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Novel Antidepressants and the Biogenic Amine Hypothesis of Depression: The Case for Iprindole and Mianserin

Novel Antidepressants and the Biogenic Amine Hypothesis of Depression: The Case for Iprindole and... Abstract • The introduction of two tricyclic compounds (iprindole and mianserin) that are reported to have antidepressant properties but to be relatively devoid of effects on central amine neurotransmitter systems has raised questions about the amine hypothesis of depression and about the mechanism of action of tricyclics in general. In view of the importance of these questions, a critical review of both the clinical and pharmacological profiles of iprindole and mianserin was undertaken. Iprindole is a relatively weak inhibitor of both norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin, whereas mianserin possesses at least modest potency as an inhibitor of NE uptake. However, the evidence is as yet insufficient to prove the superiority of iprindole over placebo in the treatment of those depressions characterized by endogenous symptoms. In considering the pharmacological profiles of these two drugs together with their clinical profiles, the data are not inconsistent with the hypothesized role of biogenic amines in major depression. References 1. Glowinski S, Axelrod J: Inhibition of uptake of tritiated noradrenaline in the intact rat brain by imipramine and structurally related compounds . Nature 204:1318-1319, 1964.Crossref 2. Carlson A, Corrodi H, Fuxe K, et al: Effects of some antidepressant drugs in the depletion of intraneuronal brain catecholamine stores caused by 4-d-dimethyl-meta-tyramine . Europ J Pharmacol 5:367-373, 1969.Crossref 3. Schildkraut JJ: Neuropsychopharmacology and the Affective Disorders . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1970. 4. Davis JM: Theories of biological etiology of affective disorders . Int Rev Neurobiol 12:145-175, 1970. 5. Schildkraut JJ: The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: A review of supporting evidence . Am J Psychiatry 122:509-522, 1965. 6. Bunney WE Jr, Davis JM: Norepinephrine in depressive reactions . Arch Gen Psychiatry 13:483-494, 1965.Crossref 7. Schildkraut JJ, Kety SS: Biogenic amines and emotion . Science 156:21-30, 1967.Crossref 8. Prange AJ Jr: The pharmacology and biochemistry of depression . Dis Nerv Syst 25:217-221, 1964. 9. Baldessarini RJ: An overview of the basis for amine hypotheses in affective illness , in Mendels J (ed): The Psychobiology of Depression , Spectrum Publications, 1975, pp 69-83. 10. Goodwin FK, Sack RL: The catecholamine hypothesis revisited , in Usdin E, Snyder SH (eds): Frontiers in Catecholamine Research . New York, Pergamon Press, 1973, pp 11. Murphy DL: Neuropharmacology of depression , in Simpson LL (ed): Drug Treatment of Mental Disorders . New York, Raven Press, 1976, pp 109-125. 12. Baldessarini RJ: Biogenic amine hypothesis in affective disorders in Draghi SC, Flack FF (eds): The Nature and Treatment of Depression . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1975, pp 347-385. 13. Goodwin FK, Potter WZ: The biology of affective illness: Amine neurotransmitters and drug response , in Cole JO, Schatzberg AF, Frazier SH (eds): Depression: Biology, Dynamics and Treatment . New New Plenum Press Inc, 1977, 41-73. 14. Randrup A, Braestrup C: Uptake inhibition of biogenic amines by newer antidepressant drugs: Relevance to the dopamine hypothesis of depression . Psychopharmacology 53:309-314, 1977.Crossref 15. Delini-Stula A: The pharmacology of ludiomil , in Kielholz P (ed): Depressive Illness: Diagnosis Assessment, Treatment Baltimore Williams & Wilkins Co, 1972. 16. Greenwood DT: Animal pharmacology of viloxazine . J Int Med Res 4( (suppl 6) ):18-28, 1975. 