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Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551 DOI: 10.1515/acph-2016-0002 Original research paper VENKATA SRIKANTH MEKA* CHEW EE LI RAVI SHESHALA School of Pharmacy International Medical University Bukit Jalil, 57000, Kuala Lumpur Malaysia The aim of this research was to formulate effervescent floating drug delivery systems of theophylline using different release retarding polymers such as ethyl cellulose, Eudragit® L100, xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide (PEO) N12K. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. Direct compression was used to formulate floating tablets and the tablets were evaluated for their physicochemical and dissolution characteristics. PEO based formulations produced better drug release properties than other formulations. Hence, it was further optimized by central composite design. Further subjects of research were the effect of formulation variables on floating lag time and the percentage of drug released at the seventh hour (D7h). The optimum quantities of PEO and sodium bicarbonate, which had the highest desirability close to 1.0, were chosen as the statistically optimized formulation. No interaction was found between theophylline and PEO by Fourier Transformation Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) studies. Keywords: theophylline, gastroretentive, floating, central composite, PEO N12K Accepted December 22, 2014 Online published January 18, 2016 An oral controlled-release drug delivery system allows less frequent dosing and increased patient compliance (1, 2). However, these drug delivery systems usually have a short gastric residence time, leading to poor bioavailability and incomplete drug absorption (3, 4). Gastroretentive drug delivery systems (GRDDS) offer an alternative approach to avoid such difficulties and might provide a better therapeutic action than other drug delivery systems (5). Prolonged gastric retention enhances bioavailability, reduces drug waste and improves the solubility of drugs that are less soluble in a high pH environment. GRDDS limit fluctuations of plasma drug concentrations (68). This feature is vital for drugs such as theophylline, which have a narrow therapeutic window. * Correspondence; e-mail: email@example.com V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. In this study, theophylline is used as a model drug for the development of GRDDS. Theophylline is a bronchodilator used in moderate to severe reversible bronchospasms and in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. It is a narrow therapeutic window drug (plasma concentration between 1020 mg L1), which requires therapeutic drug monitoring (9, 10). Theophylline is mainly metabolized in the liver and has an elimination halflife of 6 hours (11). It has a good absorption window in the upper gastrointestinal tract, making it suitable for GRDDS. Effervescent floating tablets of theophylline have been developed in order to increase drug efficacy, to minimize fluctuation of drug plasma concentration and to reduce concentration-dependent adverse effects (12, 13). In this study, an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline was prepared using release retarding polymers such as ethyl cellulose, Eudragit® L100, xanthan gum and polyethylene oxide (PEO) N12K. Sodium bicarbonate was used as a gas generating agent. Ethyl cellulose and PEO N12K are hydrophobic and hydrophilic polymers, respectively (12, 13). Eudragit® is an anionic copolymer, whereas xanthan gum is a complex exopolysaccharide produced by Xanthomonas campestris (14, 15). The selected polymers have good swelling properties (5). When in contact with gastric fluid, polymers will form a viscous matrix and retard the release of the drug from the system (16). When in contact with gastric fluid, sodium bicarbonate will liberate carbon dioxide gas (16, 17). The gas entrapped within the matrix decreases the density of the tablet below 1 g cm3, providing buoyancy to the dosage form (16, 18). While the system is floating in the gastric medium, the drug will be released slowly at a controlled rate without affecting the gastric emptying rate (7, 