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The aim of this study was to determine the ecological characteristics of vascular plants colonizing serpentine mining waste dumps and quarries in Lower Silesia. The investigated flora was analyzed with regard to composition, geographical-historical status, life forms, as well as selected ecological factors, such as light and trophic preferences, soil moisture and reaction, value of resistance to increased heavy metals content in the soil, seed dispersal modes and occurrence of mycorrhiza. There were 113 of vascular plants, belonging to 28 families, found on seven sites in the study. The most numerous families were Asteraceae, Poaceae, Fabaceae and Caryophyllaceae. Only 13% of all plants recorded occurred on at least five of the study sites. The most numerous were related to dry grassland communities, particularly of the Festuco-Brometea ass, which inuded taxa endangered in the region of Lower Silesia: Avenula pratensis, Salvia pratensis, Festuca valesiaca. Apophytes dominated in the flora of the investigated communities. Hemicryptophytes were the most numerous group and therophytes were also abundant. The serpentine mining waste dumps and querries hosted heliophilous which prefer mesic or dry habitats moderately poor in nutrients, featuring neutral soil reaction. On two study sites 30% of the flora composition consisted of that tolerate an increased content of heavy metals in the soil. Anemochoric were the most numerous with regard to types of seed dispersal. with an arbuscular type of mycorrhiza were definitely dominant in the flora of all the study sites, however, the number of nonmycorrhizal was also relatively high. It was suggested that both the specific characteristics of the habitats from serpentine mining and the vegetation of adjacent areas had a major impact on the flora composition of the communities in the investigated sites. INTRODUCTION The Sudetes, the Sudetes Foothills and Foreland, due to their varied geological formation and history, are one of richer in mineral resources regions of Poland there can be found, among others, the largest occurrence of igneous rocks in our country, which have been mined for centuries. Some of the most interesting types of rock formations are the serpentines, which are present only in this region of Poland. These rocks form the southern part of the la Massif, a range of hills that extends from Gogolów in the west to Jordanów lski in the east. There are also lesser areas with serpentine rock outcrops in the Owl Mountains and in the region of Zbkowice lskie. Plant communities occurring DOROTA KASOWSKA, ANNA KOSZELNIK-LESZEK on serpentines feature distinct flora and, therefore, serpentine soils and their natural vegetation were the subject of ecological and floristic studies [7, 36, 42, 53, 58, 59]. Mining rock material has a profound impact on the surrounding environment. It creates transformational changes in the habitats and leads to the creation of waste dumps, mining pits or quarries. These areas often have high conservation potential, enabling documentation of geological facts and phenomena, or serving as a refuge for rare or protected of flora and valuable phytocenoses [24, 44, 45]. As man-transformed sites, they provide habitats for the development of synantropic vegetation, as well as become secondary habitats for the migrating from endangered natural and semi-natural communities. Dumps and pits from mining are excellent sites for studying the processes occurring in the course of spontaneous succession, connected with, for example, the establishment of with specific adaptations or the development of phytocenoses [15, 20, 21, 22, 44, 51]. As habitats for plants development, waste dumps and quarries from serpentine mining feature a combination of unfavorable properties known as the serpentine complex resulting from specific traits of serpentine weathered rocks [14, 21, 40, 52, 59, 60]. Both weathered bedrocks and serpentine soils are characterized by: plate thickness, xerism, low richness in basic nutrients along with a high concentration of magnesium, often exceeding the optimal level for plants, and high concentrations of heavy metals, mainly nickel, chromium and cobalt, as well as a high pH value [3, 8, 9, 10, 22, 26, 42, 60]. The properties of serpentine bedrocks can govern the process of spontaneous succession and reduce the pool of plant that are able to colonize them. The aim of this study was to