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The Lifetime History of Major Depression in Women: Reliability of Diagnosis and Heritability

The Lifetime History of Major Depression in Women: Reliability of Diagnosis and Heritability Abstract Background: In epidemiologie samples, the assessment of lifetime history (LTH) of major depression (MD) is not highly reliable. In female twins, we previously found that LTH of MD, as assessed at a single personal interview, was moderately heritable (approximately 40%). In that analysis, errors of measurement could not be discriminated from true environmental effects. Methods: In 1721 female twins from a populationbased register, including both members of 742 pairs, LTH of MD, covering approximately the same time period, was obtained twice, once by self-administered questionnaire and once at personal interview. Results: Reliability of LTH of MD was modest (×= + .34, tetrachoric r= + .56) and was predicted by the number of depressive symptoms, treatment seeking, number of episodes, and degree of impairment. Deriving an "index of caseness" from these predictors, the estimated heritability of LTH of MD was greater for more restrictive definitions. Incorporating error of measurement into a structural equation model including both occasions of measurement, the estimated heritability of the liability to LTH of MD increased substantially (approximately 70%). More than half of what was considered environmental effects when LTH of MD was analyzed on the basis of one assessment appeared, when two assessments were used, to reflect measurement error. Conclusions: Major depression, as assessed over the lifetime, may be a rather highly heritable disorder of moderate reliability rather than a moderately heritable disorder of high reliability. References 1. Harlow SD, Linet MS. Agreement between questionnaire data and medical records: the evidence for accuracy of recall . Am J Epidemiol . 1989;129:233-248. 2. Prusoff BA, Merikangas KR, Weissman MM. Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of psychiatric disorders: recall 4 years later . J Psychiatr Res . 1988;22:107-117.Crossref 3. Bromet EJ, Dunn LO, Connell MM, Dew MA, Schulberg HC. Long-term reliability of diagnosing lifetime major depression in a community sample . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1986;43:435-440.Crossref 4. Aneshensel CS, Estrada AL, Hansell MJ, Clark VA. Social psychological aspects of reporting behavior: lifetime depressive episode reports . J Health Soc Behav . 1987;28:232-246.Crossref 5. Rice JP, Rochberg M, Endicott J, Lavori PW, Miller C. Stability of psychiatric diagnoses: an application to the affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1992;49:824-830.Crossref 6. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. A population based twin study of major depression in women: the impact of varying definitions of illness . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1992;49:257-266.Crossref 7. Eaves LJ, Eysenck HJ, Martin NG, Jardine R, Heath AC, Feingold L, Young PA, Kendler KS. Genes, Culture and Personality: An Empirical Approach . London, England: Oxford University Press; 1989. 8. Spence JE, Corey LA, Nance WE, Marazita ML, Kendler KS, Schieken RM. Molecular analysis of twin zygosity using VNTR DNA probes . Am J Hum Genet . 1988;43(3):A159. Abstract. 9. Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Gibbon M. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R . New York, NY: Biometrics Research Division, New York State Psychiatric Institute;1987. 10. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: same genes, (partly) different environments? ArchGen Psychiatry . 1992;49:716-722.Crossref 11. SAS Institute Inc. CATMOD. In: SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Version 5 Edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc; 1985:171-254. 12. Kish L, Frankel MR. Inferences from complex samples . J R Stat Soc Ser B . 1974;36:1-37. 13. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. A longitudinal twin study of personality and major depression in women . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1993;50:853-862.Crossref 14. SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STATUser's Guide, Version 6, Fourth Edition, Volumes 1 and 2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc; 1990. 15. Rice JP, Endicott J, Knesevich MA, Rochberg N, The estimation of diagnostic sensitivity using stability data: an application to major depressive disorder . J Psychiatr Res 1987;21:337-345.Crossref 16. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. A longitudinal twin study of one-year prevalence of major depression in women . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1993;50:843-852.Crossref 17. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. A test of the equal environment assumption in twin studies of psychiatric illness . Behav Genet . 1993;23:21-27.Crossref 18. Akaike H. Factor analysis and AIC . Psychometrika . 1987;52:317-332.Crossref 19. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E. Research Diagnostic Criteria for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders . 2nd ed. New York, NY: New York State Psychiatric Institute; 1975. 20. Rolnick SJ, Gross CR, Garrard J, Gibson R. A comparison of response rate, data quality, and cost in the collection of data on sexual history and personal behaviors: mail survey approaches and in person interview . Am J Epidemiol . 1989;129:1052-1061. 21. Siemiatycki J. A comparison of mail, telephone, and home interview stategies for household health surveys . Am J Public Health . 1979;69:238-245.Crossref 22. Kendler KS. Overview: a current perspective on twin studies of schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry . 1983;140:1413-1425. 23. McGuffin P, Katz R. The genetics of depression and manic-depressive illness . Br J Psychiatry . 1989;155:294-304. 24. Shapiro S, Skinner EA, Kessler LG, Von Korff M, German PS, Tischler GL, Leaf PJ, Benham L, Cottler L, Regier DA. Utilization of health and mental health services: three epidemiologic catchment area sites . Arch Gen Psychiatry .1984;41:971-978.Crossref 25. Blaney PH. Affect and memory: a review . Psychol Bull . 1986;99:229-246.Crossref http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

The Lifetime History of Major Depression in Women: Reliability of Diagnosis and Heritability

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References (25)

Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1993 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1993.01820230054003
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Background: In epidemiologie samples, the assessment of lifetime history (LTH) of major depression (MD) is not highly reliable. In female twins, we previously found that LTH of MD, as assessed at a single personal interview, was moderately heritable (approximately 40%). In that analysis, errors of measurement could not be discriminated from true environmental effects. Methods: In 1721 female twins from a populationbased register, including both members of 742 pairs, LTH of MD, covering approximately the same time period, was obtained twice, once by self-administered questionnaire and once at personal interview. Results: Reliability of LTH of MD was modest (×= + .34, tetrachoric r= + .56) and was predicted by the number of depressive symptoms, treatment seeking, number of episodes, and degree of impairment. Deriving an "index of caseness" from these predictors, the estimated heritability of LTH of MD was greater for more restrictive definitions. Incorporating error of measurement into a structural equation model including both occasions of measurement, the estimated heritability of the liability to LTH of MD increased substantially (approximately 70%). More than half of what was considered environmental effects when LTH of MD was analyzed on the basis of one assessment appeared, when two assessments were used, to reflect measurement error. Conclusions: Major depression, as assessed over the lifetime, may be a rather highly heritable disorder of moderate reliability rather than a moderately heritable disorder of high reliability. References 1. Harlow SD, Linet MS. Agreement between questionnaire data and medical records: the evidence for accuracy of recall . Am J Epidemiol . 1989;129:233-248. 2. Prusoff BA, Merikangas KR, Weissman MM. Lifetime prevalence and age of onset of psychiatric disorders: recall 4 years later . J Psychiatr Res . 1988;22:107-117.Crossref 3. Bromet EJ, Dunn LO, Connell MM, Dew MA, Schulberg HC. Long-term reliability of diagnosing lifetime major depression in a community sample . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1986;43:435-440.Crossref 4. Aneshensel CS, Estrada AL, Hansell MJ, Clark VA. Social psychological aspects of reporting behavior: lifetime depressive episode reports . J Health Soc Behav . 1987;28:232-246.Crossref 5. Rice JP, Rochberg M, Endicott J, Lavori PW, Miller C. Stability of psychiatric diagnoses: an application to the affective disorders . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1992;49:824-830.Crossref 6. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. A population based twin study of major depression in women: the impact of varying definitions of illness . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1992;49:257-266.Crossref 7. Eaves LJ, Eysenck HJ, Martin NG, Jardine R, Heath AC, Feingold L, Young PA, Kendler KS. Genes, Culture and Personality: An Empirical Approach . London, England: Oxford University Press; 1989. 8. Spence JE, Corey LA, Nance WE, Marazita ML, Kendler KS, Schieken RM. Molecular analysis of twin zygosity using VNTR DNA probes . Am J Hum Genet . 1988;43(3):A159. Abstract. 9. Spitzer RL, Williams JB, Gibbon M. Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R . New York, NY: Biometrics Research Division, New York State Psychiatric Institute;1987. 10. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. Major depression and generalized anxiety disorder: same genes, (partly) different environments? ArchGen Psychiatry . 1992;49:716-722.Crossref 11. SAS Institute Inc. CATMOD. In: SAS User's Guide: Statistics, Version 5 Edition. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc; 1985:171-254. 12. Kish L, Frankel MR. Inferences from complex samples . J R Stat Soc Ser B . 1974;36:1-37. 13. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. A longitudinal twin study of personality and major depression in women . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1993;50:853-862.Crossref 14. SAS Institute Inc. SAS/STATUser's Guide, Version 6, Fourth Edition, Volumes 1 and 2. Cary, NC: SAS Institute Inc; 1990. 15. Rice JP, Endicott J, Knesevich MA, Rochberg N, The estimation of diagnostic sensitivity using stability data: an application to major depressive disorder . J Psychiatr Res 1987;21:337-345.Crossref 16. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. A longitudinal twin study of one-year prevalence of major depression in women . Arch Gen Psychiatry . 1993;50:843-852.Crossref 17. Kendler KS, Neale MC, Kessler RC, Heath AC, Eaves LJ. A test of the equal environment assumption in twin studies of psychiatric illness . Behav Genet . 1993;23:21-27.Crossref 18. Akaike H. Factor analysis and AIC . Psychometrika . 1987;52:317-332.Crossref 19. Spitzer RL, Endicott J, Robins E. Research Diagnostic Criteria for a Selected Group of Functional Disorders . 2nd ed. New York, NY: New York State Psychiatric Institute; 1975. 20. Rolnick SJ, Gross CR, Garrard J, Gibson R. A comparison of response rate, data quality, and cost in the collection of data on sexual history and personal behaviors: mail survey approaches and in person interview . Am J Epidemiol . 1989;129:1052-1061. 21. Siemiatycki J. A comparison of mail, telephone, and home interview stategies for household health surveys . Am J Public Health . 1979;69:238-245.Crossref 22. Kendler KS. Overview: a current perspective on twin studies of schizophrenia . Am J Psychiatry . 1983;140:1413-1425. 23. McGuffin P, Katz R. The genetics of depression and manic-depressive illness . Br J Psychiatry . 1989;155:294-304. 24. Shapiro S, Skinner EA, Kessler LG, Von Korff M, German PS, Tischler GL, Leaf PJ, Benham L, Cottler L, Regier DA. Utilization of health and mental health services: three epidemiologic catchment area sites . Arch Gen Psychiatry .1984;41:971-978.Crossref 25. Blaney PH. Affect and memory: a review . Psychol Bull . 1986;99:229-246.Crossref

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Nov 1, 1993

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