19). Based on previous studies, the floating lag time was significantly controlled by the quantity of sodium bicarbonate (20). The total polymer-to-polymer ratio and drug-to-polymer ratio significantly affected the drug release properties and total floating time (21). The conventional optimization process allows only a single independent variable to be altered at a time, while other parameters remain constant under a specific set of conditions during formulation development (22). This results in the requirement for a large number of runs to achieve target responses (18). A statistical approach using response surface methodology (RSM) can be employed to optimize the formulation using a suitable experimental design such as central composite design (23). RSM reduces the cost of conducting analytical studies, limits random errors and predicts accurate quantities of the polymers to achieve the target formulation (23, 24). The objective of the present study was to formulate an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using the gas generating agent sodium bicarbonate and release retarding polymers such as ethyl cellulose, Eudragit® L100, xanthan gum and PEO N12K. Other objectives included optimization of the formulation of theophylline by applying a statistical approach using a central composite design and examining the effect of formulation variables on the dependent variables. EXPERIMENTAL Materials Ethyl cellulose and PEO N12K were obtained as gift samples from Colorcon Asia Pacific Ltd, Singapore. Eudragit® L 100 was obtained as a gift sample from Jebsen & Jessen V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. Table I. Working formulae of theophylline GRFT developed conventionally Magnesium stearate (mg) 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 Sodium bicarbonate (mg) Polymers Eudragit® L 100 (mg) Ethyl cellulose (mg) Theophylline (mg) Xanthan gum (mg) Diluents B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 30 30 15 50 30 50 100 150 75 50 75 90 106 86 101 56 86 56 6 6 51 76 51 36 Chemicals, Malaysia. Sodium bicarbonate was purchased from Ajax Finechem, Malaysia. Theophylline, xanthan gum, microcrystalline cellulose, lactose, d-mannitol min. 98 %, talc and magnesium stearate were purchased from Labchem Sdn Bhd, Malaysia. Conventional formulation optimization Twelve different formulations with varying quantities of different polymers were selected for the development of gastroretentive floating tablets (GRFT) of theophylline (Table I). The tablets were subjected to physicochemical tests and in vitro studies as described below. Preparation of effervescent floating tablets of theophylline All the ingredients were passed through a 500 m sieve. Theophylline was homogenously mixed in geometrical ratio with the release retarding polymer, followed by sodium bicarbonate, diluent, talc and magnesium stearate. 1 % of talc and magnesium stearate were used in all the formulations. Total tablet mass (mg) Microcrystalline cellulose (mg) Formulation d-Mannitol (mg) PEO N12K (mg) Lactose (mg) Talc (mg) V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. The final blend was directly compressed into tablets with a 10-station rotary tablet punching machine (Rimek Mini Press-I) at a hardness of 34 kg cm2. Round flat punches of 8.0 mm die size were used. Fift y tablets were produced for each formulation. Evaluation of floating tablets All floating tablets were evaluated for physicochemical parameters as described below. Mass variation test. Twenty randomly chosen tablets were weighed individually. Each tablet mass was compared with the average mass to determine if it was within the acceptance limits. 