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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies DOI: 10.2478/environ-2022-0003 Environ. Socio.-econ. Stud., 2022, 10, 1: 22-37 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Original article 1,2 1 Ahmed M.S. Mohammed *, Tetsuya Ukai Department of Design Strategy, Graduate School of Design, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395, Japan Architectural Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Assiut University, Assiut 71515, Egypt E–mail address (*corresponding author): email@example.com; firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID iD: Ahmed M.S. Mohammed: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-5812-5792 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A B S T R A C T Thanks to the leading role of universities in cities as knowledge and innovation hubs, many cities rely on their universities to face their economic and social challenges. On the other hand, universities need their cities to fulfil the capacity needed to satisfy student and staff needs for services and facilities. Therefore, the university-city relationship is considered to be intercorrelated and overlapping. However, due to the need for expansion, universities tend to move out and build larger campuses causing different trends of studentification and de-studentification in the city. These trends impact a city’s urban growth and transformation over time. This study analyses the impact of four different campuses of Kyushu University from 1993 to 2017 to understand the morphological impact of old and new campuses on their surroundings. A spacematrix and a mixed-use index were used to produce raster maps that helped to visualize temporal trends of urban density and the mixed use of functions in areas surrounding campuses. Results have shown that moved out campuses have the potential to impact the surrounding mixed use of functions. However, new campuses have the potential to impact a city’s urban density, therefore, trends in de-studentification can impact the campus-city functional relationship. Conversely, studentification trends can impact the campus-city physical relationship. Thus, university campuses could be considered as indirect agents that contribute to the urban physical and functional change of the city. KEY WORDS: Spacematrix, mixed-use index, urbanization, campus planning, urban agent ARTICLE HISTORY: received 22 December 2021; received in revised form 1 March 2022; accepted 4 March 2022 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction the surrounding built environment (LARKHAM, 2000). The relationship of the university campuses within Universities are known to play a major role in the city could be defined as a physical or functional harnessing innovation and knowledge in the local relationship (DEN HEIJER & MAGDANIEL, 2018). community of their respective cities. Therefore, The campus-city physical relationship is described as the role of higher education institutions has changed the topological location of the campus according to to become the driving force of knowledge and the city and its impact on the surrounding built innovation instead of being place-based institutions environment as campuses could exist outside the city, (PERRY ET AL., 2009). Moreover, due to the expansion gated within the city, or integrated with it (MAGDANIEL and internationalisation of universities, new ET AL., 2018). On the other hand, the campus-city campuses are built which require new facilities functional relationship refers to the available types and amenities to cover the capacity needed for of services and facilities that the university and students and staff. Therefore, university campuses the city need to offer a successful partnership. are known to be accompanied by a physical and Campuses and their respective cities can offer a functional change in the surrounding environment. wide range of services and amenities that range This is also why universities are described as from academic services, residential facilities, being extensive landholders that can transform infrastructure, leisure, and related businesses. Both the campus-city physical and functional emigrating from the area resulting in de- relationships are considered interconnected and studentification. The impact of de-studentification overlapping. Hence, universities that are located appears first as an imbalance between housing near to the city benefit from a wide range of available supply and demand (KINTON ET AL., 2016). However, services unlike self-sufficient autonomous campuses its impact might include other significant aspects that depend on generating their own functional such as closing businesses and restaurants that and social life (HEBBERT, 2018). This interrelated were specifically targeting students. Student areas connection between universities and cities is are known to be preferred by students due to the considered to be an agent that accelerates urban wide variety of affordable services and amenities. physical and functional change based on the extent Therefore, campuses relocating affect the economic of the impact brough by the campus to the city atmosphere in the area. Moreover, the differences (DEN HEIJER, 2011; BERG, 2021). that result from the transition of a student area to a non-student area affects city’s urban development 1.1. Studentification and de-studentification by facilitating the usage of the surroundings of the old campus (DONALDSON ET AL., 2014). Moreover, Due to the influx of post-secondary students the