provide the ecological characteristics of vascular flora, spontaneously colonizing in the early stages of succession, the waste dumps and quarries from serpentine mining in Lower Silesia. MATERIAL AND METHODS Study sites The investigation was conducted on seven sites associated with the mining of serpentine deposits in the area of Lower Silesia; distribution of the sites presents Fig. 1. The serpentine open-pit mine in Naslawice is located in the Gogolów-Jordanów serpentine massif, in the north-western part of the Kamienny Grzbiet Ridge, east of Sobótka. Serpentine rock is deposited there under a series of the Quaternary rocks, formed as ay, partly mixed with rock rubble and weathered rocks [5, 23]. The research was conducted at the excavation site, on the southwest and west slopes of the quarry and the adjacent serpentine waste dumping ground. Here, the spontaneously establishing vegetation develops on weathered rock and rock debris. Large angle of inination causes the fact that the slopes of the mining pit are susceptible to erosion, which hinders natural succession. The magnesite mine in Wiry is situated southwest of Sobótka. There were mined magnesite deposits, located in the western part of the Gogolów-Jordanów serpentine massif. In direct vicinity of the underground mine a serpentine-magnesite waste dump was accumulated with steep slopes and a flat, leveled top surface. The research plots were located on the slopes of east exposition and a part of the plateau covered with herbaceous vegetation. The substrate was characterized by a gravel-sandy texture. Fig. 1. Distribution of the study sites. 1, 2 Naslawice quarry and dumps; 3 Wiry dumps; 4 Szklary dumps and quarry; 6 Grochowa dumps; 7 Sobótka dump The surface mine of nickel ores in Szklary is located on an uplift of land, called Szklana Góra Mountain, north of Zbkowice lskie. Here, deposits were mined belonging to the Szklary serpentine massif. On the mined area there are numerous steep dumps, formed to accumulate mine overburden and waste rock poor in nickel ore. The investigation was carried out on the south-expose slopes of the serpentine waste dumps, characterized by a slightly accentuated process of soil formation and poor vegetation covering. A small quarry is situated near the nickel ore mine in Szklary, on the northwest side of Szklana Góra Mountain. The research plots were on the southern and western slopes of the stone pit where spontaneous vegetation colonized small ledges, weathered rock and rock rubble. The serpentine waste dump in Grochowa was accumulated as a result of the magnesite mining from deposits in the region of the Grochowa Massif. The dump covers an area of approximately 36 hectares and is situated near the magnesite mining operation. The spontaneously succeeding vegetation develops there on weathered rock and rock debris. The investigation was conducted on the dump slopes of southern exposition and on the plateau area. The serpentine waste dump in Sobótka is a small dump localized by worked out magnesite deposits, in the region of Gogolów-Jordanów serpentine massif. Weathered rock and rock rubble constitute the substrate for plants development. The research plots were situated on the slopes of southern exposition and the plateau part of the serpentine waste dump. All the study sites were characterized by a low rate of spontaneous succession and after several dozen years of overgrowing the succession represents the colonization stage with vegetation not completely covering the site area. DOROTA KASOWSKA, ANNA KOSZELNIK-LESZEK Features of flora The study was conducted during two growing seasons in 2009 and 2010. At each of the study sites fragments of ground was chosen for examination, uniform in shape and surface area as well as visible soil properties and covered with sward vegetation representing the early stages of succession. The areas of the research plots ranged from approximately 15 to 100 m2. Within each of the plot there were sampled 3 to 5 randomly selected relevés of 1 m2 area. The number of the plots at each study sites depended on its size and diversity of phytocenoses. The recorded in all the relevés were presented in a table form in alphabetical order using the same nomenature as in the list of Mirek et al. . Flora was analyzed in the view of division into geographicalhistorical groups, following the assification by Korna , on the basis of works by Zajc and Zajc , Zajc and Zajc , Zajc et al. . To each