200 mg ± 7.5 % is the percentage deviation allowed for a tablet weighing 200 mg (25). mass variation (%) = average mass mass of individual tablet × 100 average mass Hardness test. The hardness of ten randomly chosen tablets was measured using a Monsanto hardness tester (T-MMT-20, Tab machines, India). The fracture load (kg cm2) of ten tablets was determined individually to check tablet hardness, also represented as tensile strength. The mean values of fracture loads were used to calculate the hardness values. Thickness test. Twenty tablets were subjected to thickness testing using Mitutoyo vernier calipers (Model: 530-312, Japan). A thickness deviation within ± 5 % was allowed. Friability test. The friability test was performed using a Friabilator (Electrolab, Model: EF-2, India). Twenty pre-weighed tablets were placed in the rotating drum, which was subjected to 100 revolutions. The tablets were reweighed after rotations. The percentage mass loss should not be more than 1 % of total weight (26). Content uniformity. Ten randomly chosen tablets were powdered in a glass mortar and 50 mg of powder was transferred into a 100 mL volumetric flask. The powder was dissolved in 30 mL of methanol and made up to 100 mL with 0.1 mol L1 HCl. The solution was filtered and 3 mL of filtrate was extracted and made up to 100 mL with 0.1 mol L1 HCl. The concentration of theophylline was determined with a validated UV spectrophotometer (LAMBDA 25, Perkin Elmer) at 270 nm. In vitro buoyancy studies All the formulated tablets (n = 6) were subjected to in vitro buoyancy studies. The floating lag time was determined in a 1 L glass beaker containing 900 mL 0.1 mol L1 HCl. The time required for the tablet to float was determined as the floating lag time. A floating lag time of less than 1 minute is desirable. In vitro dissolution studies In vitro release of theophylline (n = 6) was studied using an Electrolab TDT-08L dissolution tester (USP) employing a paddle stirrer. 900 mL of 0.1 mol L1 HCl solution was V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. maintained at 37 ± 0.5 °C at a paddle speed of 100 rpm. 5-mL aliquots were withdrawn at specific time intervals using a syringe fitted with a 0.45 m pre-filter and were immediately replaced with 5 mL of fresh dissolution medium. Each aliquot was filtered and diluted when necessary. The samples were analyzed using a UV spectrophotometer at 270 nm. The in vitro dissolution studies were triplicated for all batches (18). Formulation optimization using experimental design A central composite design was employed using the Design-Expert (7.1.6) software. The design contained two factors evaluated at two levels. The levels of two independent variables are shown below. Nine different formulations were generated by the software based on the conventionally optimized formulation (Table III). Tablets were prepared and characterized in the same manner as conventionally developed tablets. The formulation variables evaluated included: Range and levels Variables 1 PEO WSR N12K (mg) X1 Sodium bicarbonate ratio X2 (%, m/m) 70 5 0 90 10 +1 110 15 X1 = A = Amount of PEO N12K (mg) X2 = B = Percentage of sodium bicarbonate (%) The response variables included: Y1 = Floating lag time (s) Y2 = D7h (percentage of drug released at 7th h) (%) Statistical analysis and optimization Polynomial models including linear, interaction and quadratic terms were generated for all the response variables using the Design-Expert software. The best fitting model was selected by comparing the coefficient of variation (CV), adjusted coefficient of determination (adjusted R 2), the coefficient of determination (R 2) and the predicted residual sum of squares (PRESS) provided by the software. Regression coefficients test, F and P values were calculated by the software. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed the effect of factors on the responses. Release kinetics The dissolution profiles of all statistically formulated batches were fitted to the zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas. The order and mechanism of drug release from the matrix system were determined based on high regression (R 2) values (19). V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. The data were evaluated based on the following equations: Zero order release kinetics: Qt = Q 0 + k0 t First order release kinetics: log M = log M0 k1 t/2.303 Higuchi model: Q = k H t1/2 Hixson-Crowell cube root model (erosion): W01/3 Wt1/3 = K HC t Korsmeyer-Peppas model: Mt/M = kp tn where, Qt is the amount of drug dissolved in time t, Q 0 is the initial amount of drug in the solution, M0 is the initial concentration of drug in the dosage form, M is the remaining amount of drug in the dosage