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SCAN: Schedules fonr Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry

SCAN: Schedules fonr Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry Abstract • After more than 12 years of development, the ninth edition of the Present State Examination (PSE-9) was published, together with associated instruments and computer algorithm, in 1974. The system has now been expanded, in the framework of the World Health Organization/Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Joint Project on Standardization of Diagnosis and Classification, and is being tested with the aim of developing a comprehensive procedure for clinical examination that is also capable of generating many of the categories of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, revised third edition. The new system is known as SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry). It includes the 10th edition of the PSE as one of its core schedules, preliminary tests of which have suggested that reliability is similar to that of PSE-9. SCAN is being field tested in 20 centers in 11 countries. A final version is expected to be available in January 1990. References 1. Jablenski A, Sartorius N, Hirschfeld R, Pardes H. Diagnosis and classification of mental disorders and alcohol- and drug-related problems: a research agenda for the 1980s . Psychol Med . 1983;13:907-921.Crossref 2. Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen HU, Helzer JE, Babor TF, Burke J, Farmer A, Jablenski A, Pickens R, Regier DA, Sartorius N, Towle LH. The composite international diagnostic interview: an epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1988;45:1069-1077.Crossref 3. Wing JK, Cooper JE, Sartorius N. The Description and Manual for the PSE and CATEGO System . London, England: Cambridge University Press; 1974. 4. Wing JK. Use and misuse of the PSE . Br J Psychiatry . 1983;143:111-117.Crossref 5. Wing JK, Birley JLT, Cooper JE, Graham P, Isaacs A. Reliability of a procedure for measuring and classifying 'present psychiatric state.' Br J Psychiatry . 1967;113:499-515.Crossref 6. CooperJE, Kendell RE, Gurland BJ, Sharpe L, Copeland JRM, Simon R. Psychiatric Diagnosis in New York and London . New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc; 1972. 7. World Health Organization. The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1973. 8. World Health Organization. Schizophrenia: An International Follow-up Study . New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1979. 9. Kendell RE, Everitt B, Cooper JE, Sartorius N, David ME. Reliability of the PSE . Soc Psychiatry . 1968;3:123-129.Crossref 10. Luria RE, Berry R. Reliability and descriptive validity of the PSE syndromes . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1979;36:1187-1195.Crossref 11. Luria RE, Berry R. Teaching the PSE in America . Am J Psychiatry . 1980;137:26-31.Crossref 12. Luria RE, Guziec RJ. Comparative description of the SADS and PSE . Schizophr Bull . 1981;7:248-257.Crossref 13. Luria RE, McHugh PR. Reliability and clinical utility of the 'Wing' PSE . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1974;30:866-871.Crossref 14. Wing JK, Sturt E. The PSE-ID-CATEGO System: A Supplementary Manual [mimeograph]. London, England: Institute of Psychiatry; 1978. 15. World Health Organization. Glossary of Mental Disorders and Guide to Their Classification . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1978. 16. Pakaslahti A. Applicability and reliability of the PSE in a Finnish study . Psychiatr Fenn . 1987;18:63-72. 17. Scharfetter C, Moerbt H, Wing JK. Diagnosis of functional psychoses: comparisons of clinical and computerized classifications . Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr . 1976;222:61-67.Crossref 18. Wing JK, Nixon JM, Von Cranach M, Strauss A. Further developments of the PSE and CATEGO system . Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci . 1977;224:151-160. 19. Jablenski A. Multicultural studies and the nature of schizophrenia . J R Soc Med . 1987;80:162-167. 20. Sartorius N, Jablenski A, Korten A, Ernberg G, Anker M, Cooper JE, Day R. Early manifestations and first-contact incidence of schizophrenia in different cultures . Psychol Med . 