Raunkiaer's life form was assigned as well as the values of the following indicators: light, moisture, trophism, soil acidity and resistance to heavy metals according to Zarzycki et al. . were analyzed as belonging to the ecological-habitat groups and asses of plant communities based on Matuszkiewicz . According to data available in the literature, assification of was done regarding the seed dispersal types [4, 29, 38]. At each site, apart from floristic studies, investigations of the mycorrhizal status of plants were carried out and 52 plant in total were analyzed for mycorrhizal colonization. In the case of the remaining , their mycorrhizal status was determined on the basis of literature data [12, 16, 50]. For the mycorrhizal investigation, samples of roots were collected from the rhizosphere (usually from the depth 515 cm). The samples were collected from at least 5 individuals of the surveyed . The roots were prepared according to the modified Philips and Hayman method  using 0.1% trypan blue in lactoglycerol. RESULTS The list of vascular plans recorded on the serpentine mining dumps and quarries together with the ecological characteristics of the taxa are presented in Table 1. The flora colonizing the study sites amounted, in total, to 113 of vascular plants representing 28 families. The highest number of was recorded on the slopes of the Naslawice mine pit (67 ), while the floristically poorest areas were the waste dumps of the nickel mine in Szklary, which were inhabited merely by 28 . The most numerous families were Asteraceae (20%), Fabaceae (15%), Poaceae (14%) and Caryophyllaceae (8%). Only 15 (approximately 13%) of the analyzed flora were present at a total of five or more of the study sites: Arrhenatherum elatius, Calamagrostis epigejos, Festuca ovina, Koeleria macrantha, Poa compressa, Lotus corniculatus, Trifolium arvense, Achillea millefolium, Artemisia vulgaris, Scabiosa ochroleuca, Silene vulgaris, Daucus carota, Galium verum, Thymus pulegioides and Hypericum perforatum. There were also that were found at only one site. The largest number of that type of taxa with very low frequency was recorded on the slopes of the Naslawice mine pit and on the dumping site in Sobótka. In the composition of the flora, the most numerously represented were of dry grasslands communities (26%) from the Festuco-Brometea ass (Fig. 1). A large group Table 1. List of vascular flora of the study sites with their ecological characteristics No. Ap Mol-Arr Mol-Arr Mol-Arr Fest-Brom Stel med Fest-Brom Stel med Stel med Fest-Brom Mol-Arr Artemi Fest-Brom Artemi Que rob Fest-Brom Epilob Fest-Brom + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Ap Ap Ap Kn Ap Ar Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap H G, H H M H H H H T T T, H H T T H H H + + + + + + + + Disperrsal M type a(z) a(z) a(z) z a(z) a(z) a(z) a a(z) a a(z) a a(z) a(z) a a an 1 1 1 1 Achillea millefolium L. 2 Agrostis capillaris L. 3 Agrostis stolonifera L. 4 Alyssum alyssoides (L.) L. 5 Amaranthus retroflexus L. 6 Anthyllis vulneraria L. 7 Apera spica-venti (L) P.Beauv. 8 Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. 9 Arenaria serpyllifolia L. 10 Arrhenatherum elatius (L.) P.Beauv. ex. J.Presl & C. Presl 11 Artemisia vulgaris L. 12 Avenula pratensis (L.) Dumort. 13 Barbarea vulgaris R. Br. 14 Betula pendula Roth seedlings 15 Bromus erectus Huds. 16 Calamagrostis epigejos (L.) Roth 17 Camelina microcarpa subsp. sylvestris (Wallr.) Hiitonen No. Ap Mol-Arr Fest-Brom Stel med Koel-Coryn Fest-Brom Fest-Brom Fest-Brom Koel-Coryn Stel med Artemi Stel med Fest-Brom Mol-Arr Fest-Brom Artemi Fest-Brom Mol-Arr + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Ap Ar Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ar Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap T G, H H C H G, H, li G H T C H H H, T H H, T H H + Disperrsal M type a a a(an) a a a(z) a a z a(z) a(z) z(an) a(z) a z(an) au(z) a 1 1 1 1 1 18 Campanula patula L. 19 Campanula rotundifolia L. 20 Capsella bursa pastoris (L.) Medik 21 Cardaminopsis arenosa (L.) Hayek 22 Carlina vulgaris L. 23 Centaurea scabiosa L. 24 Centaurea stoebe L. 25 Cerastium arvense L. 26 Chenopodium album L. 27 Cichorium intybus L. DOROTA KASOWSKA, ANNA KOSZELNIK-LESZEK 28 Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. 