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A study of the impact of solid cast removable dentures with silver electroplating on the condition of patients

A study of the impact of solid cast removable dentures with silver electroplating on the... Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1):30-36 DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0002 RESEARCH ARTICLE A study of the impact of solid cast removable dentures with silver electroplating on the condition of patients 1 1* 1 1 2 Andriy Nikonov , Valeriia Krynychko , Nataliia Bobrovska , Nataliia Breslavets , Olha Smirnova , Zahar Muhin 1. Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine 2. National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kharkiv, Ukraine 3. Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Surgery, Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine the effectiveness and biocompatibility of the use of solid clasp dentures with silver plating in the restoration of partial defects of the dentition. Methods: The study involved 23 patients with partial secondary adontia after oral reha- bilitation. At the first stage, before the start of treatment and after a month of using a clasp prosthesis, patients underwent studies of blood biochemical parameters, Schiller-Pisarev’s test and Papillary-marginal-alveolar index. At the second stage of the research, silver electroplating was applied to the metal parts of the clasp prosthesis and after a month of use, its effect on oral hygiene and blood biochemical parameters was assessed. Results: After installation of the removable prosthesis with solid structures, the PMA index after the use of silver-plated clasp prosthesis decreased to medium severity, which is explained by positive impact on the inflammatory process in the gums. We can see the stability of biochemical parameters of blood in patients with solid removable prostheses can serve as a justification for the administration of silver electroplating for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the use of silver plating in the treatment of partial defects of the dentition eliminates the clinical manifestations of the pathological condition and prevents possible complications in the oral cavity.  Keywords: treatment of partial dentition defects, clasp dentures, silver electroplating Received 19 September 2022 / Accepted 8 January 2023 Introduction tibacterial component; silver ions prevent reproduction of The trends in the development of science and medicine in pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. Based on the results recent decades have been focused on improving the quality of bibliometric analysis, global research interest regarding of human life. Already now we can see the results in the silver in dentistry has rapidly increased in recent years [2]. increase in life expectancy and we can state the increase The first use of silver in dentistry has been documented in the number of the elderly population. Improvement in since 1840 [3]. Silver, the natural biocide, is used in overall health status, namely dental health, has resulted in medicine since the time of Hippocrates to treat burn a reduction in tooth loss, indicating an increased need for wounds because of its antibiotic and wound healing treatment of partial secondary edentulous compared to properties. In Dentistry, Silver amalgam had been in use complete edentulous. for centuries owing to its superior physical and mechanical Partial removable dentures are the most common de- properties [4]. signs of dentures. At the present level, solid clasp dentures But the present time is the time of nanotechnologies. are one of the most favorable types of removable structures The nanometric size and large contact area of nanoparticles used to repair dentition defects, due to which the loss of give silver ions new characteristics, manufacturability, and hard and soft tissues are restored, and the integrity of the possibilities. Silver nanoparticles have proved to be highly dental arch is maintained, and chewing efficiency is fully promising in applications for the development of different restored. areas of dentistry. The use of AgNPs has been investigated However, the use of clasp dentures is associated with in conservative dentistry, orthodontics, restorative complications such as: damage to abutment teeth by car- dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, implantology, and ies, inflammatory processes in the periodontium, changes prosthodontics mainly because of their antimicrobial in electrochemical potentials (galvanosis) in the oral cavity, effects and biocompatibility [5]. abnormal changes in the oral mucosa [1]. Currently, silver is used in the form of a gel, in the com- Issues of prevention of lesions of abutment teeth, adja- position of ointments, for impregnation of polymers of cent periodontal tissues and oral mucosa are quite relevant. therapeutic agents [6, 7]. For the purpose of preventing possible complications, it is Oral cavity is a gateway to the entire body and protec- advisable to use silver, which is used in medicine as an an- tion of this gateway is a major goal in dentistry. Plaque biofilm is a major cause of majority of dental diseases and although various biomaterials have been applied for their * Correspondence to: Valeriia Krynychko E-mail: liza.pysarieva@gmail.com cure, limitations pertaining to the material properties pre- Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) 31 vent achievement of desired outcomes [8, 9]. Ineffective n = 28 (12-14 years old) treatment leads to 60% of cases of loosening of intraos- n = 30 (from 15 years) seous dental implants with their subsequent rejection, es- 3 – the maximum number of points pecially if there is a deterioration in the quality of the jaw Evaluation criteria of the PMA index: bone due to osteopenia or osteoporosis, in combination – up to 25% - gingivitis is mild with atrophy of the alveolar processes of the jaws.