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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies DOI: 10.2478/environ-2022-0005 Environ. Socio.-econ. Stud., 2022, 10, 1: 57-67 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Original article The scars of war: A programme for the identification of the environmental effects of Word War II bombings for the purposes of spatial management in the Koźle Basin, Poland Jan M. Waga, Maria Fajer*, Bartłomiej Szypuła Institute of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of Silesia in Katowice, 60 Będzińska Str., 41-200 Sosnowiec, Poland E–mail address (*corresponding author): firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID iD: Jan M. Waga: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6216-7530; Maria Fajer: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-7179-3998; Bartłomiej Szypuła: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1466-0128 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A B S T R A C T Poland’s Koźle Basin contains numerous craters created from the explosions of World War II aerial bombs as well as craters left by unexploded ordnance. The state of the local environment has been severely affected. This situation presents an obstacle to spatial management of the land to this day. This research programme studied the distribution of postmilitary anthropogenic geohazards in the area. It was intended to help to indicate the appropriate courses of action, including in the field of spatial planning, in the areas affected by former bombing. Desk studies focused on photo-interpretive analysis of archival aerial photographs and took advantage of the potential of high-resolution shaded relief rasters created from digital terrain models derived from LiDAR scanning. Field studies used classic geomorphological methods. Studies conducted so far in the bombed areas indicate the necessity of carrying out systematic, anticipatory, accurate surveys of the land and soil surface with the use of geophysical methods. Currently, the traces identified in the field suggest that the amount of unexploded ordnance remaining in the ground is very large. KEY WORDS: postmilitary anthropogenic geohazards, bomb craters, unexploded bombs, spatial management, LiDAR ARTICLE HISTORY: received 1 January 2022; received in revised form 9 March 2022; accepted 10 March 2022 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction to this issue (e.g. BAUM, 1999; SPYRA & KATZSCH, 2007; FOLEY, 2008; O’NEILL & FERNÁNDEZ, 2008; MAHLING Reports regarding the neutralisation of post-war ET AL., 2013; SHEPHERD, 2016; BRENNER ET AL., 2018; explosive devices, including aerial bombs (e.g., BARONE, 2019). The problem of unexploded ordnance HIGGINBOTHAM, 2016; WW2-ERA BOMB..., 2019; (UXO) and unexploded bombs (UXBs) is therefore GONZALEZ, 2019; MADEJ, 2020), as well as fatalities being taken seriously, although for various reasons, from unexploded ordnance detonations (ROUTINE in some parts of the world, the rate of progress in DISPOSAL..., 2010; WW2 BOMB BLAST..., 2014) identifying and neutralising them is unsatisfactory. repeatedly find their way into the press all over the The problem of air warfare remnants belonging world. There have long been efforts to disseminate to the group of anthropogenic geohazards from knowledge about the principles of the operation World War II, is not widely known in Poland. It is of aerial bombs and munitions by publishing related to the strategic bombing by the Western textbooks (e.g., TARNOWSKI, 1938; COOPER, 1996; Allies of chemical plants, military equipment HANDBOOK..., 2002; MILITARY MUNITIONS..., 2006) production plants, and transportation hubs and and post-conference materials (e.g. BYRNES, 2009). routes. After the war, this topic was not widely A number of research articles have been devoted discussed. The remnants of bombardments are not reported in the provisions of land use plans. 1983; MAHONEY, 2013). On the present territory Today in Poland, the most numerous data concerns of Poland, there are 5 industrial centres that were the Baltic Sea – port entrances and shipping lanes subject to such bombings in 1944 (Fig. 1). The largest (CHMIELIŃSKI, 2017; MADEJ, 2020). synthetic fuel production area in the Third Reich In an era of widespread access to online databases, was located in the Koźle Basin (EHLERS, 2009; this issue is emerging out of the shadows, yet it is HADUCH, 2019). It consisted of three chemical plants: treated as an unwelcome truth by numerous groups. in Odertal (Zdzieszowice), Blechhammer (Blachownia Because of the danger involved, however, it cannot Śląska) and Heydebreck (Kędzierzyn) (Fig. 2). be silently passed over. Today, there are opportunities The planned production (730,000 t of fuel per year) for earlier identification and neutralisation of UXBs. was not achieved due to technical difficulties and Failure to do so will result in much higher costs bombing by the 15th U.S. Air Force (KONIECZNY, 1998; for subsequent actions such as: evacuation of persons, HADUCH, 2019). This area is