impact brought to the urban space from that is usually associated with the existence of studentification is considered to be relative according university campuses, a noticeable change occurs to the location of the campus. For example, changes which is known as studentification (Smith, 2005). brought by studentification in Poland have proven to Studentification also refers to the different social, corrupt the public space (GRABKOWSKA & FRANKOWSKI, physical, cultural and economic changes that are 2016). However, studentification that occurred in associated with the existence of student within Australia has proven to positively affect a city’s neighbourhoods near the institution. Studentification economy (HOLTON & MOUAT, 2020). Furthermore, can be seen through its social impact on the student participation has also been shown to have a neighbourhood by the segregation that happens positive impact on safer public spaces if student’s between original residents and students which role in local communities is highlighted (MOHAMMED results from the increased number of problems & HIRAI, 2021; SAYED, 2021). Therefore, the counter caused by students such as littering, noise or walking impact of de-studentification might also be positive home drunk (MOSEY, 2017). On the other hand, or negative based on the context. studentification can also be seen in the cultural diversity caused by the existence of international 1.2. Research context students in the area (KURTULUS & GRIFFITHS, 2017). However, the physical and economic impacts of In order to examine the impact of studentification studentification are considered to be the most and de-studentification on a city’s urban growth, important due to their ability to transform the this article conducts a morphological analysis of built environment in a visible way. As institutions four different campuses of Kyushu University to can’t fulfil the required capacity for student visualise the impact of new and old campuses on accommodation alone. Real estate agencies make the urban physical and functional change. By use of the situation by building new apartments analysing the morphology of the surroundings of to cover student needs which in turn changes the Kyushu University’s new campus, the impact of physical structure of the surrounding area of studentification on the area can be reflected, campuses in a noticeable way (RUGG ET AL., 2000; whereas de-studentification can be examined MOOS ET AL., 2019). Moreover, the housing and through the impact resulting from the move-out amenity demands of students encourage different process from Kyushu University’s old campuses forms of economic variations in the area which in to the new one. By doing this, patterns of urban turn facilitates to the urbanization of the area (HE, physical and functional change caused by university 2014). Therefore, studentification is considered to campuses could be assessed and visualised to be a by-product that accelerates city growth in provide an evidence-based validation of the role different ways. of universities as urban agents. De-studentification is considered to be the opposite of studentification. However, the impact 1.3. Research aim of de-studentification on the city is not necessarily the counter effect of studentification. Due to high Based on the hypothesis that university campuses land prices and the expansion of universities, new play a significant role in city’s urban transformation, campuses are built, and universities move out from this article aims to uncover the physical and their old campuses which is followed by students functional impact brought by university campuses on their respective cities. To validate the research After the raid, the city started to rebuild back hypothesis, two different objectives need to be gradually. th achieved: 4) 4 Phase (Becoming the Core City of Kyushu 1) Assessing the impact of de-studentification Island): The fourth phase of the urban growth of by analysing the morphological and functional the city started in 1972 when the city was designated change in old campuses’ surroundings. by government ordinance (SHAPIRA ET AL., 1994). 2) Assessing the impact of studentification by After that the ward system was enacted with five analysing the morphological and functional wards: Nishi, Higashi, Chuo, Hakata and Minami. change in new campuses’ surroundings. In March 1975, the city officially became the core By doing so, a better understanding of the role of Kyushu Island with the establishment of the of university campuses in city’s urbanization could Sanyo Shinkansen Line which connected Fukuoka be reached. Moreover, new perspectives and lessons city with the capital Tokyo in less than seven hours. th could be learned to come up with better decision 5) 5 Phase (An Evolving City): The fifth phase making for a sustainable campus planning and of city transformation witnessed a significant change development. in the urban landscape of the city similar to the urban change that occurred in the second phase 2. Urban growth of Fukuoka City before the air raid. However, the most remarkable change that happened in this phase was the end In order to understand the role of Kyushu of the Fukuoka tram as it was replaced by the city’s University in the urban growth of Fukuoka City, subway that opened in 1981. The new subway the urban transformation of Fukuoka City needs helped to transform the street network of the city. to be highlighted. Fukuoka City is the capital of Therefore, the fifth phase of the city’s growth had Kyushu Island and considered to be one of the