form, W0 is the initial amount of drug in the pharmaceutical dosage form, Wt is the remaining amount of drug in the pharmaceutical dosage form at time t, Mt is the amount of drug released at time t, M is the amount released at time and n is the diffusion exponent. The n value is obtained as a slope by plotting the log percentage drug released against the log time for different batches (12). K0, k1, k H, k HC and kp refer to the kinetic constants obtained from the linear curves of the zero order, first order, Higuchi, Hixson-Crowell and Korsmeyer-Peppas, respectively. Validation of the experimental design To validate the chosen experimental design, the experimental values of formulation responses were quantitatively compared with those of predicted values generated by the software. The percentage relative error was calculated by the following equation: Relative error (%) = predicted value observed value × 100 predicted value In vitro buoyancy and dissolution studies of the statistically optimized formulation were performed for verification of the theoretical prediction (24). Drug-excipient interaction studies Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). DSC analysis of the drug, polymer and the statistically optimized formulation (F0) were done using a differential scanning calorimeter (Mettler Toledo DSC 823e). 310 mg of the sample was heated under nitrogen atmospheres from 0 to 280 °C at a heating rate of 10 °C/min. Fourier transformation infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The possibility of drug-polymer interaction was further investigated by FTIR using the potassium bromide pellet method. About 23 mg of the sample was ground with 200 mg of potassium bromide and compressed under high pressure to form a transparent disc. The disc was scanned by an IR spectrophotometer (Shimadzu, FTIR-8400S) in the region between 4000650 cm1. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The results of physicochemical characterization of twelve formulations developed by the conventional approach are shown in Table II. Variations of tablet thickness with the V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. Table II. Physicochemical properties and observed responses of the theophylline GRFT developed conventionally Observed responses Friability (%) Formulation Percentage drug released at 7th h, D7h (%) 68 ± 0.05 63 ± 1.73 64 ± 1.34 870.08 100 ± 0.98 (at 4th hour) 100 ± 1.22 (at 4th hour) 90 ± 1.01 100 ± 0.69 (at 6th hour) 84 ± 0.40 85 ± 2.48 83 ± 0.12 90 ± 1.31 S8 50.00 90.00 34.14 21.86 2.00 2.00 200 S9 50.00 90.00 20.00 36.00 2.00 2.00 200 41 Mass (mg) Thickness (mm) Hardness (kg cm2) Floating lag time (min) Does not float 37 40 180 2 3 3 20 2 2 0.05 0.05 S6 50.00 118.28 20.00 7.72 2.00 2.00 200 S7 50.00 90.00 5.86 50.14 2.00 2.00 200 B1 B2 B3 B4 B5 B6 B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 198 ± 1.50 205 ± 1.40 200 ± 1.44 201 ± 0.83 202 ± 1.60 204 ± 1.35 199 ± 1.14 196 ± 1.21 202 ± 1.10 200 ± 1.20 207 ± 0.97 203 ± 1.36 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 34 Table III. Working formulae of the theophylline GRFT developed using experimental design Ingredients (mg) Theophylline PEO N12K Sodium bicarbonate d-Mannitol Talc Magnesium stearate Total tablet mass S1 50.00 70.00 10.00 66.00 2.00 2.00 200 S2 50.00 110.00 10.00 26.00 2.00 2.00 200 S3 50.00 70.00 30.00 46.00 2.00 2.00 200 S4 50.00 110.00 30.00 6.00 2.00 2.00 200 S5 50.00 61.72 20.00 64.28 2.00 2.00 200 same tablet mass may be due to the differences in the condition of the punches and in the speed of tablet compression (27). The floating lag time of most of the formulations was more than 1 minute, except for B11 and B12 which took 3 seconds to float (Table II). V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. The target drug release is about 8590 % at the end of 8 hours (28). From the dissolution profiles shown in Fig. 1, ethyl cellulose-based formulations (B1-B3) showed that only 6364 % of the drug was released at the end of 8 hours, which was not desirable. B1, B2 and B3 had poor matrix integrity. The tablets were completely disintegrated within 45 hours in the dissolution medium. In B4, where the quantity of sodium