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Twin Studies of Affective Illness

Twin Studies of Affective Illness Abstract • In a summary of the major twin studies of affective illness, there are significant differences between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) concordance rates for both unipolar and bipolar illness, indicating the importance of genetic factors in the etiology of affective illness. However, since 28% of MZ twins are discordant for bipolar illness and 60% of MZ twins are discordant for unipolar illness, environmental factors are important as well. In addition, there is a significant difference between unipolar and bipolar concordance for MZ twins (although not for DZ twins). This supports other evidence that unipolar and bipolar illness are separate entities, and it suggests the possibility that genetic factors are more important in the occurrence of bipolar illness than in unipolar illness. References 1. Luxenburger H: Vorläufiger bericht über psychiatrische Serienuntersuchungen an Zwillingen . Z Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 116:297-326, 1928.Crossref 2. Luxenburger H: Psychiatrisch-neurologisch Zwillingspathologie . Zentralb Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 56:145-180, 1930. 3. Luxenburger H: Uber einige praktisch wichtige Problem aus der Erbpathologie des zyklothymen Kreises: Studien an erbgleichen Zwillingspaaren . Z Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 146:87-125, 1933.Crossref 4. Rosanoff AJ, Handy L, Plesset IR: The etiology of manic-depressive syndromes with special references to their occurrence in twins . Am J Psychiatry 91:725-762, 1935. 5. Kallmann F: Heredity in Health and Mental Disorder . New York, WW Norton & Co, 1953. 6. Slater E: Psychotic and Neurotic Illness in Twins , Medical Research Council Special Report Series No. 278. London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1953. 7. Da Fonseca A: Analise Heredo-Clinca das Perturbacoes Affectivas (Estudio de 60 Pares de Gemeos, e sues Conganguin Neos) . Impresna Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal, 1959. 8. Harvald B, Hauge M: Heredity factors elucidated by twin studies , in Neel JV (ed): Genetics and the Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases , Public Health Service publication 1163. US Government Printing Office, 1965, pp 61-76. 9. Kringlen E: Heredity and Environment in the Functional Psychoses: An Epidemiological-Clinical Twin Study . Oslo, Universitsforlaget, 1967. 10. Pollin W, Allen M, Hoffer A, et al: Psychopathology in 15,909 pairs of veteran twins: Evidence for a genetic factor in the pathogenesis of sehizophrenia and its relative absence in psychoneurosis . Am J Psychiatry 126:597-610, 1969. 11. Allen MG, Cohen S, Pollin W, et al: Affective illness in veteran twins: A diagnostic review . Am J Psychiatry 131:1234-1239, 1974. 12. Munro A: Depressive illness in twins . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 41:111-116, 1965.Crossref 13. Zerbin-Rudin E: Endogene psychosen , in Becker PE (ed): Humangenetic . Stuttgart, West Germany, Georg Thieme Verlag, 1967, vol 5, pp 446-577. 14. Rosenthal D: Genetic studies of manic-depressive psychosis , in Genetic Theory and Abnormal Behavior . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1970, pp 201-221. 15. Allen MG, Cohen S, Pollin W: Schizophrenia in veteran twins: A diagnostic review . Am J Psychiatry 128:939-945, 1972. 16. Stenstedt A: A study in manic-depressive psychosis . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand , (suppl) 79, 1952, pp 1-111. 17. Stenstedt A: Involutional melancholia . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 34( (suppl 127) ):1-71, 1959.Crossref 18. Slater E: The incidence of mental disorder . Ann Eugenics 6:172-186, 1935.Crossref 19. Norris V: Mental Illness in London . Maudsley Monographs No 6, New York, Oxford University Press, 1959. 20. Ödegaard Ö The epidemiology of depressive psychoses . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 37( (suppl 162) ):33-38, 1961.Crossref 21. Strömgren E: Schizophreniform psychoses . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 41:483-489, 1965.Crossref 22. Hopkinson G, Ley P: A genetic study of affective disorder . Br J Psychiatry 115:917-922, 1969.Crossref 23. Winokur G, Cadoret R, Dorzab J, et al: Depressive disease: A genetic study . Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:135-144, 1971.Crossref 24. Cadoret R, Winokur G, Clayton P: Family history studies: VII. Manic depressive disease versus depressive disease . Br J Psychiatry 116:625-635, 1970.Crossref 25. Winokur G, Clayton P: Family history studies: I. Two types of affective disorders separated according to genetic and clinical factors , in Wortis J (ed): Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry . New York, Plenum Press, 1967, vol 9, pp 35-50. 26. Reich T, Clayton P, Winokur G: Family history studies: V. The genetics of mania . Am J Psychitry 125:1358-1367, 1969. 27. Cadoret R, Winokur G, Clayton P: Family history studies: VI. Depressive disease types . Compr Psychiatry 12:148-155, 1971.Crossref 28. Gershon ES, Dunner DL, Goodwin FK: Toward a biology of affective disorders: Genetic contributions . Arch Gen Psychiatry 25:1-15, 1971.Crossref 29. Perris C: A study of bipolar (manic-depressive) and unipolar recurrent depressive psychoses . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 42( (suppl 194) ):1-187, 1966. 30. Beigel A, Murphy DL: Unipolar and bipolar affective illness: Differences in clinical characteristics accompanying depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:215-220, 1971.Crossref 31. Clayton PJ, Rodin L, Winokur G: Family history studies: III. Schizoaffective disorder, clinical and genetic factors including a one- to two-year follow-up . Compr Psychiatry 9:31-49, 1968.Crossref 32. Helgason T: Epidemiology of mental disorders in Iceland . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 40( (suppl 173) ):1-258, 1964. 33. Brown F: Depression and childhood bereavement . J Ment Sci 107:754-777, 1961. 34. Forrest A, Frazer R, Priest R: Environmental factors in depressive illness . Br J Psychiatry 111:243-253, 1965.Crossref 35. Hopkinson G, Freed G: Bereavement in childhood and depressive psychosis . Br J Psychiatry 112:459-463, 1966.Crossref 36. Munro A: Parental deprivation in depressive patients . Br J Psychiatry 112:443-457, 1966.Crossref 37. Munro A: Some familial and social factors in depressive illness . Br J Psychiatry 112:429-441, 1966.Crossref 38. Stabenau J: Schizophrenic and affective psychoses: Twin and family studies, in Bogoch S (ed): Proceedings of the Third International Conference: Future of the Brain Sciences. New York, Plenum Press Inc, 1969, pp 421-458. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Archives of General Psychiatry American Medical Association