1986;16:909-928.Crossref 21. Wing JK. A technique for studying psychiatric morbidity in in-patient and out-patient series and in general population samples . Psychol Med . 1976;6:665-671.Crossref 22. Cooper JE, Copeland JRM, Brown GW, Harris T, Gourlay AJ. Further studies on interviewer training and inter-rater reliability of the PSE . Psychol Med . 1977;7:517-524.Crossref 23. Sturt E, Bebbington P, Hurry J, Tennant C. The PSE used by interviewers from a survey agency . Psychol Med . 1981;11:185-192.Crossref 24. WingJK, Nixon JM, Mann SA, Leff JP. Reliability of PSE (ninth edition) used in a population survey . Psychol Med . 1977;7:505-516.Crossref 25. Bebbington P, Hurry J, Tennant C, Sturt E, Wing JK. The epidemiology of mental disorders in Camberwell . Psychol Med . 1981;11:561-580.Crossref 26. Bebbington PE, Sturt E, Kumakura N. Studies of depressive disorders using the PSE-ID-CATEGO system . Acta Psychiatr Scand . 1983;68( (suppl 310) ):55-64. 27. Brown GW, Harris T. Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women . London, England: Tavistock Press; 1978. 28. Henderson AS, Duncan Jones P, Byrne DG, Scott R, Adcock S. Psychiatric disorder in Canberra: a standardized study of prevalence . Acta Psychiatr Scand . 1979;60:355-374.Crossref 29. Hodiamont P, Peer N, Syben N. Epidemiological aspects of psychiatric disorder in a Dutch Health area . Psychol Med . 1986;16:495-506.Crossref 30. Hurry J, Bebbington PE, Tennant C. Psychiatric symptoms and social disablement as determinants of illness behaviour . Aust NZ J Psychiatry . 1987;21:68-74.Crossref 31. Mavreas V, Bebbington PE. Greeks, British Greek Cypriots and Londoners: a comparison of psychiatric morbidity . Psychol Med . 1988;18:433-442.Crossref 32. Mavreas VG, Beis A, Mouyias A, Rigoni F, Lyketsos GC. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Athens: a community study . Soc Psychiatry . 1986;21:172-181.Crossref 33. Okasha A, Ashour A. Psycho-demographic study of anxiety in Egypt: the PSE in its Arabic version . Br J Psychiatry . 1981;139:70-73.Crossref 34. Rodgers SB, Mann SA. The reliability and validity of PSE assessments by lay interviewers: a national population survey . Psychol Med . 1986;16:689-700.Crossref 35. Orley JH, Wing JK. Psychiatric disorders in two African villages . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1979;36:513-520.Crossref 36. Vazquez-Barquero JL, Diez-Manrique JF, Pena C, Quintanal RG, Labrador Lopez M. Two stage design in a community survey . Br J Psychiatry . 1986;149:88-97.Crossref 37. Wing JK, Mann SA, Leff JP, Nixon JM. The concept of a 'case' in psychiatric population surveys . Psychol Med . 1978;8:203-217.Crossref 38. Tress KH, Bellenis C, Brownlow JH, Livingston G, Leff JP. The Present State Examination Change Rating Scale . Br J Psychiatry . 1987;150:201-207.Crossref 39. McGuffin P, Katz R, Aldrich J. Past and Present State Examination: the assessment of'lifetime ever' psychopathology . Psychol Med . 1986;16:461-466.Crossref 40. Dean C, Surtees PG, Sasharidan SP. Comparison of research diagnostic systems in an Edinburgh community sample . Br J Psychiatry . 1983;142:247-256.Crossref 41. Surtees P, Dean C, Ingham JC, Kreitman NB, Miller PM, Sashidharan SP. Psychiatric disorder in women from an Edinburgh community: association with demographic factors . Br J Psychiatry . 1983;142:238-246.Crossref 42. Cooper JE, Mackenzie S. The rapid prediction of low scores on a standardized psychiatric interview (PSE) . In: Wing JK, Bebbington P, Robins LN, eds. What Is a Case? London, England: Grant McIntyre; 1981:143-151. 43. Gillis LS, Elk R, Ben-Arie O, Teggin A. The PSE: experiences with Xhosa-speaking psychiatric patients . Br J Psychiatry . 1982;141:143-147.Crossref 44. Wig NN, Menon DK, Srinivasanmurthy R. Hindi version of the Present State Examination: problems of translations and application in Indian setting . Indian J Psychiatry . 1982;24:309-317. 45. Oyebode F. The PSE in the transcultural setting . Br J Psychiatry . 1985;147:92-93.Crossref 46. Swartz L, Ben-Arie O, Teggin AF. Subcultural delusions and hallucinations: comments on the Present State Examination in a multi-cultural context . Br J Psychiatry . 1985;146:391-394.Crossref 47. Cutting J. The phenomenology of acute organic psychosis: comparison with acute schizophrenia . Br J Psychiatry . 