bicarbonate was larger than in previous batches (B1-B3), tablets took around 3 hours to float in the gastric medium and were retarded up to 8 hours. When D-mannitol was used as the diluent in B4, 90 % of the drug was released at the end of 8 hours. Hence, D-mannitol is considered as the most suitable diluent for formulating theophylline floating tablets. The dissolution profiles of B1-B4 reveal clear differentiation of the effect of diluents on the drug release pattern. The effect of the solubility of the diluent on the drug release pattern was explored. The water-insoluble diluent, microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), significantly retarded drug release (B1), with 6064 % of drug being released at the end of the eighth hour. On the other hand, lactose, a water-soluble diluent, showed rapid disintegration properties; dosage forms using lactose (B2-B3) could not control drug release for more than 4 hours. However, another water soluble diluent, mannitol, showed very good retardation properties compared to lactose and MCC. Hence, further compositions used mannitol as the diluent. Ethyl cellulose had poor buoyancy properties. The floating lag time of B1-B4 was still more than 1 minute, although the percentage of sodium bicarbonate had been increased to 40 % and different diluents were used. Fig. 1. Release profiles of theophylline from the conventionally optimized GRFT: a) B1B3, b) B4B6, c) B7B9 and d) B10B12. 42 V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. On the other hand, Eudragit® L100 based formulations (B5-B8) showed a burst release pattern. Eudragit® L100 was not compatible with theophylline, as the tablets completely disintegrated within 3-4 minutes in the dissolution medium. Consistent with the previous literature, Eudragit® L100 is a good enteric coating polymer (14). However, this polymer is not useful for theophylline floating drug delivery systems. As the higher density of Eudragit® L100 may have prevented the formulation from floating on the gastric medium, the sodium bicarbonate concentration was increased to 1030 % (m/m) to improve the buoyancy properties; however, this made the dosage form disintegrate rapidly. Therefore, a continuous floating system with prolonged release could not be achieved using Eudragit® L100 polymer (14). PEO N12K and xanthan gum based formulations showed good drug release patterns and good matrix integrity. However, the xanthan gum-based formulation had poor buoyancy. Formulations based on PEO N12K were shown to be readily swellable in the gastric fluid, thus the tablets were buoyant in less than 1 minute (12). However, formulations containing less than 50 mg xanthan gum disintegrated rapidly in the dissolution medium (12). Ethyl cellulose has the highest drug retarding ability compared to PEO N12K and xanthan gum, whereas Eudragit® L100 has the least retarding ability. Drug retarding ability is affected by the molecular weight of the polymer (18). Higher molecular weight polymers retarded the drug more efficiently than polymers with lower molecular weight (12). Based on the present results, PEO N12K appeared to be the best polymer for formulating theophylline effervescent floating tablets. Therefore, B12 was further optimized by central composite design. Table IV. Physicochemical properties and observed responses of the theophylline GRFT developed using experimental design Observed responses Percentage drug released at 7th h, D7h (%) y2 87.50 ± 0.67 74.50 ± 1.10 75.90 ± 2.12 69.10 ± 0.72 83.80 ± 0.70 81.10 ± 0.57 89.78 ± 0.77 82.24 ± 0.02 90.50 ± 1.17 43 Thickness (mm) Friability (%) Hardness (kg cm2) Amount of PEO N12K (mg) A Percentage of sodium bicarbonate (%) B Formulation S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 201 ± 1.20 209 ± 1.47 199 ± 1.36 210 ± 1.13 202 ± 1.45 201 ± 1.42 198 ± 1.63 205 ± 1.34 196 ± 1.91 3.9 ± 0.01 3.8 ± 0.04 4.1 ± 0.02 4.2 ± 0.11 3.4 ± 0.06 3.8 ± 0.04 3.5 ± 0.05 4.0 ± 0.01 4.1 ± 0.03 0.31 ± 0.01 0.24 ± 0.02 0.26 ± 0.04 0.17 ± 0.06 0.43 ± 0.07 0.40 ± 0.08 0.12 ± 0.04 0.46 ± 0.05 0.38 ± 0.01 Floating lag time (s) y1 25 45 5 7 4 17 11 3 6 Mass (mg) V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. All nine formulations satisfied