one of the most geo- securing assets, disrupting production, shutting mechanically deformed by bomb explosions in Europe. down infrastructure lines, or repairing damage from ordnance explosions. In Poland, procedures for handling unexploded ordnance (UXOs) are clearly defined (ROZPORZĄDZENIE RADY MINISTRÓW..., 2003; ROZPORZĄDZENIE MINISTRA INFRASTRUKTURY..., 2003; USTAWA..., 2007). At the same time, one can see clear moderation towards taking pre-emptive search actions and these are kept to a minimum. This results in many so-called accidental findings of UXOs, which must then, by law, be handled by the relevant authorities. In the studied Koźle Basin, due to the "saturation" of the area with undetonated, large-size aerial bombs, there are unequivocal reasons to undertake a coordinated, systematic, full-surface reconnaissance survey. Such activities have been carried out in an exemplary manner in Germany for many years (BAUFACHLICHE RICHTLINIEN..., 2018; 3.KAMPFMITTEL- Fig. 1. Location of synthetic fuel plants and oil refineries FACHTAGUNG..., 2019). bombed by the Western Allies during World War II (figure The aim of this artcile was to present the first prepared by the authors) thematic module of a programme undertaken by the authors to identify the environmental effects of World War II aerial bombardment. It includes the study of the morphology and morphometry of bomb craters, analysis of geotechnical changes in soils and the identification of UXB occurrence sites. The perspective of the study of the nature, water and soil environment, and socio-historical and urban studies in militarily transformed areas are also presented. 1.1. Historical sketch of the bombings During World War II, the Germans were producing liquid fuels from coal due to insufficient oil stores. Three coal hydrogenation plants were constructed in Koźle Basin, then in Germany. In the Koźle Basin, as in Brandenburg and Saxony, there are similar geology (glacial and fluvioglacial sediments) therefore similar solutions to construction were used there. Germany-controlled oil refineries and synthetic Fig. 2. Location of the study area. 1 – surface bombing areas, 2 – fuel factories became the targets of massive strategic former synthetic fuel plants, 3 – roads, 4 – railroads, 5 – rivers, 6 – canals, 7 – ports (source: Waga et al., 2022b, modified) bombings by the Western Allies (CRAVEN & CATE, Surface bombing of the Koźle Basin was carried appointed special military units to neutralise them out by B17 and B24 bombers between 7.07.1944 (KONIECZNY, 1998). Actions to remove unexploded and 26.12.1944, dropping almost 40 thousand ordnance involved areas with the highest economic bombs on an area of approx. 150 km (KONIECZNY, and military importance at the time. The large 1998; WAGA & FAJER, 2021). These were mainly UXOs removal campaigns conducted in the second 500 lb and 250 lb demolition bombs as well as half of the 1940s and into the 1950s did not general-purpose bombs. include unexploded airborne ordnance buried at greater depths and outside the areas then occupied 1.2. The socio-economic aspect of the presence of by the residential, industrial, and transportation bombed areas infrastructure. The craters in the fields and grasslands were simply backfilled. Unfortunately, the easiest Despite unfavourable conditions, which are thing to do was to backfill the smaller craters left the legacy of World War II, one should be aware by UXBs. of the development needs of the Kędzierzyn- Today, bomb craters and craters left by Koźle agglomeration – one of the most important unexploded ordnance have a significant impact economic areas in the Opole region (cf. STRATEGIA on the economy and land use – especially on ROZWOJU..., 2001; LOKALNA STRATEGIA..., 2016; PORT zoning decisions, the determination of conditions AZOTY..., 2019; KUBICA ET AL., 2020). This refers to for building structures, the planning of the course the rational use of land affected by military and parameters of infrastructure lines, and the activities in the past. This also holds true for management of agriculture and forestry. These many cities in other European countries affected impediments are related to the adverse changes of: by the war (e.g. SHEPHERD, 2016; BARONE, 2019; (a) – land surface morphology and soil properties DOLEJŠ ET AL., 2020). caused by explosions and the subsequent The problem of war remnants should be treated achievement of environmental stability, as a development barrier that must be overcome (b) – presence of undetonated bombs in the ground, in a well-considered and systematic way, under (c) – physical and chemical properties of soils and conditions of full recognition of geoenvironmental water bodies in the area with multiple bomb craters. changes, with particular knowledge of the hazards The problem of the presence of UXBs is the related to UXBs. As shown by German experience most complicated and dangerous because of the (KATZSCH, 2009), the actions taken must involve a difficulty in determining their location and the survey of the entire bombed area, carried