[10] – 25-50% - gingivitis of moderate severity The aim of our study was to determine the effective - – more than 51% – gingivitis is severe ness and biocompatibility of the use of solid clasp dentures At the second stage of research, silver electroplating was with silver plating in the restoration of partial defects of applied to the metal parts of the brace prosthesis according the dentition. to the original technology developed at the Department of Technical Electrochemistry of the National Technical Methods University «Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute» [12,13,14,15]. The study involved 23 patients (9 females and 14 males, The nonparametric Friedman test was used to compare aged 52 to 72) with partial secondary adontia after oral the averages in more than two dependent groups (1, 2, 3). rehabilitation, made of solid clasp dentures with NEY sys- It shows the difference between the averages in the groups. tem staples. At the first stage, before the start of treatment The nonparametric Wilcoxon test was used to compare the and after a month of using a clasp prosthesis, patients un- averages in the two dependent groups [11]. derwent studies of blood biochemical parameters, Schiller- The principles of electrochemical surface treatment and Pisarev’s test and PMA index [11]. electroplating, modified for orthopedic dentistry, were To determine the level of the inflammatory process in taken as a basis for the silvering technique. The technology the periodontium, the Schiller-Pysarev test (glycogen test) of silver plating of dentures from cobalt-chromium alloy was performed - the method of setting the test includes (CCA) was performed as follows. Making of a solid clasp treating the gums with Schiller-Pysarev solution, which prosthesis and careful fitting in the mouth of the patient changes their color with a reaction to glycogen. were followed by sequential processing of the prosthesis by With an intact periodontium, the mucous membrane of such technological operations as: the alveolar process has a straw-yellow color. With chronic 1. Installation of the product on the suspension in the inflammation of the gums, their color changes from light galvanic bath. brown to dark brown, which is due to the activity of the 2. Electrochemical degreasing (cathodic) in a standard inflammatory process. alkaline electrolyte based on sodium carbonate, tri- Sample evaluation: sodium phosphate and liquid sodium glass. The tem - – Negative - straw-yellow color; perature of the solution was 70-90⁰C, j = 2-5 A/ – Weakly positive - light brown color; dm , processing time – 3-5 minutes – Positive - brown color; 3. Rinsing in hot running water. – Sharply positive - dark brown color; 4. Rinsing in cold running water. Quantitative expression of the Schiller-Pysarev test: 5. Anodic processing in the electrolyte, which included – 0 points - straw-yellow color; sulfuric and hydrochloric acids [12]. The temperature – 2 points - brown color of the gingival papilla; of the solution was 18-25⁰C, j = 0.5-1.0 A/dm or – 4 points - brown color of the gingival margin; ε = 0.0 ± 0.05 V, processing time – 20-40 minutes, – 8 points – brown color of the alveolar part. titanium cathodes. The papillary-marginal-alveolar (PMA) index in the 6. Rinsing in cold running water. Parma (1960) modification - the gingivitis index - allows 7. Activation, carried out immediately before coating you to assess the inflammatory process in the gums, while in a solution containing nitric and hydrofluoric acid the assessment of the condition of the gums is carried out [16]. The temperature of the solution – 18-25 ⁰C, for each tooth: processing time – 0.25-0.5 minutes – 1 point - inflammation of the gingival papilla - R 8. Rinsing in cold running water. – 2 points - inflammation of the gingival (marginal) 9. Copper plating in the electrolyte, which included edge - M copper salt (citrate or copper (II) nitrate), thiourea, – 3 points - inflammation of the entire mucous mem - citric acid and sodium selenium [17, 18]. Tempera- brane of the alveolar process -A ture – 18-50⁰C, j = 0.3-1.0 A/dm , processing time The formula for calculating the RMA index: – 15 minutes, anodes – copper. 10. Catching in cold stagnant water. 11. Rinsing in cold running water. 12. Silvering in the electrolyte, the main components of which were silver salt (citrate or silver nitrate (I)), where thiourea, citric acid and sodium selenium [12]. Tem- n = 24 (6-11 years old) perature – 18-35⁰C, j = 0.5-1.0 A/dm , processing k 32 Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) time – 40 minutes, anodes – silver. the equivalent interaction of molecular iodine with the SH 13. Catching in cold stagnant water. group and reduced in the SH group disulfides of proteins 14. Rinsing in cold running water. and low molecular weight compounds. 15. Drying and dismantling of products. After applying the silver coating, its effect on the state Results of oral hygiene and biochemical blood parameters was ob- At the beginning of prosthesis installation, after preparato- served. ry activities, the index of the Schiller-Pisarev’s test in dental To compare the averages in more than two dependent patients was 1.8 ± 0.02 points. After installation of pros- groups (1,2,3), the Friedman ANOVA test (Friedman) test thesis with solid removable structures, this figure was 2.71 was used, which is a non-parametric analog of univariate ± 0.03 points throughout the observation period, indicat- analysis of variance with repeated measurements. The ing a deterioration in the condition of the oral mucosa. significance of the Friedman test at the level of less than At the second stage of the research, there was no signifi - 0.05 means that in the comparison groups there is at least cant difference between the indicators before prosthetics one significant (p<0.05) difference between the average and after the use of a silver-plated brace prosthesis, which values of the indicator in the groups. The Wilcoxon test proves the normalization of the hygienic condition in the was used to compare average indicators in two dependent oral cavity (p23<0.0000). The deterioration of the oral hy - groups, which is a non-parametric alternative to the t-test giene condition of our patients coincides with the studies for comparing averages in two dependent samples. The of other authors [25], who also noted a high prevalence of Wilcoxon test is based on the ranking of the values of the indicator under consideration. And the calculation of the sum of the ranks