the criteria of the physicochemical tests (Table IV). The floating lag time of S1-S9 was within 3 to 45 seconds. As the percentage of sodium bicarbonate increased, the floating lag time decreased. On the other hand, as the amount of PEO N12K increased, the floating lag time increased. Fig. 2. Release profiles of theophylline from the statistically optimized theophylline GRFT: a) S1S3, b) S4S6 and c) S7S9. Table V. Correlation coefficient values and release kinetics of the statistically optimized theophylline GRFT Zero order R2 0.9463 0.9908 0.9880 0.9926 0.9466 0.9935 0.9776 0.9870 0.9784 0.9987 Slope (n) 11.425 10.181 10.361 9.4671 10.344 11.153 11.861 11.139 11.821 12.455 R2 0.9558 0.9871 0.9903 0.9871 0.9975 0.9736 0.9743 0.9801 0.9706 0.7764 First order Slope(n) 0.1218 0.0893 0.0904 0.0742 0.1075 0.1099 0.1392 0.1068 0.149 0.202 Higuchi R2 0.9562 0.9608 0.9544 0.9500 0.9884 0.9493 0.9626 0.9510 0.9713 0.9217 HixsonCrowell R2 0.9636 0.9978 0.9969 0.9959 0.9927 0.9927 0.9906 0.9942 0.9952 0.9358 KorsmeyerPeppas R2 0.9918 0.9991 0.9964 0.9970 0.9602 0.9963 0.9955 0.9972 0.9858 0.9961 Slope (n) 0.8261 0.8606 0.9070 0.9611 0.6047 0.8893 0.8406 1.0303 0.7386 0.9657 Formulation S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 S6 S7 S8 S9 F0 V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. Based on the dissolution profiles, only the S7 and S9 formulations showed more than 90 % drug release by the end of 8 hours. Other formulations required more than 8 hours to achieve 100 % drug release. Drug retardation was directly proportional to the quantity of PEO N12K because of the formation of strong compactness between the particles when the concentration of polymer was higher (Table IV). All statistical formulations floated in the dissolution medium for more than 8 hours and showed good matrix integrity (Fig. 2). Most PEO N12K based formulations followed zero order kinetics associated with the erosion mechanism (Table V), which obeyed the rule of a controlled drug delivery system. S1, S3 and S5 formulations followed first order kinetics associated with the erosion mechanism. Release mechanisms changed from first order to zero order kinetics as the amount of PEO N12K exceeded 70 mg. From the polynomial model fitting statistical analysis, floating lag time and D7h were suggested to linear model. Calculated R 2 values for both the floating lag time and D7h were close to zero, which was ideal for a good model. Results are shown in Table VI. The application of response surface methodology yielded the following regression equations, which are an empirical relationship between the logarithmic values of the floating lag time and D7h.Test variables in coded units: Floating lag time = +13.67 + 5.05A 8.66B D7h = +81.60 2.95A 3.46B Contour and response plots shown in Figs. 3 and 4 allowed more understanding of the relationship of two parameters at the time of formulation responses. A numerical optimization technique using a desirability approach (bilateral) and a graphical optimization method using overlay plot (Fig. 5) were employed to generate optimized formulations with the desired characteristics. The optimized formulation was selected based on a minimal floating lag time, release of less than 20 % of the drug in the first hour, and a D7h of 90 %. The recommended quantities of independent variables were calculated using the Design-Expert software based on the plots showing the highest desirability of 1.0. The optimum values of independent variables calculated by the software for the development of a GRFT of theophylline were 88.97 mg of PEO N12K and 10.46 % of sodium bicarbonate. Fig. 3. Contour plots for the effect of: a) PEO N12K and b) sodium bicarbonate on floating lag time and D7h. 45 V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. Fig. 4. Response surface plots for the effect of: a) PEO N12K and b) sodium bicarbonate on floating lag time and D7h. Fig. 5. Overlay plot for optimization of the theophylline GRFT. F0 fulfilled all the physicochemical property tests (Table VII). In vitro buoyancy and dissolution studies of F0 were performed for verification of the theoretical prediction. In vitro studies of F0 showed an ideal result. The