out to potential effects of an explosion. considerable depths. The results of the study should Changes in the morphology of the area are inform decisions about spatial development in caused by the formation of numerous, sometimes the area. Due to the high costs involved, such overlapping depressions, which are flooded by activities can be carried out in stages. water in the case of areas with lower altitudes (WAGA ET AL., 2021b, 2022a). Adverse changes in 1.3. Characteristics of the problem of bombing ground conditions include an increase in the remnants variability of the area's complex natural geological setting (most of the land there is built up by The World War II military actions that disrupted Quaternary river sediments, including highly the Koźle Basin geosystem continue to be a source of waterlogged quicksands). Perforation of the land what is referred to as anthropogenic geohazards. surface, local compaction, or loosening of sediment Through technical activities (such as mining and cohesiveness by explosions occurring at different the detonation of buried explosives, among others), depths (HUPY & SCHAETZL, 2006; HUPY & KOEHLER, humans trigger geodynamic and geochemical 2012; ROGER, 2015; MANLEY, 2019) results in processes, often of large size and intensity. complications in structural design and construction, After the end of World War II the insufficient increased construction costs (JEŻ, 2001, 2008), level of the identification of bombing remnants in and limits to performance parameters. In the Koźle Poland was determined by the technological barrier Basin, especially in areas with shallow groundwater in the available means of research and the lack of levels, highly intense geodynamic processes were financial resources and equipment required to observed in the bomb detonation zones (WAGA & extract the UXBs. Some areas were left "to their FAJER, 2021). own devices." Many of the technologies for stabilising soil for In the Koźle Basin by 1944, after the first air raids civil structures involve deep penetration of the soil. of the 15th USAAF, the German administration This brings up a particularly dangerous aspect of the noted the cases of unexploded ordnance and presence of UXBs and the possibility of encountering an unexploded ordnance during piling, for example. of water bodies in craters, floristic resources in Attempts to distribute ground pressure through heavily bombarded areas, habitat condition in the the use of slabs are in turn fraught with the danger of crater zone, among others, for potential accumulating and adversely directing the energy reintroduction and introduction of species). of a possible explosion. Detonation can be triggered Thematic module III by works generating pressure, vibration, shock, (7) Studies of the historic and urban fabric as well as sand or gravel mining. affected by the bombing. Identification and neutralisation of UXBs, due (8) Verification of existing land use plans in the to the size of the ordnance and most often the context of the survey and proposing new functional considerable depth of their deposition, is particularly zones taking into account the staged process of difficult. According to post-war estimates conducted detailed removal, securing and neutralisation of in Western European countries, between 10 and unexploded ordnance. 15% of the aerial bombs used were not detonated Activities under thematic module I are currently as intended (BALDOLI ET AL., 2011; SHEPHERD, 2016; being implemented, and preliminary results are BARONE, 2019; KRUSE ET AL., 2019; DOLEJŠ ET AL., being presented. Module I addressed the delineation 2020). At least the same average rates are also to of areas with craters, areas with the geotechnical be expected in the vicinity of Kędzierzyn-Koźle. properties of soils deteriorated by detonations, In agriculture and forestry, in addition to relief, and the identification of zones and locations of soil loading by military-derived substances and the occurrence of UXBs. substances from damaged industrial installations The first step involves a thorough study of are significant, resulting in reduced crop yields crater locations based on archival pre-bombing (HUPY & SCHAETZL, 2006, 2008; BRIDGES ET AL., 2008; reconnaissance aerial photos, post-bombing photos MANLEY ET AL., 2019) and the potential for food and feed contamination. These are typically RDX taken for the purposes of air raid effectiveness analysis, and post-war photos, as well as and TNT derivatives, and mainly – carbon-based contemporary orthophotomaps and DTM-based industrial products. images. In the second step, the data resources are supplemented with field observations, information 2. Methods from land users, and data from institutions. In the third step, field surveys of selected proving The authors suggest starting an appropriate grounds are carried out using methods applied in programme for the identification of the physiography and geotechnics with appropriate environmental effects of bombings. safety measures. The fourth step – a review of UXBs – involves the