29 Convolvulus arvensis L. 30 Daucus carota L. 31 Dianthus carthusianorum L. 32 Echium vulgare L. 33 Euphorbia cyparissias L. 34 Euphrasia rostkoviana Hayne 35 Fallopia convolvulus (L.) Á. Löve Stel med Koel-Coryn Fest-Brom Koel-Coryn Fest-Brom Stel med Mol-Arr Fest-Brom Nard-Cal Mol-Arr Mol-Arr Fest-Brom Koel-Coryn Fest-Brom Que rob Koel-Coryn Fest-Brom Fest-Brom Trif-Ger Mol-arr Artemi Artemi Mol-Arr Artemi + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + a a z z z au a a a a a a a a(z) a au(an) a an a(z,an) au(z) z 1 1 + a + + + + + + a 1 Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap H, T H G T H H H H H H H H H H H C H H T, H H T H H Ar T, H a(z) 36 Festuca ovina L. 37 Festuca valesiaca Schleich. ex Gaudin 38 Filago arvensis L. 39 Filipendula vulgaris Moench 40 Galium aparine L. 41 Galium mollugo L. 42 Galium verum L. 43 Genista tinctoria L. 44 Geranium pratense L. 45 Hieracium caespitosum Dumort. 46 Hieracium echioides Lumn. 47 Hieracium pilosella L. 48 Hieracium piloselloides Vill 49 Hieracium sabaudum L. 50 Holosteum umbellatum L. 51 Hypericum perforatum L. 52 Koeleria macrantha (Ledeb.) Schult. 53 Lathyrus sylvestris L. 54 Leontodon hispidus L 55 Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br. 56 Linaria vulgaris Mill. 57 Lotus corniculatus L. 58 Medicago lupulina L. No. Kn Artemi Artemi Artemi Artemi Stel med Stel med Mol-Arr Fest-Brom Mol-Arr Fest-Brom Vac-Pic Mol-Arr Fest-Brom Fest-Brom Mol-Arr Mol-Arr Stel med Koel-Coryn + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Ap Ap Ap Ar Ar Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap H T H H H H H M H H H H T T T, H T, H T, H H + + + + Disperrsal M type z a au(an) au(an) a(an) a(an) a(an) a a a(an) a(z) z z a a a z a 59 Medicago sativa L. 60 Melandrium album (Mill.) Garcke 61 Melilotus alba Medik. 62 Melilotus officinalis (L.) Pall. 63 Papaver dubium L. 64 Papaver rhoeas L. 65 Pastinaca sativa L. 66 Phleum phleoides (L.) H. Karst. 67 Phleum pratense L. 68 Pimpinella saxifraga L. 69 Pinus sylvestris L. seedlings DOROTA KASOWSKA, ANNA KOSZELNIK-LESZEK 70 Plantago lanceolata L. 71 Plantago media L. 72 Poa compressa L. 73 Poa palustris L. 74 Poa pratensis L. 75 Polygonum aviculare L. 76 Potentilla argentea L. 77 Potentilla heptaphylla L. Fest-Brom Nard-Cal Mol-Arr Artemi Rha-Prun Mol-Arr Mol-Arr Koel-Coryn Mol-Arr Fest-Brom Koel-Coryn Koel-Coryn Fest-Brom Koel-Coryn Stel med Trif-Ger Stel med Artemi Stel med Koel-Coryn Artemi Mol-Arr + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + z a(z) a(z) a(z) a a z hy(an) hy(an) a a a(z) a(z) a a(an) z a a(z) 1 1 + a a(z) + a Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Kn Ap Ap Ap Kn Ar Ap Ap Ap H H H, T H, T G, H C, H H T H, T G, H C C, H H H H H G, H, T N H H H Ap 78 Potentilla erecta L. 79 Ranunculus polyanthemos L. 80 Reseda lutea L. 81 Rosa arvensis L. 82 Rumex acetosella L. 83 Rumex crispus L. 84 Salvia pratensis L. 85 Saxifraga granulata L. 86 Scabiosa ochroleuca L. 87 Seranthus perennis L. 88 Sedum acre L. 89 Sedum maximum (L.) Hoffm. 90 Senecio vernalis Waldst.& Kit 91 Senecio viscosus L. 92 Silene nutans L. 93 Silene vulgaris (Moench) Garcke 94 Solidago canadenis L. 95 Sonchus oleraceus L. 96 Spergularia rubra (L.) J.Presl & C. Presl 97 Tanacetum vulgare L. 98 Taraxacum officinale F. H. Wigg No. Ar Stel med Fest-Brom Koel-Coryn Koel-Coryn Mol-Arr Mol-Arr Artemi Mol-Arr Stel med Mol-Arr Stel med Stel med Stel med Stel med FestBrom + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + + Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ap Ar Ar Ar Ar Ap C, H T T T T H T C H H T T T C T, H + + + + Disperrsal M type a(an) a(z) a a a(z) a(z) a a au au(z) au(z) au au z a 99 Thlaspi arvense L. 100 Thymus pulegioides L. 101 Trifolium arvense L. 102 Trifolium campestre Schreb. 103 Trifolium dubium Sibth. 104 Trifolium pratense L. 105 Verbascum thapsus L. 106 Veronica chamaedrys L. 107 Vicia angustifolia L. 108 Vicia cracca L. 109 Vicia hirsuta (L.) S.F.Gray DOROTA KASOWSKA, ANNA KOSZELNIK-LESZEK 110 Vicia sativa L. 111 Vicia tetrasperma (L.) Schreb. 