17. Pugsley TA, Lippman W: Effect of butriptyline on the brain uptake mechanisms for noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine . J Pharm Pharmacol 26:778-782, 1974.Crossref 18. Ambrus J (ed): International symposium on butriptyline A new antidepressant agent . J Med 2:249-343, 1974. 19. Fann WE, Davis JM, Janowsky DS, et al: Effect of iprindole on amine uptake in man . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:158-162, 1973.Crossref 20. Fann WE, Davis JM, Janowsky DS, et al: Effects of antidepressant and antimanic drugs on amine uptake in man . J Nerv Ment Dis 158:361-368, 1974.Crossref 21. Itil TM, Polvan N, Hsu W: Clinical and EEG effects of GB-94: A tetracyclic antidepressant . Curr Ther Res 14:395-413, 1972. 22. Coppen A, Gupta R, Montgomery S: Mianserin hydrochloride: A novel antidepressant . Br J Psychiatry 129:342-345, 1976.Crossref 23. Ghose K, Coppen A, Turner P: Autonomic actions and interactions of mianserin hydrochloride (Org GB-94) and amitriptyline in patients with depressive illness . Psychopharmacology 49:201-204, 1976.Crossref 24. Tait AC, Todrick A: What are tricyclic antidepressant drugs? Br J Clin Pharmacol 2:93-94, 1975. 25. Vogel GW: A review of REM sleep deprivation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:749-761, 1975.Crossref 26. Goodlet I, Mireylees SE, Sugrue MF: Effects of mianserin, a new antidepressant on the in vitro and in vivo uptake of monoamine . Br J Pharmacol 61:307-313, 1977.Crossref 27. Raiteri M, Angelini F, Bertollini A: Comparative study of the effects of mianserin, a tetracyclic antidepressant, and of imipramine on uptake and release of neurotransmitters in synaptosomes . J Pharm Pharmacol 28:483-488, 1976.Crossref 28. Mandell AJ: Neurobiological mechanisms of presynaptic metabolic adaptation and their organization: Implications for a pathophysiology of the affective disorders , in Mandell AJ (ed): Neurobiological Mechanisms of Adaptation and Behavior . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 33-45. 29. Goodwin FK, Post RM, Sack RL: Clinical evidence for neurochemical adaptation to psychotropic drugs , in Mandell A: Neurobiological Mechanisms of Adaptation and Behavior . New York, Raven Press, 1974, pp 33-45. 30. Kendell RE: The Classification of Depressive Illnesses . London, Oxford University Press, 1968. 31. Lewinsohn PM, Zeiss AM, Zeiss RA, et al: Endogeneity and reactivity as orthogonal dimensions in depression . J Nerv Ment Dis 164:327-332, 1977.Crossref 32. Kiloh LH, Ball JRB, Garside RR: Prognostic factors in treatment of depressive states with imipramine . Br Med J 1:1225-1227, 1962.Crossref 33. Greenblatt M, Grosser GH, Wechsler H: Differential response of hospitalized depressed patients to somatic therapy . Am J Psychiatry 120:935-943, 1964. 34. Raskin A, Schulterbrandt GJ, Reatig N, et al: Differential response to chlorpromazine, imipramine and placebo: A study of subgroups of hospitalized depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 23:164-173, 1970.Crossref 35. Bielski RJ, Friedel RO: Prediction of tricyclic antidepressant response: A critical review . Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:1479-1480, 1976.Crossref 36. Morris JB, Beck AJ: The efficacy of antidepressant drugs: A review of research (1958 to 1972) . Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:667-674, 1974.Crossref 37. Klein DF, Davis JM: Diagnosis and Drug Treatment of Psychotic Disorders . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1969. 38. Asberg M, Cronholm B, Sjoqvist F, et al: Relationship between plasma level and therapeutic effect of nortriptyline . Br Med J 3:331-334, 1971.Crossref 39. Ziegler VE, Co BT, Taylor JR, et al: Amitriptyline plasma levels and therapeutic response . Clin Pharmacol Ther 19:795-801, 1976. 40. Glassman AH, Perel JM, Shostak M, et al: Clinical implications of imipramine plasma levels for depressive illness . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:197-204, 1977.Crossref 41. Hammer W, Sjoqvist F: Plasma levels of monomethylated tricyclic antidepressants during treatment with imipramine-like compounds . Life Sci 6:1895-1903, 1967.Crossref 42. Glassman A, Perel J: The clinical pharmacology of imipramine . Arch Gen Psychiatry 28:649-653, 1973.Crossref 43. Gram LF, Søndergaard IB, Christiansen J, et al: Steady-state kinetics of imipramine in patients . Psychopharmacology 54:225-261, 1977.Crossref 44. Grayson HM: Experimental design and assessment techniques in the clinical evaluation of psychotropic drugs , in Clark WG, del Giudice J (eds): Principles of Psychopharmacology . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1970. 45. Hamilton M: Psychotropic drugs: General considerations , in International Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Section 6: Clinical Pharmacology , vol 1; L Lasagna (section ed). Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1966, pp 181-201. 46. Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI: Drug interactions in psychopharmacology , in Shader RI (ed): Manual of Psychiatric Therapeutics . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1975. 47. Hansten PD: Drug Interactions . Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1975. 48. Maas JW, Fawcett JA, Dekirmenjian H: Catecholamine metabolism, depressive illness and drug response . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:252-262, 1972.Crossref 49. Schildkraut JJ: Norepinephrine metabolites as biochemical criteria for classifying depressive disorders and predicting responses to treatment: Preliminary findings . Am J Psychiatry 130:695-698, 1973. 50. Beckmann H, Goodwin FK: Antidepressant response to tricyclics and urinary MHPG in unipolar patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:17-21, 1975.Crossref 51. Asberg M, Bertilsson L, Tuck D, et al: Indoleamine metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluid of depressed patients before and during treatment with nortriptyline . Clin Pharmacol Ther 14:277-286, 1973. 52. Goodwin FK, Cowdry RW, Webster MH: Predictors of drug response in the affective disorders: Toward an integrated approach , in Lipton M, Di Mascio A, Killam K (eds): Psychopharmacology—A Generation of Progress . New York, Raven Press, 1978, pp 1277-1288. 53. Van Praag HM, Korf J: 4-Chloramphetamines , in Usdin E, Forrest IS (eds): Psychotherapeutic Drugs . New York, Marcel Dekker Inc, 1976. 54. Maas JW, Garver DL: Linkage of basic neuropharmacology and clinical psychopharmacology , in Brodie HKH (ed): American Handbook of Psychiatry . New York, Basic Books Inc, 1976, vol 6, pp 502-532. 55. Daneman EA: Treatment of depressed patients with iprindole . Psychosomatics 8:216-221, 1967.Crossref 56. Hicks JT: Iprindole, a new antidepressant for use in general office practice: A double-blind placebo-controlled study . Ill Med J 128:622-626, 1965. 57. Rickels K, Gordon PE, Meckelburg R, et al: Iprindole in neurotic depressed general practice patients: A controlled study . Psychosomatics 9:208-214, 1968.Crossref 58. McClatchey WT, Moffart J, Irving GM: A double-blind study of WY 3263 imipramine and placebo . J Ther Clin Res 1:13-15, 1967. 59. El-Deiry NK, Forrest AD, Littmann SK: Clinical trial of a new antidepressant (WY 3263) . Br J Psychiatry 113:999-1004, 1967.Crossref 60. Imlah NW, Murphy KP, Mellor CS: The treatment of depression: A controlled comparison between iprindole (Prondol) and imipramine . Clin Trials J 5:927-931, 1968. 61. Sutherland MS, Sutherland SS, Phillip AE: Depressive illness: Comparison of effects of iprindole WY 3263 and imipramine . Clin Trials J 7:857-860, 1970. 62. Sterlin C, Lehmann HE, Oliveros RF, et al: A preliminary investigation of WY 3263 versus amitriptyline in depressions . Curr Ther Res 10:576-582, 1968. 