of the values of the second sample in the general variation series of the two samples [16]. The advantages of the proposed technology include: good quality and reliability of dentures; high biocompat- ibility, active antimicrobial action of silver; the use of mod- ern electrolytes of copper and silver, which are non-toxic because they do not contain cyanides, which can signifi - cantly improve the working conditions of employees and reduce the negative effects of wastewater generated during processing [19]. Biochemical blood tests were performed to determine the biocompatibility of clasp dentures with patients. As- partate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotrans- ferase (ALT) in serum were determined to characterize the hepatobiliary system. Studies of bilirubin content were performed according to generally accepted clinical meth- ods [19, 20]. The state of tissue hypoxia and liver dysfunction are characterized by indicators of ceruloplasmin (CP) and transferrin (TF), which were studied by methods [21,22]. The content of the final product of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) lipid peroxidation (LPO) was determined by the method based on the reaction with thiobarbituric acid [23]. The content of sulfhydryl SH-groups of whole blood Fig. 1. Box Plots of Schiller-Pisarev’s test. was determined by V.F. Folomeev’s method [24] based on Table I. Periodontal indices Before prosthesis After using an uncoated After using a clasp prosthesis with n =23 clasp prosthesis n =23 silver electroplating n =23 Clinical tests Wilcoxon’s criterion (Z; p) 1 2 3 1 2 3 Schiller-Pisarev’s test, points 1.8±0.02 2.71±0.03 1.9±0.06 Z =4.106 p <0.000 Z =2.023 p = 0.043 Z =3.98 p <0.0000 PMA index,% 24 63 47 Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) 33 Table II. Biochemical blood parameters in patients with partial defects of dentitions at treatment by clasp prostheses Patients with clasp prostheses Patients before pros- Patients after 1 month of Patients after 1 month of using thesis installation using an uncoated clasp a clasp prosthesis with silver Wilcoxon’s criterion Indices n =23 1 prosthesis electroplating (Z; p) n =23 n =23 2 3 1 2 3 Z =4.197 Z =3.92 AST, mmol / (l · h) 0.39±0.008 0.63±0.014 0.56±0.023 p <0.000 12.13 Z =2.01 p = 0.045 Z =4.197 12.23 p <0.000 12.23 ALT, mmol / (l · h) 0.51 ±0.006 0.76±0.016 0.46 ±0.016 Z =2.01 p = 0.045 Z =3.88 p <0.000 Total bilirubin, Z =2.43 19.07 ±0.015 18.81 ±0.04 18.95 ±0.07 μmol / l p = 0.015 Z =0.547 p = 0.584 Direct bilirubin, μmol / l 6.94 ±0.008 6.8 ±0.04 6.77±0.07 - Z =4.106 p <0.000 Z =0.076 Indirect bilirubin. μmol / l 12.13±0.013 11.83 ±0.032 12.13±0.07 p = 0.939 Z =2.829 p = 0.0047 Z =4.197 12.23 Ceruloplasmin (CP), units ext. 29.47 ±0.025 32.04 ± 0.081 28.96 ±0.07 Z =4.01 p < 0.000 12.13.23 Z =3.136 p = 0.0017 Z =2.0 Transferrin (TF), rel.units 0.19 ±0.004 0.17±0.002 0.17 ± 0.003 p = 0.046 Z =1.269 p = 0.204 Z =4.197 12.13.23 CP/TF 155.11 ±0.045 188.89 ±1.10 162.8 ±0.66 p < 0.000 12.13.23 Malone dialdehyde (MDA), mmol / l 74.61±0.023 73.51 ±0.042 72.95±0.5 - Sulfhydryl groups (-CH-), mmol / l 1.47 ± 0.013 1.43±0.023 1.49±0.016 - periodontal diseases and caries in teeth supporting remov- tia at the stages of application of clasp prostheses before able prostheses. prosthesis installation (n ), after a month of use of clasp Table 1 shows findings of clinical Schiller-Pisarev’s test prosthesis without silvering (n ) and after a month of use and the PMA index. of clasp prosthesis with silver plating (n ), and indices data Papillary-marginal-alveolar index (PMA) showed the (average sample and error of averages). following indicators: Patients who used cobalt-chromium alloy clasps without – 24% before prosthesis installation silver electroplating after one month of use, were found to – 63% after installation of prosthesis with solid cast re- have an initial increase in AST 1.6 times compared to pre- movable structures vious studies. This may indicate a violation of metabolic – 47% after application of silver electroplating processes in the liver associated with a stressful situation The results of the PMA index showed a mild degree of after installation of a removable structure or due to changes gingivitis before prosthesis installation. After installation associated with metallo toxic effects [ 27]. of prosthesis with solid removable structures, the PMA in- A 1.5-fold increase in ALT, which correlated with an dex increased significantly due to difficulties in oral care increase in AST, may also indicate a toxic impact on liver, due to the presence of a clasp prosthesis as a foreign body, heart and skeletal muscle cells, and a stressful situation but after the use of silver plated clasp prosthesis, the PMA during the adaptation of the prosthesis as a foreign body index decreased to medium severity, which is explained by in the mouth. positive impact on the inflammatory process in the gums. However, a study of these indices after a month of using Our studies of the effect of silver applied by the galvanic silver-plated clasp prostheses showed a weakening of the method on the metal surface of the brace prosthesis coin- activity of the cytolytic syndrome, which was manifested cide with the data of A.V. Podopryhor. in co-authorship in the restoration of AST and ALT concentration almost [26], who proposed to use the method of chemical silvering to normal. of the inner surface of the base of a removable prosthesis. Secondary to an increase in ALT and AST concentra- Table 2 shows the results of the study of biochemical tions, the indices of total, direct and indirect bilirubin did blood parameters in patients with partial secondary adon- not change significantly. 