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An Inventory for Measuring Depression

An Inventory for Measuring Depression Abstract The difficulties inherent in obtaining consistent and adequate diagnoses for the purposes of research and therapy have been pointed out by a number of authors. Pasamanick12 in a recent article viewed the low interclinician agreement on diagnosis as an indictment of the present state of psychiatry and called for "the development of objective, measurable and verifiable criteria of classification based not on personal or parochial considerations, but on behavioral and other objectively measurable manifestations." Attempts by other investigators to subject clinical observations and judgments to objective measurement have resulted in a wide variety of psychiatric rating scales.4,15 These have been well summarized in a review article by Lorr11 on "Rating Scales and Check Lists for the Evaluation of Psychopathology." In the area of psychological testing, a variety of paper-and-pencil tests have been devised for the purpose of measuring specific References 1. In the initial group of 226 patients, some of the diagnostic evaluations were made by a "non-standard diagnostician," that is, a psychiatrist other than the 4 regular psychiatrists. In all, 40 patients were seen by these psychiatrists. 2. A number of problems arose in assessing the relative degree of depression of patients with contrasting clinical pictures. For example, would a patient who is regressed and will not eat be rated as more depressed than a patient who is not regressed but has made a genuine suicidal attempt? Such problems involved complex clinical judgments and will be the subject of a later report. 3. A detailed description of the reliability studies will be reported in a separate article.2 The types of disagreement regarding the nosological categories and the reasons for disagreement are being systematically investigated in another study. 4. This procedure is designed to assess whether variation in response to a particular category is associated with variation in total score on the inventory. For each category, the distribution of total inventory scores for individuals selecting a particular alternative response was determined. The Kruskal-Wallis test was then used to assess whether the ranks of the distribution of total scores increased significantly as a function of the differences in severity of depression indicated by these alternative responses. 5. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Association, 1952. 6. Beck, A. T.; Ward, C. H.; Mendelson, M.; Mock, J., and Erbaugh, J.: Unpublished study, 1960. 7. Comrey, A. L.: A Factor Analysis of Items on the MMPI Depression Scale , Educ. Psychol. Meas. 17:578-585 ( (Winter) ) 1957. 8. Goodrich, D. W.: Quantification of the Severity of Overt Psychotic Symptoms , Amer. J. Psychiat. 110:334-341 ( (Nov.) ) 1953. 9. Guilford, J. P.: Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956. 10. Guilford, J. P.: Psychometric Methods , Ed. 2, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1954. 11. Hollingshead, A. B.: Two Factor Index of Social Position (Mimeographed) , New Haven, A. B. Hollingshead, 1957. 12. Horn, D.: Intra-Individual Variability in the Study of Personality , J. Clin. Psychol. 6:43-47 ( (Jan.) ) 1950.Crossref 13. Jasper, H. H.: A Measurement of Depression-Elation and its Relation to a Measure of Extraversion-Intraversion , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 25:307-318 ( (Oct.-Dec.) ) 1930.Crossref 14. Kraines, S. N.: Mental Depressions and Their Treatment , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1957. 15. Lorr, M.: Rating Scales and Check Lists for the Evaluation of Psychopathology , Psychol. Bull. 51:119-127 ( (March) ) 1954.Crossref 16. Pasamanick, B.; Dintz, S., and Lefton, M.: Psychiatric Orientation and Its Relation to Diagnosis and Treatment in a Mental Hospital , Amer. J. Psychiat. 116:127-132 ( (Aug.) ) 1959. 17. Schmidt, H. O., and Fonda, C. P.: The Reliability of Psychiatric Diagnoses: A New Look , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 52:262-267 ( (March) ) 1956.Crossref 18. Siegel, S.: Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956. 19. Wittenborn, J. R.: Psychiatric Rating Scales , New York, The Psychological Corporation, 1955. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

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References (25)

Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1961 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1961.01710120031004
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract The difficulties inherent in obtaining consistent and adequate diagnoses for the purposes of research and therapy have been pointed out by a number of authors. Pasamanick12 in a recent article viewed the low interclinician agreement on diagnosis as an indictment of the present state of psychiatry and called for "the development of objective, measurable and verifiable criteria of classification based not on personal or parochial considerations, but on behavioral and other objectively measurable manifestations." Attempts by other investigators to subject clinical observations and judgments to objective measurement have resulted in a wide variety of psychiatric rating scales.4,15 These have been well summarized in a review article by Lorr11 on "Rating Scales and Check Lists for the Evaluation of Psychopathology." In the area of psychological testing, a variety of paper-and-pencil tests have been devised for the purpose of measuring specific References 1. In the initial group of 226 patients, some of the diagnostic evaluations were made by a "non-standard diagnostician," that is, a psychiatrist other than the 4 regular psychiatrists. In all, 40 patients were seen by these psychiatrists. 2. A number of problems arose in assessing the relative degree of depression of patients with contrasting clinical pictures. For example, would a patient who is regressed and will not eat be rated as more depressed than a patient who is not regressed but has made a genuine suicidal attempt? Such problems involved complex clinical judgments and will be the subject of a later report. 3. A detailed description of the reliability studies will be reported in a separate article.2 The types of disagreement regarding the nosological categories and the reasons for disagreement are being systematically investigated in another study. 4. This procedure is designed to assess whether variation in response to a particular category is associated with variation in total score on the inventory. For each category, the distribution of total inventory scores for individuals selecting a particular alternative response was determined. The Kruskal-Wallis test was then used to assess whether the ranks of the distribution of total scores increased significantly as a function of the differences in severity of depression indicated by these alternative responses. 5. American Psychiatric Association: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Washington, D.C., American Psychiatric Association, 1952. 6. Beck, A. T.; Ward, C. H.; Mendelson, M.; Mock, J., and Erbaugh, J.: Unpublished study, 1960. 7. Comrey, A. L.: A Factor Analysis of Items on the MMPI Depression Scale , Educ. Psychol. Meas. 17:578-585 ( (Winter) ) 1957. 8. Goodrich, D. W.: Quantification of the Severity of Overt Psychotic Symptoms , Amer. J. Psychiat. 110:334-341 ( (Nov.) ) 1953. 9. Guilford, J. P.: Fundamental Statistics in Psychology and Education , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956. 10. Guilford, J. P.: Psychometric Methods , Ed. 2, New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1954. 11. Hollingshead, A. B.: Two Factor Index of Social Position (Mimeographed) , New Haven, A. B. Hollingshead, 1957. 12. Horn, D.: Intra-Individual Variability in the Study of Personality , J. Clin. Psychol. 6:43-47 ( (Jan.) ) 1950.Crossref 13. Jasper, H. H.: A Measurement of Depression-Elation and its Relation to a Measure of Extraversion-Intraversion , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 25:307-318 ( (Oct.-Dec.) ) 1930.Crossref 14. Kraines, S. N.: Mental Depressions and Their Treatment , New York, The Macmillan Company, 1957. 15. Lorr, M.: Rating Scales and Check Lists for the Evaluation of Psychopathology , Psychol. Bull. 51:119-127 ( (March) ) 1954.Crossref 16. Pasamanick, B.; Dintz, S., and Lefton, M.: Psychiatric Orientation and Its Relation to Diagnosis and Treatment in a Mental Hospital , Amer. J. Psychiat. 116:127-132 ( (Aug.) ) 1959. 17. Schmidt, H. O., and Fonda, C. P.: The Reliability of Psychiatric Diagnoses: A New Look , J. Abnorm. Soc. Psychol. 52:262-267 ( (March) ) 1956.Crossref 18. Siegel, S.: Nonparametric Statistics for the Behavioral Sciences , New York, McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., 1956. 19. Wittenborn, J. R.: Psychiatric Rating Scales , New York, The Psychological Corporation, 1955.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1961

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