63. Rickels K, Chung HR, Csanalosi I, et al: Iprindole and imipramine in nonpsychotic depressed outpatients . Br J Psychiatry 123:329-339, 1973.Crossref 64. Johnson J, Maden JG: The treatment of depression: Further evaluation of iprindole (Prondol) . Clin Trials J 7:341-343, 1970. 65. Master SR, Bastani JB: Iprindole in depressive states: A controlled double-blind study . Curr Med Res Opinion 1:3-9, 1972.Crossref 66. Narayanan HS, Narayanana Reddy GN, Sridhar Rama Rao BS: A comparative double-blind evaluation of iprindole and imipramine in the treatment of depressive states . Ind J Med Sci 27:1-7, 1973. 67. Murphy EJ, Donald JF, Molla AL: Mianserin: The treatment of depression in general practice . Practitioner 217:135-138, 1976. 68. Murphy EJ: A comparative clinical trial of Org GB-94 and imipramine in the treatment of depression in general practice . J Int Med Res 3:251-260, 1975. 69. Wheatley D: Controlled clinical trial of a new antidepressant (ORG.GB-94) of novel chemical formulation . Curr Ther Res 18:849-854, 1975. 70. Smith AHW, Naylor GS, Moody JP: Placebo-controlled double-blind trial of mianserin hydrochloride . Br J Clin Pharmacol 5( (suppl) ):67-70, 1978. 71. Perry GF, Fitzsimmons B, Shapiro L, et al: Clinical study of mianserin, imipramine and placebo in depression: Blood level and MHPG correlations . Br J Clin Pharmacol 5( (suppl) ):35-41, 1978.Crossref 72. Russel GFM, Niaz V, Wakeling A, et al: Comparative double-blind trial of mianserin hydrochloride (Organon GB-94) and diazepam in patients with depressive illness . Br J Clin Pharmacol 5( (suppl) ):57-65, 1978. 73. Pichot P, Dreyfus JT, Pull C: A double-blind multicenter trial comparing mianserin with imipramine . Br J Clin Pharmacol 5( (suppl) ):87-90, 1978. 74. Vogel HP, Bente D, Feder J, et al: Mianserin versus amitriptyline: A double-blind trial evaluated by the AMP system . Int Pharmacopsychiatry 11:25-31, 1976. 75. Koe BK: Antidepressant drugs on brain catecholamine and serotonin , in Fielding S, Lal H (eds): Antidepressants . New York, Futura Publishing Co, 1975, pp 143-180. 76. Ross SR, Renyi AL, Ogren SO: A comparison of the inhibiting activities of iprindole and imipramine on the uptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine and noradrenaline in brain slices . Life Sci 10:1267-1277, 1971.Crossref 77. Rosloff BN, Davis JM: Effect of iprindole on norepinephrine turnover and transport . Psychopharmacologia 40:53-64, 1974.Crossref 78. Horn AS, Trace RCAM: Structure-activity relations for the inhibition of 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake by tricyclic antidepressants into synaptosomes from serotonergic neurons in rat brain homogenates . Br J Pharmacol 51:399-403, 1974.Crossref 79. Gluckman MI, Baum T: The pharmacology of iprindole, a new antidepressant . Psychopharmacologia 15:169-185, 1969. 80. Lahti RA, Maickel RP: The tricyclic antidepressants: Inhibition of norepinephrine uptake as related to potentiation of norepinephrine and clinical efficacy . Biochem Pharmacol 20:482-486, 1971.Crossref 81. Baxter BL, Gluckman MI: Iprindole: An antidepressant which does not block REM sleep . Nature 223:750-752, 1969.Crossref 82. Lemberger L, Sernatinger E, Kuntzman R: Effect of desmethylimipramine, iprindole and DL-erythro-a(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-beta-(t-butylamino) propanol HCI on the metabolism of amphetamine . Biochem Pharmacol 19:3021-3028, 1970.Crossref 83. Freeman JJ, Sulser F: Iprindole-amphetamine interactions in the rat: The role of aromatic hydroxylation of amphetamine in its mode of action . J Pharmacol Exp Ther 183:307-315, 1972. 84. Sanghvi I, Geyer I, Gershon S: Exploration of the antidepressant potential of iprindole . Life Sci 18:569-574, 1976.Crossref 85. Harper B, Hughes IE: A comparison in rabbit isolated hearts of the dysrhythmogenic potential of amitriptyline, marotiline and mianserin in relation to their ability to block noradrenaline uptake . Br J Pharmacol 59:651-660, 1977.Crossref 86. Leonard BE: Some effects of a new tetracyclic antidepressant compound, Org GB-94 on the metabolism of monoamines in the rat brain . Psychopharmacologia 36:221-236, 1974.Crossref 87. Peet M, Behagel H: Mianserin: A decade of scientific development . Br J Clin Pharmacol 5( (suppl) ):5-9, 1978. 