Twin Studies of Affective Illness

Archives of General Psychiatry , Volume 33 (12) – Dec 1, 1976

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References (48)

Publisher
American Medical Association
Copyright
Copyright © 1976 American Medical Association. All Rights Reserved.
ISSN
0003-990X
eISSN
1598-3636
DOI
10.1001/archpsyc.1976.01770120080008
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract • In a summary of the major twin studies of affective illness, there are significant differences between monozygotic (MZ) and dizygotic (DZ) concordance rates for both unipolar and bipolar illness, indicating the importance of genetic factors in the etiology of affective illness. However, since 28% of MZ twins are discordant for bipolar illness and 60% of MZ twins are discordant for unipolar illness, environmental factors are important as well. In addition, there is a significant difference between unipolar and bipolar concordance for MZ twins (although not for DZ twins). This supports other evidence that unipolar and bipolar illness are separate entities, and it suggests the possibility that genetic factors are more important in the occurrence of bipolar illness than in unipolar illness. References 1. Luxenburger H: Vorläufiger bericht über psychiatrische Serienuntersuchungen an Zwillingen . Z Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 116:297-326, 1928.Crossref 2. Luxenburger H: Psychiatrisch-neurologisch Zwillingspathologie . Zentralb Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 56:145-180, 1930. 3. Luxenburger H: Uber einige praktisch wichtige Problem aus der Erbpathologie des zyklothymen Kreises: Studien an erbgleichen Zwillingspaaren . Z Gesamte Neurol Psychiatr 146:87-125, 1933.Crossref 4. Rosanoff AJ, Handy L, Plesset IR: The etiology of manic-depressive syndromes with special references to their occurrence in twins . Am J Psychiatry 91:725-762, 1935. 5. Kallmann F: Heredity in Health and Mental Disorder . New York, WW Norton & Co, 1953. 6. Slater E: Psychotic and Neurotic Illness in Twins , Medical Research Council Special Report Series No. 278. London, Her Majesty's Stationery Office, 1953. 7. Da Fonseca A: Analise Heredo-Clinca das Perturbacoes Affectivas (Estudio de 60 Pares de Gemeos, e sues Conganguin Neos) . Impresna Portuguesa, Porto, Portugal, 1959. 8. Harvald B, Hauge M: Heredity factors elucidated by twin studies , in Neel JV (ed): Genetics and the Epidemiology of Chronic Diseases , Public Health Service publication 1163. US Government Printing Office, 1965, pp 61-76. 9. Kringlen E: Heredity and Environment in the Functional Psychoses: An Epidemiological-Clinical Twin Study . Oslo, Universitsforlaget, 1967. 10. Pollin W, Allen M, Hoffer A, et al: Psychopathology in 15,909 pairs of veteran twins: Evidence for a genetic factor in the pathogenesis of sehizophrenia and its relative absence in psychoneurosis . Am J Psychiatry 126:597-610, 1969. 11. Allen MG, Cohen S, Pollin W, et al: Affective illness in veteran twins: A diagnostic review . Am J Psychiatry 131:1234-1239, 1974. 12. Munro A: Depressive illness in twins . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 41:111-116, 1965.Crossref 13. Zerbin-Rudin E: Endogene psychosen , in Becker PE (ed): Humangenetic . Stuttgart, West Germany, Georg Thieme Verlag, 1967, vol 5, pp 446-577. 14. Rosenthal D: Genetic studies of manic-depressive psychosis , in Genetic Theory and Abnormal Behavior . New York, McGraw-Hill Book Co, 1970, pp 201-221. 