1987;151:324-332.Crossref 48. Logsdail BJ, Toone BK. Post-ictal psychoses: a clinical and phenomenological description . Br J Psychiatry . 1988;152:246-252.Crossref 49. Pakaslahti A. On the diagnosis of schizophrenic psychoses in clinical practice . Psychiatr Fenn . 1987;18;63-72. 50. Brewin CR, Wing JK, Mangen SP, Brugha TS, MacCarthy B. Principles and practice of measuring needs in the long term mentally ill: the MRC needs for care assessment . Psychol Med . 1987;17:971-981.Crossref 51. Brewin CR, Wing JK, Mangen SP, Brugha TS, MacCarthy B, Lesage A. Needs for care among the long-term mentally ill: a report from the Camberwell High Contact Survey . Psychol Med . 1988;18:457-468.Crossref 52. Brugha TS, Wing JK, Brewin CR, MacCarthy B, Mangen S, Lesage A, Mumford J. The problems of people on long term psychiatric day care: an introduction to the Camberwell High Contact Survey . Psychol Med . 1988;18:443-456.Crossref 53. Farmer AE, Katz R, McGuffin P, Bebbington P. A comparison between the Present State Examination and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1987;44:1064-1068.Crossref 54. Wittchen H-U. The German Version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): Test-Retest Reliability and Procedural Validity Compared to the PSE and DSM-III Checklist . Report to the Division of Biometry and Epidemiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Md, 1985. 55. Jablensky A, Schwarz R, Tomov T. WHO collaborative study on impairments and disabilities associated with schizophrenic disorders . Acta Psychiatr Scand . 1980;62( (suppl 285) ):152-163.Crossref 56. World Health Organization. Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO/DAS) . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1988. 57. Wing L, Gould J. Systematic recording of behaviours and skills of retarded and psychotic children . J Autism Dev Disord . 1978;8:79-97.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

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References (72)

Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1990 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1990.01810180089012
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • After more than 12 years of development, the ninth edition of the Present State Examination (PSE-9) was published, together with associated instruments and computer algorithm, in 1974. The system has now been expanded, in the framework of the World Health Organization/Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and Mental Health Administration Joint Project on Standardization of Diagnosis and Classification, and is being tested with the aim of developing a comprehensive procedure for clinical examination that is also capable of generating many of the categories of the International Classification of Diseases, 10th edition, and the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, revised third edition. The new system is known as SCAN (Schedules for Clinical Assessment in Neuropsychiatry). It includes the 10th edition of the PSE as one of its core schedules, preliminary tests of which have suggested that reliability is similar to that of PSE-9. SCAN is being field tested in 20 centers in 11 countries. A final version is expected to be available in January 1990. References 1. Jablenski A, Sartorius N, Hirschfeld R, Pardes H. Diagnosis and classification of mental disorders and alcohol- and drug-related problems: a research agenda for the 1980s . Psychol Med . 1983;13:907-921.Crossref 2. Robins LN, Wing J, Wittchen HU, Helzer JE, Babor TF, Burke J, Farmer A, Jablenski A, Pickens R, Regier DA, Sartorius N, Towle LH. The composite international diagnostic interview: an epidemiologic instrument suitable for use in conjunction with different diagnostic systems and in different cultures . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1988;45:1069-1077.Crossref 3. Wing JK, Cooper JE, Sartorius N. The Description and Manual for the PSE and CATEGO System . London, England: Cambridge University Press; 1974. 4. Wing JK. Use and misuse of the PSE . Br J Psychiatry . 1983;143:111-117.Crossref 5. Wing JK, Birley JLT, Cooper JE, Graham P, Isaacs A. Reliability of a procedure for measuring and classifying 'present psychiatric state.' Br J Psychiatry . 