34 Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) Fig. 2. Box Plots of AST and ALT. Transferrin, a blood plasma protein which transports metabolism of copper and iron, but also activates the oxi- iron ions, is one of the indicators of the liver state. In our dation of norepinephrine, serotonin and sulfhydryl groups. studies, TF levels were within normal limits, which reflect - In our opinion, an increase in CP after a month of using ed the good condition of hepatocytes. clasp dentures indicates a stressful increase in ceruloplas- After a month of using clasp prostheses, we observed min levels in the blood. a significant increase in ceruloplasmin and its reduction The stress etiology of the increase in CP, ALT and AST after a month of using clasp prosthesis with silver electro- is evidenced by LPO markers, namely MDA, the increase plating. of which indicates an increase in the activity of lipoperoxi- Ceruloplasmin has a pronounced oxidative activity, in dation processes. MDA appears at the stage of free radical plasma this protein not only plays a significant role in the formation and its excess may indicate the accumulation of Fig. 3. Box Plots of Transferrin and Ceruloplasmin. Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) 35 Fig. 4. Box Plots of Malone dialdehyde and Sulfhydryl groups (-CH-). peroxides and hydroperoxides in the body, which damages Discussion the cells of the body. Discussing the results obtained by us of clinical and labo- Assessment of the obtained data of MDA levels in pa- ratory indicators of the state of the body: serum activity tients with clasp prostheses with and without silver electro- of ALT and AST (markers of damage to the hepatobiliary plating showed no damaging effect on the cells of the body. system), as well as POL markers, we note that most authors Free radical oxidation and generation of reactive oxy- agree that silver does not have a toxic effect on the human gen species (ROS) are processes inherent in all living or- body [29]. ganisms. Excessive activation of free radical oxidation is The conducted studies confirm the anti-inflammatory a pathological process that occurs with various damaging and antioxidant properties of drugs with silver elements effects on the patient’s body, namely the toxic effects of [30]. structural materials. It can be assumed that the use of clasp prostheses with The content of SH-groups plays an important role in the silver electroplating does not change the resistance of cell antioxidant status of the organism. Cells spend consider- membranes, due to stable indices of the intensity of the able energetic efforts to prevent non-specific thiol oxidation LPO processes and the stability of the antioxidant defense reactions while allowing the controlled formation of pro- system. tein disulfide bonds or other oxidative thiol modifications that play physiologically relevant roles [28]. The catalytic Conclusions properties of many factors are related to free SH- groups. The dynamics of Schiller-Pisarev’s test and the PMA index Sulfhydryl groups are also the active principle of coenzyme provide a possibility to draw a conclusion on the effective - A, which is involved in intermediate metabolism. ness of the silver plating. The use of silver electroplating In our studies, the level of SH group in the blood serum reduces the degree, length and severity of periodontitis. did not change compared to their level at the beginning of The revealed stability of biochemical parameters of blood the use of clasp prostheses in groups of patients with and in patients with solid removable prosthetic structures can without silver plating, which indicated the stability of the serve as a justification for the administration of silver elec - antioxidant system and no toxic load on patients. troplating for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Non-parametric Friedman test showed no significant The effectiveness of the use of silver plating in the treat - difference between the indices, namely direct bilirubin, ment of partial defects of the dentition eliminates the clini- malonic dialdehyde and sulfhydryl groups. cal manifestations of the pathological condition and pre- 36 Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) electrolytes as an alternative to cyanide electrolytes in solving the vents possible complications in the oral cavity. The effect problems of environmental protection and prevention of emergency of silver plating based on the pathogenic link of oxidative situations. Materials Science Forum. 2021; 1038: 185–192. and antioxidant systems on the body on the background of 13. Copper electrolyte / Smirnova O. [et al.]. // Patent of Ukraine No. 121564, IPC C25D 3/38, 2017. the use of dentures with CCA with functional silver plat- 14. Smirnova OL - Peculiarities of electrolytic deposition of silver coatings ing prevents the development of tissue hypoxia, metabolic from acidic thiourea-citrate solutions. Smirnova OL, Pylypenko OI, Brovin OU [et al.] Prospective materials and processes in applied acidosis and promotes transcapillary metabolism. electrochemistry - 2020: monograph. Edited by Barsukova VZ - Kyiv: KNUTD, 2020. - C. 80–90. Author contributions 15. Patent of Ukraine No. 70525A 16. Kobzar’ AI - Prikladnaya matematicheskaya statistika. Moscow: AN: (Supervision; Conceptualisation; Investigation) OS: Fizmatlit, 2006; 816. (In Russ.) (Writing – original draft; Methodology; Formal Analysis) 17. Smirnova O, Pilipenko A, Pancheva H, Zhelavskyi A, Rutkovska K. - NB: (Writing – review & editing; Investigation; Funding Study of anode processes during development of the new complex thiocarbamidecitrate copper plating electrolyte. Eastern-European acquisition) NB: (Data curation; Formal Analysis; Re- Journal of Enterprise Technologies. 2018; 1(6 (91): 47–52. https://doi. sources) VK: (Methodology, Conceptualisation; Project org/10.15587/1729-4061.2018.123852 18. Smirnova O, Brovin A, Pilipenko A - Studying the kinetics of electrode administration) ZM: (Validation; Visualization; Software) reactions on copper, silver and gold in acid thiourea-citrate electrolytes. Materials Today: Proceedings. 2019; 6: 141-149. Conflict of interest 19. Nikonov A, Breslavets N, Krychka N, Serhiienko M - Methods of the individual selection of dental structural metal alloys for the treatment None to declare. of patients with teeth and dentition defects. International journal of scientific & technology research 2020; 9(01): 566-569. 20. Nikonov A, Zaytseva O, Serhiienko M, Krychka N, Breslavets N. References Dynamics of the content of free amino acids in blood of patients during 1. 