15. Allen MG, Cohen S, Pollin W: Schizophrenia in veteran twins: A diagnostic review . Am J Psychiatry 128:939-945, 1972. 16. Stenstedt A: A study in manic-depressive psychosis . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand , (suppl) 79, 1952, pp 1-111. 17. Stenstedt A: Involutional melancholia . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 34( (suppl 127) ):1-71, 1959.Crossref 18. Slater E: The incidence of mental disorder . Ann Eugenics 6:172-186, 1935.Crossref 19. Norris V: Mental Illness in London . Maudsley Monographs No 6, New York, Oxford University Press, 1959. 20. Ödegaard Ö The epidemiology of depressive psychoses . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 37( (suppl 162) ):33-38, 1961.Crossref 21. Strömgren E: Schizophreniform psychoses . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 41:483-489, 1965.Crossref 22. Hopkinson G, Ley P: A genetic study of affective disorder . Br J Psychiatry 115:917-922, 1969.Crossref 23. Winokur G, Cadoret R, Dorzab J, et al: Depressive disease: A genetic study . Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:135-144, 1971.Crossref 24. Cadoret R, Winokur G, Clayton P: Family history studies: VII. Manic depressive disease versus depressive disease . Br J Psychiatry 116:625-635, 1970.Crossref 25. Winokur G, Clayton P: Family history studies: I. Two types of affective disorders separated according to genetic and clinical factors , in Wortis J (ed): Recent Advances in Biological Psychiatry . New York, Plenum Press, 1967, vol 9, pp 35-50. 26. Reich T, Clayton P, Winokur G: Family history studies: V. The genetics of mania . Am J Psychitry 125:1358-1367, 1969. 27. Cadoret R, Winokur G, Clayton P: Family history studies: VI. Depressive disease types . Compr Psychiatry 12:148-155, 1971.Crossref 28. Gershon ES, Dunner DL, Goodwin FK: Toward a biology of affective disorders: Genetic contributions . Arch Gen Psychiatry 25:1-15, 1971.Crossref 29. Perris C: A study of bipolar (manic-depressive) and unipolar recurrent depressive psychoses . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 42( (suppl 194) ):1-187, 1966. 30. Beigel A, Murphy DL: Unipolar and bipolar affective illness: Differences in clinical characteristics accompanying depression . Arch Gen Psychiatry 24:215-220, 1971.Crossref 31. Clayton PJ, Rodin L, Winokur G: Family history studies: III. Schizoaffective disorder, clinical and genetic factors including a one- to two-year follow-up . Compr Psychiatry 9:31-49, 1968.Crossref 32. Helgason T: Epidemiology of mental disorders in Iceland . Acta Psychiatr Neurol Scand 40( (suppl 173) ):1-258, 1964. 33. Brown F: Depression and childhood bereavement . J Ment Sci 107:754-777, 1961. 34. Forrest A, Frazer R, Priest R: Environmental factors in depressive illness . Br J Psychiatry 111:243-253, 1965.Crossref 35. Hopkinson G, Freed G: Bereavement in childhood and depressive psychosis . Br J Psychiatry 112:459-463, 1966.Crossref 36. Munro A: Parental deprivation in depressive patients . Br J Psychiatry 112:443-457, 1966.Crossref 37. Munro A: Some familial and social factors in depressive illness . Br J Psychiatry 112:429-441, 1966.Crossref 38. Stabenau J: Schizophrenic and affective psychoses: Twin and family studies, in Bogoch S (ed): Proceedings of the Third International Conference: Future of the Brain Sciences. New York, Plenum Press Inc, 1969, pp 421-458.

Journal

Archives of General PsychiatryAmerican Medical Association

Published: Dec 1, 1976

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