CDKN1C (p21, p27, and p57). Expression of the proapoptotic LITAF, IFNGR, EREG, TNFSF/TNFRSF10 and TNFRSF12, FAS, and RNASEL is primarily up-regulated/induced in cells destined to undergo apoptosis. Loss of Aurora kinase B and BIRC5, which are required for histone H3 phosphorylation, is associated with the accumulation of surviving multinucleated cells. Nevertheless, noncycling survivors of MDS are sensitized to temozolomide, carmustin, and cisplatin to a much greater extent than normal skin fibroblasts possibly because of the suppression of MGMT/TOP1/POLB, MGMT/RAD52/RAD54, and cMET/RADD52, respectively. Sensitivity to these and additional genotoxic agents and radiation may also be acquired due to loss of cMET/OGG1, reduced glutathione reductase levels, and a G 2 -phase block that is a crucial step in the damage response associated with enhancement of drug toxicity. Although the genes controlling mitotic arrest and/or apoptosis in response to low extracellular methionine levels are unknown, it is likely that such control is exerted via the induction/up-regulation of tumor suppressors/growth inhibitor genes, such as TGFB, PTEN, GAS1, EGR3, BTG3, MDA7, and the proteoglycans ( LUM, BGN , and DCN ), as well as the down-regulation/loss of function of prosurvival genes, such as NFκB, MYC , and ERBB2 . Although MDS targets several common genes in tumors, mutational variability among melanomas may decide which metabolic and signal transduction pathways will be activated or shutdown. (Mol Cancer Res 2006;4(8):575–89) Keywords: Methionine CDK1 MDA7 TP53 CDKN1A (p21) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Molecular Cancer Research American Association of Cancer Research

Mitotic Arrest, Apoptosis, and Sensitization to Chemotherapy of Melanomas by Methionine Deprivation Stress

Mitotic Arrest, Apoptosis, and Sensitization to Chemotherapy of Melanomas by Methionine Deprivation Stress

Molecular Cancer Research , Volume 4 (8): 575 – Aug 1, 2006

Abstract

Methionine deprivation stress (MDS) eliminates mitotic activity in melanoma cells regardless of stage, grade, or TP53 status, whereas it has a negligible effect on normal skin fibroblasts. In most cases, apoptosis accounts for the elimination of up to 90% of tumor cells from the culture within 72 hours after MDS, leaving a scattered population of multinucleated resistant cells. Loss of mitosis in tumor cells is associated with marked reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1 transcription and/or loss of its active form (CDK1-P-Thr 161 ), which is coincident with up-regulation of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, and CDKN1C (p21, p27, and p57). Expression of the proapoptotic LITAF, IFNGR, EREG, TNFSF/TNFRSF10 and TNFRSF12, FAS, and RNASEL is primarily up-regulated/induced in cells destined to undergo apoptosis. Loss of Aurora kinase B and BIRC5, which are required for histone H3 phosphorylation, is associated with the accumulation of surviving multinucleated cells. Nevertheless, noncycling survivors of MDS are sensitized to temozolomide, carmustin, and cisplatin to a much greater extent than normal skin fibroblasts possibly because of the suppression of MGMT/TOP1/POLB, MGMT/RAD52/RAD54, and cMET/RADD52, respectively. Sensitivity to these and additional genotoxic agents and radiation may also be acquired due to loss of cMET/OGG1, reduced glutathione reductase levels, and a G 2 -phase block that is a crucial step in the damage response associated with enhancement of drug toxicity. Although the genes controlling mitotic arrest and/or apoptosis in response to low extracellular methionine levels are unknown, it is likely that such control is exerted via the induction/up-regulation of tumor suppressors/growth inhibitor genes, such as TGFB, PTEN, GAS1, EGR3, BTG3, MDA7, and the proteoglycans ( LUM, BGN , and DCN ), as well as the down-regulation/loss of function of prosurvival genes, such as NFκB, MYC , and ERBB2 . Although MDS targets several common genes in tumors, mutational variability among melanomas may decide which metabolic and signal transduction pathways will be activated or shutdown. (Mol Cancer Res 2006;4(8):575–89) Keywords: Methionine CDK1 MDA7 TP53 CDKN1A (p21)

Loading next page...
 
/lp/american-association-of-cancer-research/mitotic-arrest-apoptosis-and-sensitization-to-chemotherapy-of-kzpyx9ObLy

References (88)

Publisher
American Association of Cancer Research
Copyright
Copyright © 2010 American Association for Cancer Research
ISSN
1541-7786
eISSN
1557-3125
DOI
10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-05-0240
pmid
16908595
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Methionine deprivation stress (MDS) eliminates mitotic activity in melanoma cells regardless of stage, grade, or TP53 status, whereas it has a negligible effect on normal skin fibroblasts. In most cases, apoptosis accounts for the elimination of up to 90% of tumor cells from the culture within 72 hours after MDS, leaving a scattered population of multinucleated resistant cells. Loss of mitosis in tumor cells is associated with marked reduction of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 1 transcription and/or loss of its active form (CDK1-P-Thr 161 ), which is coincident with up-regulation of CDKN1A, CDKN1B, and CDKN1C (p21, p27, and p57). Expression of the proapoptotic LITAF, IFNGR, EREG, TNFSF/TNFRSF10 and TNFRSF12, FAS, and RNASEL is primarily up-regulated/induced in cells destined to undergo apoptosis. Loss of Aurora kinase B and BIRC5, which are required for histone H3 phosphorylation, is associated with the accumulation of surviving multinucleated cells. Nevertheless, noncycling survivors of MDS are sensitized to temozolomide, carmustin, and cisplatin to a much greater extent than normal skin fibroblasts possibly because of the suppression of MGMT/TOP1/POLB, MGMT/RAD52/RAD54, and cMET/RADD52, respectively. Sensitivity to these and additional genotoxic agents and radiation may also be acquired due to loss of cMET/OGG1, reduced glutathione reductase levels, and a G 2 -phase block that is a crucial step in the damage response associated with enhancement of drug toxicity. Although the genes controlling mitotic arrest and/or apoptosis in response to low extracellular methionine levels are unknown, it is likely that such control is exerted via the induction/up-regulation of tumor suppressors/growth inhibitor genes, such as TGFB, PTEN, GAS1, EGR3, BTG3, MDA7, and the proteoglycans ( LUM, BGN , and DCN ), as well as the down-regulation/loss of function of prosurvival genes, such as NFκB, MYC , and ERBB2 . Although MDS targets several common genes in tumors, mutational variability among melanomas may decide which metabolic and signal transduction pathways will be activated or shutdown. (Mol Cancer Res 2006;4(8):575–89) Keywords: Methionine CDK1 MDA7 TP53 CDKN1A (p21)

Journal

Molecular Cancer ResearchAmerican Association of Cancer Research

Published: Aug 1, 2006

There are no references for this article.