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ISBN 9780128228197. available at: https://doi. biophysical studies of oral fluid in patients with dentition defects and org/10.1016/B978-0-12-822819-7.00023-5.9 when using partial removable lamellar prostheses in different periods of 6. Durán N, Marcato PD, Conti RD - Potential use of silver nanoparticles on observation. Ternopil Dental Summit: scientific and practical materials. pathogenic bacteria, their toxicity and possible mechanisms of action. J. conf. with international participation. Ternopil, December 23-24, 2019. Braz. Chem. Soc 2012; Vol. 21(6):949-959. Ternopil, 2019, pp. 109-111. 26. Podopryhora AV - Analysis of the properties of basic plastics with the 7. Morozova NS, Protas SV, Ridnyiy SV - Problemnyie voprosyi addition of nanosilver. System analysis and management in biomedical ispolzovaniya nanochastits serebra v meditsine. Problemi bezperervnoyi systems, 2011. Vol. 10., No. 1, p. 112-113. medichnoyi osviti ta nauki. 2020; 2(38): 66-70. 27. 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Krynychko VV, Rosiiskii PV, Lysenko VV - Some recommendations for of liposaccharide and nanoparticles of gold and silver. Levitskyi AP, improvement of dental training for dental implantation for the prevention Trokhymchuk AK, Tkach OB - Bulletin of marine medicine.-2013.- of post-operative complications. PhOL - PharmacologyOnLine 2021; No.3.-P.60-64. Vol.3 December. Pages 1454-1457. ISSN: 1827-8620. 11. Kutsevlyak VF - Indeksna otsinka parodontalnogo statusu. Sumi: VVP 30. Kosutic D, Uglesic V, Perkovic D et al. Preoperative antiseptics in clean/ “Mriya”. 2015; 104. (In Ukr.) contaminated maxillofacial and oral surgery:prospective randomized study. Int.J. Oral Maxillofac. Surg.,2009-38(2):160-165 12. Smirnova O., Nikonov A., Pilipenko A - Thiocarbamide-citrate http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica de Gruyter

A study of the impact of solid cast removable dentures with silver electroplating on the condition of patients

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Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1):30-36 DOI: 10.2478/amma-2023-0002 RESEARCH ARTICLE A study of the impact of solid cast removable dentures with silver electroplating on the condition of patients 1 1* 1 1 2 Andriy Nikonov , Valeriia Krynychko , Nataliia Bobrovska , Nataliia Breslavets , Olha Smirnova , Zahar Muhin 1. Department of Dentistry, Faculty of Medicine, V. N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, Kharkiv, Ukraine 2. National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”, Kharkiv, Ukraine 3. Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of Surgery, Kharkiv Medical Academy of Postgraduate Education, Kharkiv, Ukraine Objectives: The aim of our study was to determine the effectiveness and biocompatibility of the use of solid clasp dentures with silver plating in the restoration of partial defects of the dentition. Methods: The study involved 23 patients with partial secondary adontia after oral reha- bilitation. At the first stage, before the start of treatment and after a month of using a clasp prosthesis, patients underwent studies of blood biochemical parameters, Schiller-Pisarev’s test and Papillary-marginal-alveolar index. At the second stage of the research, silver electroplating was applied to the metal parts of the clasp prosthesis and after a month of use, its effect on oral hygiene and blood biochemical parameters was assessed. Results: After installation of the removable prosthesis with solid structures, the PMA index after the use of silver-plated clasp prosthesis decreased to medium severity, which is explained by positive impact on the inflammatory process in the gums. We can see the stability of biochemical parameters of blood in patients with solid removable prostheses can serve as a justification for the administration of silver electroplating for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Conclusions: The effectiveness of the use of silver plating in the treatment of partial defects of the dentition eliminates the clinical manifestations of the pathological condition and prevents possible complications in the oral cavity.  Keywords: treatment of partial dentition defects, clasp dentures, silver electroplating Received 19 September 2022 / Accepted 8 January 2023 Introduction tibacterial component; silver ions prevent reproduction of The trends in the development of science and medicine in pathogenic bacteria, viruses and fungi. Based on the results recent decades have been focused on improving the quality of bibliometric analysis, global research interest regarding of human life. Already now we can see the results in the silver in dentistry has rapidly increased in recent years [2]. increase in life expectancy and we can state the increase The first use of silver in dentistry has been documented in the number of the elderly population. Improvement in since 1840 [3]. Silver, the natural biocide, is used in overall health status, namely dental health, has resulted in medicine since the time of Hippocrates to treat burn a reduction in tooth loss, indicating an increased need for wounds because of its antibiotic and wound healing treatment of partial secondary edentulous compared to properties. In Dentistry, Silver amalgam had been in use complete edentulous. for centuries owing to its superior physical and mechanical Partial removable dentures are the most common de- properties [4]. signs of dentures. At the present level, solid clasp dentures But the present time is the time of nanotechnologies. are one of the most favorable types of removable structures The nanometric size and large contact area of nanoparticles used to repair dentition defects, due to which the loss of give silver ions new characteristics, manufacturability, and hard and soft tissues are restored, and the integrity of the possibilities. Silver nanoparticles have proved to be highly dental arch is maintained, and chewing efficiency is fully promising in applications for the development of different restored. areas of dentistry. The use of AgNPs has been investigated However, the use of clasp dentures is associated with in conservative dentistry, orthodontics, restorative complications such as: damage to abutment teeth by car- dentistry, endodontics, periodontics, implantology, and ies, inflammatory processes in the