data from the assay indicated that the statistically optimized formulation had a drug content within the USP limits, between 97.34 and 98.76 %. Percentage relative errors for floating lag time and D7h were 0 and 0.54 % respectively, which were within 5 %, hence showing close agreement with the model predictions; we confirmed the predictability and validity of F0. Drug-excipient interactions were studied by DSC and FTIR. DSC thermograms of theophylline, PEO N12K and F0 are shown in Fig. 6. The DSC thermogram of theophylline showed a sharp endothermic peak at 273 °C that corresponded to its melting point. The V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. Table VI. Summary of ANOVA results for the response surface linear model Parameters Sum of squares dF Mean square F value p value Prob > F Remark Response 1: Floating lag time (s) (Linear model) Model A-PEO N12K B-Sodium bicarbonate Residual Cor total Model A-PEO N12K B-Sodium bicarbonate Residual Cor total 804.42 203.87 600.55 709.58 1514.00 165.38 69.73 95.66 260.20 425.58 2 1 1 6 8 Response 2: D7h (%) (Linear model) 2 1 1 6 8 82.69 69.73 95.66 43.37 1.91 1.61 2.21 0.2285 0.2518 0.1880 402.21 203.87 600.55 118.26 3.40 1.72 5.08 0.1030 0.2372 0.0651 Fig. 6. DSC thermogram of: a) theophylline, b) PEO N12K and c) F0. 47 V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. Table VII. Tableting and buoyancy characteristics of optimized formulation F0 Tableting characteristics Statistically optimized formulation F0 Mass (mg) 200 ± 0.12 Hardness Thickness Friability (mm) (%) (kg cm2) 34 4.6 0.42 Assay (%) 98.045 ± 0.79 Buoyancy characteristics Floating Percentage drug lag time released at 7th h, (s) D7h (%) 5 89.78 ± 0.87 Fig. 7. FTIR spectra of: a) theophylline, b) PEO N12K and c) F0. V. Srikanth Meka et al.: Design and statistical optimization of an effervescent floating drug delivery system of theophylline using response surface methodology, Acta Pharm. 66 (2016) 3551. DSC thermogram of PEO N12K showed an endothermic peak at 70.92 and an exothermic peak at 172 °C. Based on the F0 thermogram, the peaks observed at 272.1, 70 and 170.9 °C corresponded to the peaks of the drug and the polymer. Slight decreases in the melting points were due to the crystallinity of the drug. The absence of any major changes in the F0 DSC thermogram indicated that there was no chemical reaction between the drug and the polymer. The FTIR spectra of theophylline, PEO N12K and F0 are shown in Fig. 7. Theophylline showed characteristic peaks of C=O stretching at 1716.71668.48, N-H stretching at 3387.11 3261.74, C=N stretching at 1568.69, C=C stretching at 1820.86 and C-N stretching at 1313.57 1284.63 cm1. The FTIR spectrum of PEO N12K showed characteristic peaks of alcoholic OH stretching broadly at 3464.273437.26 and C-O stretching at 1301.991003.02 cm1. The FTIR spectrum of F0 showed all the characteristics peaks of theophylline and PEO N12K with minor shifts, which were not significant. This proved the absence of drugpolymer interactions. CONCLUSIONS The present study successfully indicated the capability of using the release retarding polymer PEO N12K to formulate effervescent tablets of theophylline that can float continuously in the gastric medium and release drug in a controlled manner for 8 hours. The study has also proved that optimization using a statistical approach can reduce the number of experiments required to determine accurately the quantities of polymer and sodium bicarbonate to produce the desired tablet characteristics, avoiding unnecessary wastage of excipients and thereby reducing the cost of the final product. DSC and FTIR studies showed no chemical interaction between theophylline and the polymer. Acknowledgements. The authors are grateful to the International Medical University (IMU) for providing research facilities and for fi nancial support to carry out this research (Project ID-BP 1-01/11(07)2014). The authors thank Prof. Brian L. Furman, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United Kingdom, for improving the manuscript in terms of English and grammar correction.
Acta Pharmaceutica – de Gruyter
Published: Mar 1, 2016
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