112 Viola arvensis Murray 113 Viscaria vulgaris Röhl. was also formed by meadow plants from the Molinio-Arrhenatheretea ass (21%). There was a smaller share of segetal from the Stellarietea mediae ass (approximately 17%) and ruderal from the Artemisietea ass (about 14%). The share of xeric sand grassland taxa from the Koelerio-Corynephoretea ass ranged 11%. Among the representatives of the Festuco-Brometea ass there were present rarely occurring in Lower Silesia, namely: Avenula pratensis, Salvia pratensis, Festuca valesiaca. of native origin apophytes early dominated the composition of the analyzed flora, representing about 85% of all the (Fig. 2). The second most numerous group involved archeophytes, whose share ranged nearly 11% of the total flora. Kenophytes occurred scarcely (about 4%) and they were found only on the waste dumps in Wiry and Sobótka. Among life forms, according to the Raunkiaer's assification, the prevailing were hemicryptophytes, constituting 58% of the flora composition (Fig. 3). The second largest group was formed by therophytes (24%). The representing the remaining life forms proved to occur in small numbers. Fig. 2. Participation [%] of phytosociological asses in the flora of the study sites 11% 4% Ap Arch Kn 85% Fig. 3. Participation [%] of historical-geographical groups in the flora of the study sites. Ap apophytes, Ar archeophytes, Kn kenophytes DOROTA KASOWSKA, ANNA KOSZELNIK-LESZEK 11% 7% H, H - T T, T - H 24% 58% G, G - H the rest Fig. 4. Percentage of Raunkiaer's life forms in the flora of the study sites. H hemicryptophytes, T therophytes, G geophytes 2% 5, 5 - 4 38% 4, 4 - 5 60% the rest Fig. 5. Participation [%] of representing a particular value of the light indicator (L), values after Zarzycki et al. (2002) 5% 3% 4% 2 3, 3, 3 2 1, 2 28% 60% 34 24 the rest Fig. 6. Participation [%] of representing a particular value of the soil moisture indicator (W), values after Zarzycki et al. (2002) 7% 16% 3, 3 4 49% 4, 4 3 2, 2 3 the rest 28% Fig. 7. Participation [%] of representing a particular value of the trophy indicator (Tr), values after Zarzycki et al. (2002) 5% 6% 4, 4 5 14% 39% 35 3, 3 4 5, 5 4 23 17% 19% the rest Fig. 8. Participation [%] of representing a particular value of the soil acidity (pH) indicator (R), values after Zarzycki et al. (2002) 28% AM FAM ECM ND NM 58% 8% 2% 4% Fig. 9. Participation [%] of mycorrhizal and nonmycorrhizal plant in the flora of the study sites based on authors' and literature data. AM arbuscular mycorrhiza, FAM facultative arbuscular mycorrhiza, ECM ectomycorrhiza; ND not data available, NM nonmycorrhizal DOROTA KASOWSKA, ANNA KOSZELNIK-LESZEK An analysis of the habitat requirements showed that nearly all of the colonizing the study sites are either the ones requiring moderate or full light (heliophilous) (Fig. 4). In terms of soil moisture requirements the dominant were that prefer mesic habitats (60%) and the second most numerous group was formed by xerophilous plants (28%) (Fig. 5). The most common (49% of the flora composition) were of soils moderately poor in nutrients (mesotrophic) (Fig. 6). A considerably large group (28%) consisted of preferring eutrophic soils, while relatively numerous taxa were the once adapted to oligothrophic habitats (approximately 16%). Regarding the soil acidity requirements (Fig. 7) the largest group (39 %) was made up of inhabiting neutral soils. The share of growing on moderately acidic and alkaline soils amounted 17% and 14% respectively. Many taxa featured a wide range of soil pH tolerance (19%). that tolerate an increased content of heavy metals in the soil constituted approximately 12% of the total flora colonizing the study sites (Table 1). However, the dumps at Wiry and Grochowa were distinguished by a higher share of these , ranging about 30%. Taking into account the modes of seed dispersal, the flora of the study sites showed definite dominance of allochoric , about 90% (Table 1). Within this group anemochoric plants were the most predominant and the share of exusively anemochoric taxa amounted over 40%. spreading both in anemochoric and zoochoric way constituted nearly 24% of the flora composition. The least numerous were taxa which use only animals in order to transport their seeds (about 12%). Investigation of the mycorrhizal status of the flora of serpentine post-mining sites showed the dominance of mycorrhizal (64%) (Fig. 8). The most numerous group were the with an arbuscular type of mycorrhiza (62%), inuding 5 belonging mainly to the Poaceae family which were facultatively mycorrhizal. Ectomycorrhizal constituted only about 2% of the flora. A large share of the analyzed flora consisted of nonmycorrhizal (28%). Inuded in this group were mostly representatives of Caryophyllaceae, Brassicaceae and Polygonaceae families. DISCUSSION Vegetation of serpentine mining waste dumps and quarries developed in a course of spontaneous succession on a bare substrate without soil and plant cover and which had been made as a result of human activities. In such conditions