periodontium, changes prosthodontics mainly because of their antimicrobial in electrochemical potentials (galvanosis) in the oral cavity, effects and biocompatibility [5]. abnormal changes in the oral mucosa [1]. Currently, silver is used in the form of a gel, in the com- Issues of prevention of lesions of abutment teeth, adja- position of ointments, for impregnation of polymers of cent periodontal tissues and oral mucosa are quite relevant. therapeutic agents [6, 7]. For the purpose of preventing possible complications, it is Oral cavity is a gateway to the entire body and protec- advisable to use silver, which is used in medicine as an an- tion of this gateway is a major goal in dentistry. Plaque biofilm is a major cause of majority of dental diseases and although various biomaterials have been applied for their * Correspondence to: Valeriia Krynychko E-mail: liza.pysarieva@gmail.com cure, limitations pertaining to the material properties pre- Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) 31 vent achievement of desired outcomes [8, 9]. Ineffective n = 28 (12-14 years old) treatment leads to 60% of cases of loosening of intraos- n = 30 (from 15 years) seous dental implants with their subsequent rejection, es- 3 – the maximum number of points pecially if there is a deterioration in the quality of the jaw Evaluation criteria of the PMA index: bone due to osteopenia or osteoporosis, in combination – up to 25% - gingivitis is mild with atrophy of the alveolar processes of the jaws.[10] – 25-50% - gingivitis of moderate severity The aim of our study was to determine the effective - – more than 51% – gingivitis is severe ness and biocompatibility of the use of solid clasp dentures At the second stage of research, silver electroplating was with silver plating in the restoration of partial defects of applied to the metal parts of the brace prosthesis according the dentition. to the original technology developed at the Department of Technical Electrochemistry of the National Technical Methods University «Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute» [12,13,14,15]. The study involved 23 patients (9 females and 14 males, The nonparametric Friedman test was used to compare aged 52 to 72) with partial secondary adontia after oral the averages in more than two dependent groups (1, 2, 3). rehabilitation, made of solid clasp dentures with NEY sys- It shows the difference between the averages in the groups. tem staples. At the first stage, before the start of treatment The nonparametric Wilcoxon test was used to compare the and after a month of using a clasp prosthesis, patients un- averages in the two dependent groups [11]. derwent studies of blood biochemical parameters, Schiller- The principles of electrochemical surface treatment and Pisarev’s test and PMA index [11]. electroplating, modified for orthopedic dentistry, were To determine the level of the inflammatory process in taken as a basis for the silvering technique. The technology the periodontium, the Schiller-Pysarev test (glycogen test) of silver plating of dentures from cobalt-chromium alloy was performed - the method of setting the test includes (CCA) was performed as follows. Making of a solid clasp treating the gums with Schiller-Pysarev solution, which prosthesis and careful fitting in the mouth of the patient changes their color with a reaction to glycogen. were followed by sequential processing of the prosthesis by With an intact periodontium, the mucous membrane of such technological operations as: the alveolar process has a straw-yellow color. With chronic 1. Installation of the product on the suspension in the inflammation of the gums, their color changes from light galvanic bath. brown to dark brown, which is due to the activity of the 2. Electrochemical degreasing (cathodic) in a standard inflammatory process. alkaline electrolyte based on sodium carbonate, tri- Sample evaluation: sodium phosphate and liquid sodium glass. The tem - – Negative - straw-yellow color; perature of the solution was 70-90⁰C, j = 2-5 A/ – Weakly positive - light brown color; dm , processing time – 3-5 minutes – Positive - brown color; 3. Rinsing in hot running water. – Sharply positive - dark brown color; 4. Rinsing in cold running water. Quantitative expression of the Schiller-Pysarev test: 5. Anodic processing in the electrolyte, which included – 0 points - straw-yellow color; sulfuric and hydrochloric acids [12]. The temperature – 2 points - brown color of the gingival papilla; of the solution was 18-25⁰C, j = 0.5-1.0 A/dm or – 4 points - brown color of the gingival margin; ε = 0.0 ± 0.05 V, processing time – 20-40 minutes, – 8 points – brown color of the alveolar part. titanium cathodes. The papillary-marginal-alveolar (PMA) index in the 6. Rinsing in cold running water. Parma (1960) modification - the gingivitis index - allows 7. Activation, carried out immediately before coating you to assess the inflammatory process in the gums, while in a solution containing nitric and hydrofluoric acid the assessment of the condition of the gums is carried out [16]. The temperature of the solution – 18-25 ⁰C, for each tooth: processing time – 0.25-0.5 minutes – 1 point - inflammation of the gingival papilla - R 8. Rinsing in cold running water. – 2 points - inflammation of the gingival (marginal) 9. Copper plating in the electrolyte, which included edge - M copper salt (citrate or copper (II) nitrate), thiourea, – 3 points - inflammation of the entire mucous mem - citric acid and sodium selenium [17, 18]. Tempera- brane of the alveolar process -A ture – 18-50⁰C, j = 0.3-1.0 A/dm , processing time The formula for calculating the RMA index: – 15 minutes, anodes – copper. 10. Catching in cold stagnant water. 11. Rinsing in cold running water. 12. Silvering in the electrolyte, the main components of which were silver salt (citrate or silver nitrate (I)), where thiourea, citric acid and sodium selenium [12]. Tem- n = 24 (6-11 years old) perature – 18-35⁰C, j = 0.5-1.0 A/dm , processing k 32 Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) time – 40 minutes, anodes – silver. the equivalent interaction of molecular iodine with the SH 13. Catching in cold stagnant water. group and reduced in the SH group disulfides of proteins 14. Rinsing in cold running water. and low molecular weight compounds. 