determination of the number, 2.1. Research and thematic modules morphometry and distribution of craters that may indicate the presence of unexploded ordnance The research on the remnants of bombing in the (cf. WAGA ET AL., 2022b). These activities are Koźle Basin has been divided into three thematic conducted separately for unreclaimed areas and modules, with the following corresponding objectives: reclaimed areas, according to the scheme presented Thematic module I in Table 1. In the first case, the activities started (1) Determination of the extent, abundance, with the analysis of airborne laser scanning data, distribution, morphology, and morphometrics of further data are treated as auxiliary. Reclaimed post-bomb fall and explosion formations. areas will be surveyed at a later date. (2) Determination of the extent of occurrence and nature of geotechnical changes in bombarded soils. 2.2. Research methodology of module I (3) Identification of unexploded ordnance locations and hazard zones from the effects of their potential There are two directions adopted in the studies explosions. on UXB locations and risk zone identification Thematic module II conducted globally: (4) Determination of changes in soil conditions in (1) – based on the analysis of remote sensing and the areas with bomb craters, including post-military cartographic sources, the theoretical risk level of and industrial substance loads. the possibility of the presence of unexploded (5) Hydrological studies of the craters and their ordnance is determined using statistical methods. surroundings along with water chemical parameters. The greater density of detonated bomb craters (6) Determination of the biological potential of involves a higher risk due to the higher potential craters and their local vicinity (biological resources occurrence of unexploded ordnance. (2) – active searching for undetonated bombs in Various algorithms are used to find small craters bombing zones. First, analyses of aerial photographs occurring in the vicinity of large post-explosion from different periods, shaded relief models craters (BAUFACHLICHE RICHTLINIEN..., 2018). Then, generated from digital terrain models (DTM), and a non-invasive ground survey using geophysical images obtained using other scanning methods equipment is conducted (O’NEILL & FERNÁNDEZ, are performed, including advanced automatic and 2008; TANG ET AL., 2017; NOTE ET AL., 2019). semi-automatic detection of UXOs (MERLER ET AL., Electromagnetic technologies, thanks to the range 2005; MAHLING, 2013; MAHLING ET AL., 2013; BYHOLM, of radiation used, enable distinguishing objects 2017; BRENNER ET AL., 2018; KRUSE ET AL., 2019). made of metal from, for example, erratic boulders. Table 1. Algorithm for UXB studies in reclaimed (A-G) and unreclaimed (B-G) areas (source: Waga et al., 2022b, modified) A - The analysis of existing materials: -- thematic maps, plans and sketches (e.g. geological and hydrogeological), -- aerial photos from the period before, during and after the bombing, -- archival materials (descriptions, reports, comparisons, press articles, accounts of witnesses and service representatives, e.g. foresters’), -- multimedia recordings, including both video and audio, -- examination of exhibits - Detailed analysis of use of the area and land cover during the bombing B - Making shaded relief rasters for different parameters - Remote sensing analysis of shaded relief rasters -- general 1 x 1 m (0.5 x 0.5 m), -- detailed 0.1 x 0.1 m (0.05 x 0.05 m) - Identifying structures belonging to different categories - Identifying potential structures with UXBs - The analysis of the relationship of UXB craters and similar forms with other structures - Preparing materials for field work -- cartographic -- text (instructions) C - Examination of geoenvironmental conditions in the field - Verification of forms in the field - research -- location -- surroundings -- morphology and morphometry D - Research to find traces of explosions on walls and at the bottom of craters -- geophysical -- geochemical E - Mapping and describing the conditions in which craters occur for the purposes of deep geophysical scanning - Field-work planning -- areas of study -- selection of the profiles lines F - Conducting deep geophysical scanning down to different depths -- conductometric -- georadar G - Drawing up final results, preparing graphic and text materials - Preparing instructions for spatial development The resulting data are overlaid on the land use high-resolution elevation data in * .las format. plan drawing. For particularly sensitive spots and This format is a file format designed for the conflict zones, decisions can already be made during interchange and archiving of LiDAR point cloud this phase regarding the ad hoc treatment of bombing data. It is an open, binary format specified by the remnants, including the extraction of unexploded American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote ordnance and the current land use. This opens the Sensing (ASPRS, 2008). The *.las file contains a possibility of making