1967;113:499-515.Crossref 6. CooperJE, Kendell RE, Gurland BJ, Sharpe L, Copeland JRM, Simon R. Psychiatric Diagnosis in New York and London . New York, NY: Oxford University Press Inc; 1972. 7. World Health Organization. The International Pilot Study of Schizophrenia . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1973. 8. World Health Organization. Schizophrenia: An International Follow-up Study . New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons Inc; 1979. 9. Kendell RE, Everitt B, Cooper JE, Sartorius N, David ME. Reliability of the PSE . Soc Psychiatry . 1968;3:123-129.Crossref 10. Luria RE, Berry R. Reliability and descriptive validity of the PSE syndromes . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1979;36:1187-1195.Crossref 11. Luria RE, Berry R. Teaching the PSE in America . Am J Psychiatry . 1980;137:26-31.Crossref 12. Luria RE, Guziec RJ. Comparative description of the SADS and PSE . Schizophr Bull . 1981;7:248-257.Crossref 13. Luria RE, McHugh PR. Reliability and clinical utility of the 'Wing' PSE . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1974;30:866-871.Crossref 14. Wing JK, Sturt E. The PSE-ID-CATEGO System: A Supplementary Manual [mimeograph]. London, England: Institute of Psychiatry; 1978. 15. World Health Organization. Glossary of Mental Disorders and Guide to Their Classification . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1978. 16. Pakaslahti A. Applicability and reliability of the PSE in a Finnish study . Psychiatr Fenn . 1987;18:63-72. 17. Scharfetter C, Moerbt H, Wing JK. Diagnosis of functional psychoses: comparisons of clinical and computerized classifications . Arch Psychiatr Nervenkr . 1976;222:61-67.Crossref 18. Wing JK, Nixon JM, Von Cranach M, Strauss A. Further developments of the PSE and CATEGO system . Arch Psychiatr Neurol Sci . 1977;224:151-160. 19. Jablenski A. Multicultural studies and the nature of schizophrenia . J R Soc Med . 1987;80:162-167. 20. Sartorius N, Jablenski A, Korten A, Ernberg G, Anker M, Cooper JE, Day R. Early manifestations and first-contact incidence of schizophrenia in different cultures . Psychol Med . 1986;16:909-928.Crossref 21. Wing JK. A technique for studying psychiatric morbidity in in-patient and out-patient series and in general population samples . Psychol Med . 1976;6:665-671.Crossref 22. Cooper JE, Copeland JRM, Brown GW, Harris T, Gourlay AJ. Further studies on interviewer training and inter-rater reliability of the PSE . Psychol Med . 1977;7:517-524.Crossref 23. Sturt E, Bebbington P, Hurry J, Tennant C. The PSE used by interviewers from a survey agency . Psychol Med . 1981;11:185-192.Crossref 24. WingJK, Nixon JM, Mann SA, Leff JP. Reliability of PSE (ninth edition) used in a population survey . Psychol Med . 1977;7:505-516.Crossref 25. Bebbington P, Hurry J, Tennant C, Sturt E, Wing JK. The epidemiology of mental disorders in Camberwell . Psychol Med . 1981;11:561-580.Crossref 26. Bebbington PE, Sturt E, Kumakura N. Studies of depressive disorders using the PSE-ID-CATEGO system . Acta Psychiatr Scand . 1983;68( (suppl 310) ):55-64. 27. Brown GW, Harris T. Social Origins of Depression: A Study of Psychiatric Disorder in Women . London, England: Tavistock Press; 1978. 28. Henderson AS, Duncan Jones P, Byrne DG, Scott R, Adcock S. Psychiatric disorder in Canberra: a standardized study of prevalence . Acta Psychiatr Scand . 1979;60:355-374.Crossref 29. Hodiamont P, Peer N, Syben N. Epidemiological aspects of psychiatric disorder in a Dutch Health area . Psychol Med . 1986;16:495-506.Crossref 30. Hurry J, Bebbington PE, Tennant C. Psychiatric symptoms and social disablement as determinants of illness behaviour . Aust NZ J Psychiatry . 1987;21:68-74.Crossref 31. Mavreas V, Bebbington PE. Greeks, British Greek Cypriots and Londoners: a comparison of psychiatric morbidity . Psychol Med . 1988;18:433-442.Crossref 32. Mavreas VG, Beis A, Mouyias A, Rigoni F, Lyketsos GC. Prevalence of psychiatric disorders in Athens: a community study . Soc Psychiatry . 1986;21:172-181.Crossref 33. Okasha A, Ashour A. Psycho-demographic study of anxiety in Egypt: the PSE in its Arabic version . Br J Psychiatry . 