15. Drying and dismantling of products. After applying the silver coating, its effect on the state Results of oral hygiene and biochemical blood parameters was ob- At the beginning of prosthesis installation, after preparato- served. ry activities, the index of the Schiller-Pisarev’s test in dental To compare the averages in more than two dependent patients was 1.8 ± 0.02 points. After installation of pros- groups (1,2,3), the Friedman ANOVA test (Friedman) test thesis with solid removable structures, this figure was 2.71 was used, which is a non-parametric analog of univariate ± 0.03 points throughout the observation period, indicat- analysis of variance with repeated measurements. The ing a deterioration in the condition of the oral mucosa. significance of the Friedman test at the level of less than At the second stage of the research, there was no signifi - 0.05 means that in the comparison groups there is at least cant difference between the indicators before prosthetics one significant (p<0.05) difference between the average and after the use of a silver-plated brace prosthesis, which values of the indicator in the groups. The Wilcoxon test proves the normalization of the hygienic condition in the was used to compare average indicators in two dependent oral cavity (p23<0.0000). The deterioration of the oral hy - groups, which is a non-parametric alternative to the t-test giene condition of our patients coincides with the studies for comparing averages in two dependent samples. The of other authors [25], who also noted a high prevalence of Wilcoxon test is based on the ranking of the values of the indicator under consideration. And the calculation of the sum of the ranks of the values of the second sample in the general variation series of the two samples [16]. The advantages of the proposed technology include: good quality and reliability of dentures; high biocompat- ibility, active antimicrobial action of silver; the use of mod- ern electrolytes of copper and silver, which are non-toxic because they do not contain cyanides, which can signifi - cantly improve the working conditions of employees and reduce the negative effects of wastewater generated during processing [19]. Biochemical blood tests were performed to determine the biocompatibility of clasp dentures with patients. As- partate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotrans- ferase (ALT) in serum were determined to characterize the hepatobiliary system. Studies of bilirubin content were performed according to generally accepted clinical meth- ods [19, 20]. The state of tissue hypoxia and liver dysfunction are characterized by indicators of ceruloplasmin (CP) and transferrin (TF), which were studied by methods [21,22]. The content of the final product of malonic dialdehyde (MDA) lipid peroxidation (LPO) was determined by the method based on the reaction with thiobarbituric acid [23]. The content of sulfhydryl SH-groups of whole blood Fig. 1. Box Plots of Schiller-Pisarev’s test. was determined by V.F. Folomeev’s method [24] based on Table I. Periodontal indices Before prosthesis After using an uncoated After using a clasp prosthesis with n =23 clasp prosthesis n =23 silver electroplating n =23 Clinical tests Wilcoxon’s criterion (Z; p) 1 2 3 1 2 3 Schiller-Pisarev’s test, points 1.8±0.02 2.71±0.03 1.9±0.06 Z =4.106 p <0.000 Z =2.023 p = 0.043 Z =3.98 p <0.0000 PMA index,% 24 63 47 Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) 33 Table II. Biochemical blood parameters in patients with partial defects of dentitions at treatment by clasp prostheses Patients with clasp prostheses Patients before pros- Patients after 1 month of Patients after 1 month of using thesis installation using an uncoated clasp a clasp prosthesis with silver Wilcoxon’s criterion Indices n =23 1 prosthesis electroplating (Z; p) n =23 n =23 2 3 1 2 3 Z =4.197 Z =3.92 AST, mmol / (l · h) 0.39±0.008 0.63±0.014 0.56±0.023 p <0.000 12.13 Z =2.01 p = 0.045 Z =4.197 12.23 p <0.000 12.23 ALT, mmol / (l · h) 0.51 ±0.006 0.76±0.016 0.46 ±0.016 Z =2.01 p = 0.045 Z =3.88 p <0.000 Total bilirubin, Z =2.43 19.07 ±0.015 18.81 ±0.04 18.95 ±0.07 μmol / l p = 0.015 Z =0.547 p = 0.584 Direct bilirubin, μmol / l 6.94 ±0.008 6.8 ±0.04 6.77±0.07 - Z =4.106 p <0.000 Z =0.076 Indirect bilirubin. μmol / l 12.13±0.013 11.83 ±0.032 12.13±0.07 p = 0.939 Z =2.829 p = 0.0047 Z =4.197 12.23 Ceruloplasmin (CP), units ext. 29.47 ±0.025 32.04 ± 0.081 28.96 ±0.07 Z =4.01 p < 0.000 12.13.23 Z =3.136 p = 0.0017 Z =2.0 Transferrin (TF), rel.units 0.19 ±0.004 0.17±0.002 0.17 ± 0.003 p = 0.046 Z =1.269 p = 0.204 Z =4.197 12.13.23 CP/TF 155.11 ±0.045 188.89 ±1.10 162.8 ±0.66 p < 0.000 12.13.23 Malone dialdehyde (MDA), mmol / l 74.61±0.023 73.51 ±0.042 72.95±0.5 - Sulfhydryl groups (-CH-), mmol / l 1.47 ± 0.013 1.43±0.023 1.49±0.016 - periodontal diseases and caries in teeth supporting remov- tia at the stages of application of clasp prostheses before able prostheses. prosthesis installation (n ), after a month of use of clasp Table 1 shows findings of clinical Schiller-Pisarev’s test prosthesis without silvering (n ) and after a month of use and the PMA index. of clasp prosthesis with silver plating (n ), and indices data Papillary-marginal-alveolar index (PMA) showed the (average sample and error of averages). following indicators: Patients who used cobalt-chromium alloy clasps without – 24% before prosthesis installation silver electroplating after one month of use, were found to – 63% after installation of prosthesis with solid cast re- have an initial increase in AST 1.6 times compared to pre- movable structures vious studies. This may indicate a violation of metabolic – 47% after application of silver electroplating processes in the liver associated with a stressful situation The results of the PMA index showed a mild degree of after installation of a removable structure or due to changes gingivitis before prosthesis installation. After installation associated with metallo toxic effects [ 27]. of prosthesis with solid removable structures, the PMA in- A 1.5-fold increase in ALT, which correlated with an dex increased significantly due to difficulties in oral care increase