more complex final decisions. number of fields for each point that can be useful Both approaches also use data from archives. for analysis and display (i.e. x, y coordinates in a The authors chose the second course of action. given specific coordinate system, z as the elevation, In the first phase, archival materials were analysed, surface classification). For the study area, these including aerial photographs from the period of data files had a resolution of a minimum 12 the air campaign. The next step was checking points/m , with a mean vertical accuracy of < 0.1 m. In many exposed places, the actual point cloud throughout the study area and detailed analyses density was much higher than 12 points/m (even conducted on four proving grounds with a total several dozen points). Based on this, we decided area of approx. 130 ha, located on wastelands or to generate a digital terrain model (DEM) with land used extensively as forests. The method very high resolution (0.1 m x 0.1 m), enabling selected by the authors yielded best results in precise analysis of such small (few to ten meters areas where no advanced reclamation work had in diameter) forms of bomb craters. On the base been previously carried out. In these areas, clearly DEM we derived rasters of the shaded relief with visible forms were preserved, including UXB standard illumination settings (azimuth 315°, markers (Fig. 3). The application of this method altitude 45°). will greatly facilitate the planning of further studies, The resources prepared in this manner enabled a including geophysical surveys (WAGA ET AL., study of the distribution and morphology of craters 2021a). Fig. 3. Crater caused by UXB (a) between craters from bomb explosions (figure prepared by the authors) The studies also comprised the necessary analysis with geoenvironmental conditions similar to those of contents of thematic maps at the scale of 1:50000: of the Kędzierzyn area, UXBs were deposited at geological, sozological (i.e. environmental map), depths of 1–7.25 m (KATZSCH 2009). According to hydrographic and soil maps as well as information the author of the study, the complex process of from the Geological Database of the Polish Geological analysis of the remote sensing materials, together Institute. Mission data and publications of the Air with surface and ground surveys resulted in Force Historical Research Agency https://www. finding 32-70% of all UXBs, relative to all objects afhra.af.mil, National Archives https://www.archives. found in various parts of Germany. gov, National Collection of Aerial Photography in Edinburgh, https://www.historicenvironment.scot/ 3. Results and discussion archives-and-research/archives-and-collections/ national-collection-of-aerial-photography/ and The Nearly 6,000 craters left by aerial bomb explosions Fifteenth Air Force https://15thaf.org as well as were recognized in the Koźle Basin on the digital memoirs and other materials collected by the terrain model with a resolution of 1 m x 1 m. BLECHHAMMER – 1944 Association provided These included large explosion craters 8–14 m in important sources of information. diameter and up to 3.0 m in depth, smaller ones After the identification of the distribution of 5–9 m in diameter and up to 1.5 m in depth, and craters based on remote sensing analyses, field small hollows indicating the presence of observations were undertaken. Zones of major undetonated bombs. In dry areas, these craters disturbance of original soil properties due to have a diameter up to 3 m and a depth up to 1 m, explosions were mapped in order to conduct and in marshy areas, they have a diameter up to 4 geotechnical investigations. m and are slightly shallower (WAGA ET AL., 2022a, It is particularly important and difficult to study b). Numerous comparable examples related to the locations of UXBs due to their often significant combat actions were presented by PASSMORE & depth of deposition. In Brandenburg and Saxony, CAPPS-TUNWELL (2020). These craters are often found in higher difficult to use, this area could become an object concentrations in forests and marshes, and of research and a wartime historical monument. sometimes on now abandoned but formerly used More than 800 aerial bomb explosion craters plots of land. Some of the arable fields and left by 250 and 500 lb bombs have already been meadows have become wasteland or afforested. accurately identified at selected proving grounds Many more craters have been backfilled. One (Fig. 5). Well over one hundred smaller hollows of the most densely bombarded areas has survived suggesting the presence of undetonated bombs almost intact in the vicinity of the Zakłady Azotowe were also located. The authors' research has shown Kędzierzyn S.A. chemical plant in Kędzierzyn-Koźle that in one formerly heavily waterlogged area, (Fig. 4 & 5A). The hit rate of large bombs there out of eight 500 lb bombs dropped from one of reached 77 craters per hectare and is one of the the USAAF machines, only 1 exploded. highest in Europe (vide PASSMORE ET AL., 2020). As the fifth step, ground surveys