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Screening for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Adults

Screening for Latent Tuberculosis Infection in Adults ImportanceIn the US, tuberculosis remains an important preventable disease, including active tuberculosis, which may be infectious, and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), which is asymptomatic and not infectious but can later progress to active disease. The precise prevalence rate of LTBI in the US is difficult to determine; however, estimated prevalence is about 5.0%, or up to 13 million persons. Incidence of tuberculosis varies by geography and living accommodations, suggesting an association with social determinants of health. ObjectiveTo update its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on LTBI screening and treatment in asymptomatic adults seen in primary care, as well as the accuracy of LTBI screening tests. PopulationAsymptomatic adults 18 years or older at increased risk for tuberculosis. Evidence AssessmentThe USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that there is a moderate net benefit in preventing active tuberculosis disease by screening for LTBI in persons at increased risk for tuberculosis infection. RecommendationThe USPSTF recommends screening for LTBI in populations at increased risk. (B recommendation) http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png JAMA American Medical Association

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References (73)

Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright 2023 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0098-7484
eISSN
1538-3598
DOI
10.1001/jama.2023.4899
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

ImportanceIn the US, tuberculosis remains an important preventable disease, including active tuberculosis, which may be infectious, and latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), which is asymptomatic and not infectious but can later progress to active disease. The precise prevalence rate of LTBI in the US is difficult to determine; however, estimated prevalence is about 5.0%, or up to 13 million persons. Incidence of tuberculosis varies by geography and living accommodations, suggesting an association with social determinants of health. ObjectiveTo update its 2016 recommendation, the US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) commissioned a systematic review on LTBI screening and treatment in asymptomatic adults seen in primary care, as well as the accuracy of LTBI screening tests. PopulationAsymptomatic adults 18 years or older at increased risk for tuberculosis. Evidence AssessmentThe USPSTF concludes with moderate certainty that there is a moderate net benefit in preventing active tuberculosis disease by screening for LTBI in persons at increased risk for tuberculosis infection. RecommendationThe USPSTF recommends screening for LTBI in populations at increased risk. (B recommendation)

Journal

JAMAAmerican Medical Association

Published: May 2, 2023

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