in AST, may also indicate a toxic impact on liver, due to the presence of a clasp prosthesis as a foreign body, heart and skeletal muscle cells, and a stressful situation but after the use of silver plated clasp prosthesis, the PMA during the adaptation of the prosthesis as a foreign body index decreased to medium severity, which is explained by in the mouth. positive impact on the inflammatory process in the gums. However, a study of these indices after a month of using Our studies of the effect of silver applied by the galvanic silver-plated clasp prostheses showed a weakening of the method on the metal surface of the brace prosthesis coin- activity of the cytolytic syndrome, which was manifested cide with the data of A.V. Podopryhor. in co-authorship in the restoration of AST and ALT concentration almost [26], who proposed to use the method of chemical silvering to normal. of the inner surface of the base of a removable prosthesis. Secondary to an increase in ALT and AST concentra- Table 2 shows the results of the study of biochemical tions, the indices of total, direct and indirect bilirubin did blood parameters in patients with partial secondary adon- not change significantly. 34 Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) Fig. 2. Box Plots of AST and ALT. Transferrin, a blood plasma protein which transports metabolism of copper and iron, but also activates the oxi- iron ions, is one of the indicators of the liver state. In our dation of norepinephrine, serotonin and sulfhydryl groups. studies, TF levels were within normal limits, which reflect - In our opinion, an increase in CP after a month of using ed the good condition of hepatocytes. clasp dentures indicates a stressful increase in ceruloplas- After a month of using clasp prostheses, we observed min levels in the blood. a significant increase in ceruloplasmin and its reduction The stress etiology of the increase in CP, ALT and AST after a month of using clasp prosthesis with silver electro- is evidenced by LPO markers, namely MDA, the increase plating. of which indicates an increase in the activity of lipoperoxi- Ceruloplasmin has a pronounced oxidative activity, in dation processes. MDA appears at the stage of free radical plasma this protein not only plays a significant role in the formation and its excess may indicate the accumulation of Fig. 3. Box Plots of Transferrin and Ceruloplasmin. Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) 35 Fig. 4. Box Plots of Malone dialdehyde and Sulfhydryl groups (-CH-). peroxides and hydroperoxides in the body, which damages Discussion the cells of the body. Discussing the results obtained by us of clinical and labo- Assessment of the obtained data of MDA levels in pa- ratory indicators of the state of the body: serum activity tients with clasp prostheses with and without silver electro- of ALT and AST (markers of damage to the hepatobiliary plating showed no damaging effect on the cells of the body. system), as well as POL markers, we note that most authors Free radical oxidation and generation of reactive oxy- agree that silver does not have a toxic effect on the human gen species (ROS) are processes inherent in all living or- body [29]. ganisms. Excessive activation of free radical oxidation is The conducted studies confirm the anti-inflammatory a pathological process that occurs with various damaging and antioxidant properties of drugs with silver elements effects on the patient’s body, namely the toxic effects of [30]. structural materials. It can be assumed that the use of clasp prostheses with The content of SH-groups plays an important role in the silver electroplating does not change the resistance of cell antioxidant status of the organism. Cells spend consider- membranes, due to stable indices of the intensity of the able energetic efforts to prevent non-specific thiol oxidation LPO processes and the stability of the antioxidant defense reactions while allowing the controlled formation of pro- system. tein disulfide bonds or other oxidative thiol modifications that play physiologically relevant roles [28]. The catalytic Conclusions properties of many factors are related to free SH- groups. The dynamics of Schiller-Pisarev’s test and the PMA index Sulfhydryl groups are also the active principle of coenzyme provide a possibility to draw a conclusion on the effective - A, which is involved in intermediate metabolism. ness of the silver plating. The use of silver electroplating In our studies, the level of SH group in the blood serum reduces the degree, length and severity of periodontitis. did not change compared to their level at the beginning of The revealed stability of biochemical parameters of blood the use of clasp prostheses in groups of patients with and in patients with solid removable prosthetic structures can without silver plating, which indicated the stability of the serve as a justification for the administration of silver elec - antioxidant system and no toxic load on patients. troplating for prophylactic and therapeutic purposes. Non-parametric Friedman test showed no significant The effectiveness of the use of silver plating in the treat - difference between the indices, namely direct bilirubin, ment of partial defects of the dentition eliminates the clini- malonic dialdehyde and sulfhydryl groups. cal manifestations of the pathological condition and pre- 36 Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medica 2023;69(1) electrolytes as an alternative to cyanide electrolytes in solving the vents possible complications in the oral cavity. The effect problems of environmental protection and prevention of emergency of silver plating based on the pathogenic link of oxidative situations. Materials Science Forum. 2021; 1038: 185–192. and antioxidant systems on the body on the background of 13. Copper electrolyte / Smirnova O. [et al.]. // Patent of Ukraine No. 121564, IPC C25D 3/38, 2017. the use of dentures with CCA with functional silver plat- 14. 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Journal

Acta Marisiensis - Seria Medicade Gruyter

Published: Mar 1, 2023

Keywords: treatment of partial dentition defects; clasp dentures; silver electroplating

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