and geophysical In the area, numerous bombs fell within the searches for the UXBs will be conducted, following outlines of older craters. In flooded forms, an attempt an appropriate safety regime, in selected test zones was made to recreate the complex sequences of located within areas with various geoenvironmental explosions (WAGA ET AL., 2021b, 2022a). Being very conditions. Fig. 4. Contemporary shaded terrain models and orthophotomap of one of the bombed areas in Kędzierzyn-Koźle (prepared by J.M. Waga, maps available from polska.e-mapa.net). A – area with the highest density of craters up to 77 per ha, B – concentration of craters, C – outlines of backfilled craters highlighted by varying vegetation This will form the basis for preparing the next Basin, unexploded ordnance should be precisely stages of the programme, which will consist of located, a detailed identification and hazard performing detailed field surveys for areas of interest, assessment should be conducted, buffer zones according to a key agreed upon with local authorities, should be delineated, and the land use should be land managers, and spatial planning offices. A review adjusted to the diagnosed situation. In the event of the methods and obtained results will be that the works of an explosive ordnance disposal conducted at each stage of the programme. team is required, extreme caution will need to be From the commencement of the works, particular exercised, due in part to the potential presence of emphasis was placed on the greatest threat related multiple other UXOs in the vicinity. They are at to bombing remnants – UXBs. Throughout the Koźle risk of detonation by the occurrence of impulse pressure during the explosion of the first ordnance as in cooperation with local authorities and the (LIU ET AL., 2019). The study area is largely public (see: poster informing the public about the swampy and is composed of waterlogged clastic works carried out to identify and neutralise UXB, (quicksand) formations. Such environmental titled „BOMBEN IN ORANIENBURG 1945-2016“, conditions greatly hinder the efforts to neutralise source: https://www.oranienburg-erleben.de/ unexploded ordnance, primarily due to the fact oranienburg/das-ist-oranienburg/800-jahr-feier- that they require prior drainage of groundwater 2016/ open-air-ausstellung and ELKE ERTLE, 2013; from an environment constituting an abundant HIGGINBOTHAM, 2016; 3.KAMPFMITTELFACHTAGUNG..., aquifer. Teams working at similar sites in Germany 2019; KAMPFMITTELBESEITIGUNG). Therefore, their have very extensive experience in the identification expertise and advanced technologies should be and neutralisation of unexploded bombs, as well applied. Fig. 5. Two proving grounds near Kędzierzyn-Koźle (figure by the authors) A. Location and preservation status of craters. Craters: 1 – well preserved, 2 – backfilled, 3 – strongly altered by natural geomorphological processes. B. Crater density Projects of a similar nature to the one presented funded from various sources. Some are even in this article are being carried out in other countries implemented by non-governmental organisations. in Europe, USA, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Iraq, Kuwait, Afghanistan, Nigeria (e.g. NOYES, 1996; 3.1. Difficulties MCGRATH, 2000; HARPVIKEN, 2002; MILITARY MUNITIONS..., 2006; SPYRA & KATZSCH, 2007; LAO In Poland, active UXB field surveys are often NATIONAL...; ENVIRONMENTAL REMEDIATION..., 2015; hindered by the owners, managers, and current MARTIN ET AL., 2019; HIDDEN SCARS...) and take into users of the land. Underlying this behaviour is account the neutralisation of UXOs and are primarily the fear of being ordered to cover the costs of neutralising any found UXBs, or at the adapted for socio-economic needs in a considered very least, suspending or limiting business operations. and thorough manner. Pre-emptive explosive ordnance surveys are performed to the minimum possible extent required Acknowledgements for the investment project. This presents a situation We thank the two anonymous reviewers for their valuable in which not only the mentioned entities, but also suggestions that significantly improved the manuscript. representatives of the owner of the deeper ground layers, i.e. the State Treasury, are not interested References in a comprehensive solution to this problem due to the high cost of neutralisation measures. It is 3.Kampfmittelfachtagung - Auf dem Weg zu bundeseinheitlichen clear that such a problem will not be addressed Standards. Berlin, 27. und 28. Mai 2019, Kronprinzenpalais. by landowners, land users, or local governments. Dokumentation. Bundesanstalt für Immobilienaufgaben Furthermore, the layers under the surface of the Zentrale, Bonn. Baldoli C., Knapp A., Overy R. 2011. 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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies – de Gruyter
Published: Mar 1, 2022
Keywords: postmilitary anthropogenic geohazards; bomb craters; unexploded bombs; spatial management; LiDAR
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