88. Fell PJ, Quantock DC, van der Burg WJ: The human pharmacology of GB-94, a new psychotropic agent . Europ J Clin Pharmacol 5:166-173, 1973.Crossref 89. Goodlet I, Sugrue MF: The effects of a new antidepressant, Org GB-94, on amine uptake mechanisms . Br J Pharmacol 52:431, 1974. 90. Roth JA, Gillis CN: Inhibition of rabbit mitochondrial monoamine oxidase by iprindole . Biochem Pharmacol 24:151-152, 1975.Crossref 91. Edwards DJ, Burns MO: Effect of tricyclic antidepressants upon human platelet monoamine oxidase . Life Sci 15:2045-2058, 1975.Crossref 92. Leonard BE, Kafoe WF: A comparison of the acute and chronic effects of four antidepressant drugs on the turnover of serotonin, dopamine and noradrenaline in the rat brain . Biochem Pharmacol 25:1939-1942, 1976.Crossref 93. Glowinski J, Axelrod J: Effects of drugs on the disposition of H3-norepinephrine in the rat brain . Pharmacol Rev 18:775-787, 1966. 94. Schildkraut JJ, Schanberg SM, Breese GR, et al: Norepinephrine turnover and drugs used in the affective disorders: A possible mechanism of action . Am J Psychiatry 124:600-608, 1967. 95. Schildkraut JJ, Winokur A, Applegate CW: Norepinephrine turnover and metabolism in rat brain after long-term administration of imipramine . Science 168:867-869, 1970.Crossref 96. Halaris A, Belandiuk K, Freedman DX: Antidepressant drugs affect dopamine uptake . Biochem Pharmacol 24:1896-1898, 1975.Crossref 97. Halaris A, Freedman DX: Psychotropic drugs and dopamine uptake inhibition , in Freedman DX (ed): Biology of the Major Psychoses . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 247-258. 98. Vetulani J, Stawarz RJ, Dingel JV, et al: A possible common mechanism of action of antidepressant treatments: Reduction in the sensitivity of the noradrenergic cyclic AMP generating system in the rat limbic forebrain . Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Arch Pharmacol 293:109-114, 1976.Crossref 99. Goodwin FK: Diagnosis of affective disorders , in Jarvik M (ed): Psychopharmacology in the Practice of Medicine . New York, Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1977, pp 219-228. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Novel Antidepressants and the Biogenic Amine Hypothesis of Depression: The Case for Iprindole and Mianserin

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References (108)

Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1979 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1979.01780100067006
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See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • The introduction of two tricyclic compounds (iprindole and mianserin) that are reported to have antidepressant properties but to be relatively devoid of effects on central amine neurotransmitter systems has raised questions about the amine hypothesis of depression and about the mechanism of action of tricyclics in general. In view of the importance of these questions, a critical review of both the clinical and pharmacological profiles of iprindole and mianserin was undertaken. Iprindole is a relatively weak inhibitor of both norepinephrine (NE) and serotonin, whereas mianserin possesses at least modest potency as an inhibitor of NE uptake. However, the evidence is as yet insufficient to prove the superiority of iprindole over placebo in the treatment of those depressions characterized by endogenous symptoms. In considering the pharmacological profiles of these two drugs together with their clinical profiles, the data are not inconsistent with the hypothesized role of biogenic amines in major depression. References 1. Glowinski S, Axelrod J: Inhibition of uptake of tritiated noradrenaline in the intact rat brain by imipramine and structurally related compounds . Nature 204:1318-1319, 1964.Crossref 2. Carlson A, Corrodi H, Fuxe K, et al: Effects of some antidepressant drugs in the depletion of intraneuronal brain catecholamine stores caused by 4-d-dimethyl-meta-tyramine . Europ J Pharmacol 5:367-373, 1969.Crossref 3. Schildkraut JJ: Neuropsychopharmacology and the Affective Disorders . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1970. 4. Davis JM: Theories of biological etiology of affective disorders . Int Rev Neurobiol 12:145-175, 1970. 5. Schildkraut JJ: The catecholamine hypothesis of affective disorders: A review of supporting evidence . Am J Psychiatry 122:509-522, 1965. 6. Bunney WE Jr, Davis JM: Norepinephrine in depressive reactions . Arch Gen Psychiatry 13:483-494, 1965.Crossref 7. Schildkraut JJ, Kety SS: Biogenic amines and emotion . Science 156:21-30, 1967.Crossref 8. Prange AJ Jr: The pharmacology and biochemistry of depression . Dis Nerv Syst 25:217-221, 1964. 9. Baldessarini RJ: An overview of the basis for amine hypotheses in affective illness , in Mendels J (ed): The Psychobiology of Depression , Spectrum Publications, 1975, pp 69-83. 10. Goodwin FK, Sack RL: The catecholamine hypothesis revisited , in Usdin E, Snyder SH (eds): Frontiers in Catecholamine Research . New York, Pergamon Press, 1973, pp 11. Murphy DL: Neuropharmacology of depression , in Simpson LL (ed): Drug Treatment of Mental Disorders . New York, Raven Press, 1976, pp 109-125. 12. Baldessarini RJ: Biogenic amine hypothesis in affective disorders in Draghi SC, Flack FF (eds): The Nature and Treatment of Depression . New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc, 1975, pp 347-385. 13. Goodwin FK, Potter WZ: The biology of affective illness: Amine neurotransmitters and drug response , in Cole JO, Schatzberg AF, Frazier SH (eds): Depression: Biology, Dynamics and Treatment . New New Plenum Press Inc, 1977, 41-73. 14. Randrup A, Braestrup C: Uptake inhibition of biogenic amines by newer antidepressant drugs: Relevance to the dopamine hypothesis of depression . Psychopharmacology 53:309-314, 1977.Crossref 15. Delini-Stula A: The pharmacology of ludiomil , in Kielholz P (ed): Depressive Illness: Diagnosis Assessment, Treatment Baltimore Williams & Wilkins Co, 1972. 16. Greenwood DT: Animal pharmacology of viloxazine . J Int Med Res 4( (suppl 6) ):18-28, 1975. 17. Pugsley TA, Lippman W: Effect of butriptyline on the brain uptake mechanisms for noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine . J Pharm Pharmacol 26:778-782, 1974.Crossref 18. Ambrus J (ed): International symposium on butriptyline A new antidepressant agent . J Med 2:249-343, 1974. 19. Fann WE, Davis JM, Janowsky DS, et al: Effect of iprindole on amine uptake in man . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:158-162, 1973.Crossref 20. Fann WE, Davis JM, Janowsky DS, et al: Effects of antidepressant and antimanic drugs on amine uptake in man . J Nerv Ment Dis 158:361-368, 1974.Crossref 21. Itil TM, Polvan N, Hsu W: Clinical and EEG effects of GB-94: A tetracyclic antidepressant . Curr Ther Res 14:395-413, 1972. 22. Coppen A, Gupta R, Montgomery S: Mianserin hydrochloride: A novel antidepressant . Br J Psychiatry 129:342-345, 1976.Crossref 23. Ghose K, Coppen A, Turner P: Autonomic actions and interactions of mianserin hydrochloride (Org GB-94) and amitriptyline in patients with depressive illness . Psychopharmacology 49:201-204, 1976.Crossref 24. Tait AC, Todrick A: What are tricyclic antidepressant drugs? Br J Clin Pharmacol 2:93-94, 1975. 