1981;139:70-73.Crossref 34. Rodgers SB, Mann SA. The reliability and validity of PSE assessments by lay interviewers: a national population survey . Psychol Med . 1986;16:689-700.Crossref 35. Orley JH, Wing JK. Psychiatric disorders in two African villages . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1979;36:513-520.Crossref 36. Vazquez-Barquero JL, Diez-Manrique JF, Pena C, Quintanal RG, Labrador Lopez M. Two stage design in a community survey . Br J Psychiatry . 1986;149:88-97.Crossref 37. Wing JK, Mann SA, Leff JP, Nixon JM. The concept of a 'case' in psychiatric population surveys . Psychol Med . 1978;8:203-217.Crossref 38. Tress KH, Bellenis C, Brownlow JH, Livingston G, Leff JP. The Present State Examination Change Rating Scale . Br J Psychiatry . 1987;150:201-207.Crossref 39. McGuffin P, Katz R, Aldrich J. Past and Present State Examination: the assessment of'lifetime ever' psychopathology . Psychol Med . 1986;16:461-466.Crossref 40. Dean C, Surtees PG, Sasharidan SP. Comparison of research diagnostic systems in an Edinburgh community sample . Br J Psychiatry . 1983;142:247-256.Crossref 41. Surtees P, Dean C, Ingham JC, Kreitman NB, Miller PM, Sashidharan SP. Psychiatric disorder in women from an Edinburgh community: association with demographic factors . Br J Psychiatry . 1983;142:238-246.Crossref 42. Cooper JE, Mackenzie S. The rapid prediction of low scores on a standardized psychiatric interview (PSE) . In: Wing JK, Bebbington P, Robins LN, eds. What Is a Case? London, England: Grant McIntyre; 1981:143-151. 43. Gillis LS, Elk R, Ben-Arie O, Teggin A. The PSE: experiences with Xhosa-speaking psychiatric patients . Br J Psychiatry . 1982;141:143-147.Crossref 44. Wig NN, Menon DK, Srinivasanmurthy R. Hindi version of the Present State Examination: problems of translations and application in Indian setting . Indian J Psychiatry . 1982;24:309-317. 45. Oyebode F. The PSE in the transcultural setting . Br J Psychiatry . 1985;147:92-93.Crossref 46. Swartz L, Ben-Arie O, Teggin AF. Subcultural delusions and hallucinations: comments on the Present State Examination in a multi-cultural context . Br J Psychiatry . 1985;146:391-394.Crossref 47. Cutting J. The phenomenology of acute organic psychosis: comparison with acute schizophrenia . Br J Psychiatry . 1987;151:324-332.Crossref 48. Logsdail BJ, Toone BK. Post-ictal psychoses: a clinical and phenomenological description . Br J Psychiatry . 1988;152:246-252.Crossref 49. Pakaslahti A. On the diagnosis of schizophrenic psychoses in clinical practice . Psychiatr Fenn . 1987;18;63-72. 50. Brewin CR, Wing JK, Mangen SP, Brugha TS, MacCarthy B. Principles and practice of measuring needs in the long term mentally ill: the MRC needs for care assessment . Psychol Med . 1987;17:971-981.Crossref 51. Brewin CR, Wing JK, Mangen SP, Brugha TS, MacCarthy B, Lesage A. Needs for care among the long-term mentally ill: a report from the Camberwell High Contact Survey . Psychol Med . 1988;18:457-468.Crossref 52. Brugha TS, Wing JK, Brewin CR, MacCarthy B, Mangen S, Lesage A, Mumford J. The problems of people on long term psychiatric day care: an introduction to the Camberwell High Contact Survey . Psychol Med . 1988;18:443-456.Crossref 53. Farmer AE, Katz R, McGuffin P, Bebbington P. A comparison between the Present State Examination and the Composite International Diagnostic Interview . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1987;44:1064-1068.Crossref 54. Wittchen H-U. The German Version of the Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI): Test-Retest Reliability and Procedural Validity Compared to the PSE and DSM-III Checklist . Report to the Division of Biometry and Epidemiology, National Institute of Mental Health, Bethesda, Md, 1985. 55. Jablensky A, Schwarz R, Tomov T. WHO collaborative study on impairments and disabilities associated with schizophrenic disorders . Acta Psychiatr Scand . 1980;62( (suppl 285) ):152-163.Crossref 56. World Health Organization. Psychiatric Disability Assessment Schedule (WHO/DAS) . Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 1988. 57. Wing L, Gould J. Systematic recording of behaviours and skills of retarded and psychotic children . J Autism Dev Disord . 1978;8:79-97.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Jun 1, 1990

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