the process of inhabiting and colonization generally proceeds slowly. This definitely affected the quantity of plant recorded in the study, since on all of the sites the created communities of the early stages of ecological succession. Additionally, aspects of the serpentine complex, the most significant of which were considered to be excessive values of magnesium and nickel content in the substrate, had a reducing impact on the richness in the developing plant communities . As a consequence, the flora of serpentine post-mining sites proved to be relatively poor (113 ) in comparison to the vegetation of other post- industrial sites [34, 35, 38, 41]. According to Rostaski  on heaps located in Upper Silesia, the number of colonizing taxa depended mainly on the source of diaspores and the substrate properties as well as the age of the site, i.e. the stage of succession. In research done by Stojanowska , conducted on the area of different quarries of Lower Silesia, it was reported that the number of was dependent on the size of the site, and the higher number of taxa was found in the bigger quarries. Flora of the serpentine post-mining sites was characterized by a high degree of diversity, which was reflected in a low rate of incidence of the majority of at particular sites. This phenomenon could result from the variability of the properties of serpentine rocks and soils and the spatial isolation of most of the sites. The most often recorded and at the same time the most numerously represented in the flora were of dry grasslands communities from the Festuco-Brometea ass, while definitely minor role was played by segetal or ruderal . This structure of the examined communities indicates their floristic similarity to the semi-natural grasslands which develop on serpentines  and at the same time distinguishes them from the phytocenoses of other postindustrial sites connected with, for example, coal mining which are most often dominated by ruderal [30, 35, 37, 38]. Flora of the study sites contained many valuable inuding first of all taxa occuring on the red list of vascular plants of Lower Silesia [17, 18, 47]. The group of endangered or vulnerable inuded: Avenula pratensis, Camelina microcarpa, Salvia pratensis and Festuca valesiaca. The last taxon should be treated as the most unique floristic specimen, whose occurrence was confirmed in Lower Silesia only in the region of Kamienny Grzbiet Ridge [46, 47]. The source of diaspores of of dry grasslands for the study sites could be neighboring, sometimes even small patches of semi-natural communities developed on the serpentines which had not been disturbed by the raw material mining. A predominance of apophytes is often confirmed in research conducted on mantransformed sites [15, 30, 34, 35, 43]. The phenomenon of the apophytization of the flora as a particular manifestation of synanthropization has already been noted by Faliski . The dominance of native on typically the synanthropic areas probably results from their better adaptation to the local habitat conditions in relation to of foreign origin. Among the life forms of plants, hemikryptophytes are the most often found component of the flora of various post-industrial sites [15, 35, 36, 38]. The significant presence of terophytes in the composition of the studied communities indicates the low stability of the habitats and is characteristic for the early stages of succession. The occurrence of a bare substrate without vegetation on the area of the study sites could have favored the settlement of short-term colonizers coming from the agricultural landscape surrounding the serpentine outcrops. Flora developed in a course of spontaneous succession on the serpentine waste dumps and quarries was well adapted to the properties of the serpentine habitat and consisted mostly of heliophilous , preferring mesic or dry and moderately poor in nutrients habitats of neutral or alkaline reaction. The presence of tolerating an increased content of heavy metals in the soil, particularly noted in the sites in Wiry and Grochowa, could result from the properties of serpentine rock, which is rich in metals [21, 22]. Research done by olnierz , carried out in semi-natural dry grasslands showed that the soils from Szklary and the Grochowa Massif featured the highest nickel content of all the serpentine habitats. The type of seed dispersal plays an important role in the rate and intensity of the colonization of new areas by particular . The composition of the flora studied was dominated by anemochoric , which are able to cover even considerable DOROTA KASOWSKA, ANNA KOSZELNIK-LESZEK distances, what favoured migration and colonization of the new areas [4, 38]. The presence of zoochoric indicates the effective seed dispersal by animals from shorter distances. The arbuscular type of mycorrhiza commonly occurs in herbaceous plants and can be beneficial, especially in habitats poor in nutrients, by enhancing plant development . The presence of arbuscular mycorrhiza has been recorded for different habitats rich in heavy metals [11, 31, 48] inuding serpentine substrates and other ultramafic soils [2, 13, 32, 49]. In metal-contaminated soils, benefits derived from mycorrhizal symbiosis range from increased nutrient uptake to improved resistance to heavy metal stress . Noteworthy is the relatively high proportion of nonmycorrhizal and facultative formation of mycorrhiza by some other in the flora of the serpentine post-mining sites. These phenomena occur in the early stages of succession, especially in severely disturbed ecosystems devoid of the soil profile and vegetation as well as associated mycorrhizae and are regulated by environmental conditions, i.e. the type of disturbance, nutrient availability and moisture (xerism) of the habitat [1, 16, 37]. The serpentine mining waste dumps and quarries are interesting artificial biotopes that play a considerable role as secondary habitats for migrating from dry grasslands developed on serpentine rocks. Scarce natural occurrence of the dry grassland communities has become increasingly endangered not only by the mining of raw rock materials but also by the development of tourism, which is particularly true in the la Massif. After the cessation of mining operation it is necessary to skillfully introduce a sensitive restoration of the serpentine waste dumps and quarries using the process of spontaneous succession. CONUSIONS 1. The spontaneous flora of the serpentine post-mining sites was relatively poor and numbered in total 113 of vascular plants. The unfavorable characteristics of serpentine substrate could have the reducing effect on the richness. 2. The flora of the particular sites was highly diverse, since only 13% of the were found on at least five of the study sites. 3. The most frequently noted and the most numerously represented were of dry grassland communities from the Festuco-Brometea ass. This indicates a floristic similarity of the examined communities to the phytocenoses of the semi-natural swards which develop on serpentines. At the same time the floristic composition distinguishes them from the communities of other post-industrial sites that are most often dominated by ruderal from the Artemisietea ass. 4. The flora of the serpentine post-mining sites contained rare and endangered of Lower Silesia, such as Avenula pratensis, Camelina microcarpa, Salvia pratensis and Festuca valesiaca. 5. Native , and in terms of life forms hemicryptophytes, dominated the flora of the study sites, which is a phenomenon most often noted for spontaneously developing floras on man-transformed habitats. 6. The flora of the serpentine post-mining sites was well adapted to the characteristics of the serpentine habitat and consisted mostly of habitat-specialized taxa, such as heliophilous which prefer mesic or dry soils, poor in nutrients and with neutral reaction. The which tolerate an increased content of heavy metals in the soil were more numerously found at the sites with soils particularly rich in metals. 7. The composition of the studied flora was dominated by anemochoric , although some taxa were those that are spread only by animals. 8. The with the arbuscular type of mycorrhiza were predominant in the studied flora. However, the share of nonmycorrhizal was relatively significant and could be a result of both the early stages of succession and the unfavorable characteristics of the serpentine habitats. 9. The serpentine mining waste dumps and quarries are interesting artificial biotopes which play a significant role as secondary habitats for migrating from semi-natural dry grasslands developed on serpentines. After the end of mineral extraction it should be necessary to skillfully introduce a sensitive restoration of these sites with using the process of spontaneous succession.
Archives of Environmental Protection – de Gruyter
Published: Jul 8, 2014
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