25. Vogel GW: A review of REM sleep deprivation . Arch Gen Psychiatry 32:749-761, 1975.Crossref 26. Goodlet I, Mireylees SE, Sugrue MF: Effects of mianserin, a new antidepressant on the in vitro and in vivo uptake of monoamine . Br J Pharmacol 61:307-313, 1977.Crossref 27. Raiteri M, Angelini F, Bertollini A: Comparative study of the effects of mianserin, a tetracyclic antidepressant, and of imipramine on uptake and release of neurotransmitters in synaptosomes . J Pharm Pharmacol 28:483-488, 1976.Crossref 28. Mandell AJ: Neurobiological mechanisms of presynaptic metabolic adaptation and their organization: Implications for a pathophysiology of the affective disorders , in Mandell AJ (ed): Neurobiological Mechanisms of Adaptation and Behavior . New York, Raven Press, 1975, pp 33-45. 29. Goodwin FK, Post RM, Sack RL: Clinical evidence for neurochemical adaptation to psychotropic drugs , in Mandell A: Neurobiological Mechanisms of Adaptation and Behavior . New York, Raven Press, 1974, pp 33-45. 30. Kendell RE: The Classification of Depressive Illnesses . London, Oxford University Press, 1968. 31. Lewinsohn PM, Zeiss AM, Zeiss RA, et al: Endogeneity and reactivity as orthogonal dimensions in depression . J Nerv Ment Dis 164:327-332, 1977.Crossref 32. Kiloh LH, Ball JRB, Garside RR: Prognostic factors in treatment of depressive states with imipramine . Br Med J 1:1225-1227, 1962.Crossref 33. Greenblatt M, Grosser GH, Wechsler H: Differential response of hospitalized depressed patients to somatic therapy . Am J Psychiatry 120:935-943, 1964. 34. Raskin A, Schulterbrandt GJ, Reatig N, et al: Differential response to chlorpromazine, imipramine and placebo: A study of subgroups of hospitalized depressed patients . Arch Gen Psychiatry 23:164-173, 1970.Crossref 35. Bielski RJ, Friedel RO: Prediction of tricyclic antidepressant response: A critical review . Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:1479-1480, 1976.Crossref 36. Morris JB, Beck AJ: The efficacy of antidepressant drugs: A review of research (1958 to 1972) . Arch Gen Psychiatry 30:667-674, 1974.Crossref 37. Klein DF, Davis JM: Diagnosis and Drug Treatment of Psychotic Disorders . Baltimore, Williams & Wilkins Co, 1969. 38. Asberg M, Cronholm B, Sjoqvist F, et al: Relationship between plasma level and therapeutic effect of nortriptyline . Br Med J 3:331-334, 1971.Crossref 39. Ziegler VE, Co BT, Taylor JR, et al: Amitriptyline plasma levels and therapeutic response . Clin Pharmacol Ther 19:795-801, 1976. 40. Glassman AH, Perel JM, Shostak M, et al: Clinical implications of imipramine plasma levels for depressive illness . Arch Gen Psychiatry 34:197-204, 1977.Crossref 41. Hammer W, Sjoqvist F: Plasma levels of monomethylated tricyclic antidepressants during treatment with imipramine-like compounds . Life Sci 6:1895-1903, 1967.Crossref 42. Glassman A, Perel J: The clinical pharmacology of imipramine . Arch Gen Psychiatry 28:649-653, 1973.Crossref 43. Gram LF, Søndergaard IB, Christiansen J, et al: Steady-state kinetics of imipramine in patients . Psychopharmacology 54:225-261, 1977.Crossref 44. Grayson HM: Experimental design and assessment techniques in the clinical evaluation of psychotropic drugs , in Clark WG, del Giudice J (eds): Principles of Psychopharmacology . New York, Academic Press Inc, 1970. 45. Hamilton M: Psychotropic drugs: General considerations , in International Encyclopedia of Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Section 6: Clinical Pharmacology , vol 1; L Lasagna (section ed). Oxford, Pergamon Press, 1966, pp 181-201. 46. Greenblatt DJ, Shader RI: Drug interactions in psychopharmacology , in Shader RI (ed): Manual of Psychiatric Therapeutics . Boston, Little Brown & Co, 1975. 47. Hansten PD: Drug Interactions . Philadelphia, Lea & Febiger, 1975. 48. Maas JW, Fawcett JA, Dekirmenjian H: Catecholamine metabolism, depressive illness and drug response . Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:252-262, 1972.Crossref 49. 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Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Sep 1, 1979

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