the biggest impact on the physical aspect of the major cities in Japan. According to its official website urban form. th Fukuoka City has been through seven major phases 6) 6 Phase (From Showa to Heisei): The Heisei since the 19th century which helped it to become era started with new facilities and tall buildings such the city that we know now (FUKUOKA MUNICIPAL as Fukuoka Tower being built which contributed ADMINISTRATION, 2019). These phases witnessed to the internationalisation of the city. In 2005, several events, incidents and mega projects that Kyushu University decided to move out from helped in forming the urban structure of the city: Hakozaki old campus and to build one of the largest st 1) 1 Phase (Birth of Fukuoka City): The birth campuses in Japan in Nishi Ward. The first school of Fukuoka city was in July 1871 when the Fukuoka built in Ito campus was the Engineering School in region officially became Fukuoka Prefecture. The city 2005. Then, other schools moved one after another was born over an area of 5.09 km and a population from Hakozaki campus and the move-out process of 58,847 residents living in 9440 households was completed by 2018. Moreover, in 2009 Kyushu (FUJITA & HILL, 1993). University’s Ropponmatsu campus also moved nd 2) 2 Phase (Urbanization and Expansion): out to Ito campus. th The second phase of Fukuoka city’s urban growth 7) 7 Phase (From Reiwa to the Future): In started in 1924 when Kyushu Railroad Company 2018, the city witnessed a new era which was the opened a high-speed railroad between Fukuoka Reiwa era that started with the new Emperor of and Kurume which further enhanced public transport Japan. With this new era, the city started to think services in Fukuoka Prefecture. Moreover, different globally by introducing new projects such as ‘Tenjin department stores started to open such as Matsuya Big Bang’ and ‘Hakata Connected’ (FUKUOKA CITY and Iwataya. Furthermore, the beginning of the GOVERNMENT, 2021a, 2021b). These projects aimed second phase of Fukuoka city’s urban growth had to transform the morphological structure of the core a remarkable event which was the establishment of of the city after increasing the floor gross area 1.5 Kyushu Imperial University in 1911 (now Kyushu times. University) (FRÉ DÉ RIC, 2002). Kyushu University played a significant role in the rd 3) 3 Phase (Recovery from the Scorched urban transformation process of Fukuoka City since nd th Earth): Until the end of the second phase, Fukuoka its 2 phase of growth. Moreover, in the 6 phase, city was growing fast and strong and urbanization Kyushu University’s old and new campuses started had reached the city peripheries. However, on to transform the city with emergent trends of 19th June 1945, more than 200 B-29 aircrafts filled studentification and de-studentification that had the the sky of the city and a big part of it was destroyed potential to change the economic and morphological by what was called the ‘Fukuoka Great Air Raid’. structure of the city as the link between universities and cities can pertain to physical, geo-political, economic and cultural facets of the city (WIEWEL the impact that university campuses bring as agents & PERRY, 2015; WAY, 2016; NAMVAR ET AL., 2019). for urban change. Furthermore, the literature has shown that university campuses have a strong potential to contribute to 3. Materials and methods the local economy; and universities have become seen not only as higher education institutions, but In order to analyse the morphological structure of also as a mainstay for city transformation (RAUCH, the surroundings of Kyushu University campuses, 1993; GLAESER, 1998; SIMON, 1998; MATHUR, 2016; two different indicators have been used to assess OXFORD ECONOMICS, 2017). Therefore, any trends the morphological and functional change caused of studentification and de-studentification caused by the campuses: spacematrix and mixed-use by campuses moving in and out would considerably index (MXI). Moreover, datasets for buildings affect the surrounding environment which was worth around Kyushu University campuses from 1993 investigating over a long period of time. Accordingly, till 2017 have been provided by Fukuoka City Urban Kyushu University has been considered to be a Affairs Bureau. The use of different morphological suitable case study due to its emergent trends of indicators and the availability of a wide range of studentification and de-studentification and the data have made it possible to have a holistic overview unique role that it plays in its respective city. of the morphological form of the areas around Therefore, different analytical methodologies campuses since 1993. Table 1 illustrates the different have been used to examine the surroundings of materials and methods used in this paper in detail. Kyushu University’s campuses to assess the extent of Table 1. Materials and methods Processed data Method Platform Data collection Data type Data source Data delivery time Footprint area and number of floors for Spacematrix buildings in 1.2 km radius buffer area Fukuoka 1993, 1998, around Kyushu University campuses City Urban Provided by ArcGIS 2003, 2008, Affairs request Footprint area and uses of buildings 2012 and 2017 Mixed-Use Bureau in 1.2 km radius buffer area around Index (MXI) Kyushu University campuses 3.1. Study area the analysis in order to study the socio-spatial temporal change around university campuses Four different campuses of Kyushu University over a long period of time. By doing so, a holistic were selected for comparison of the different impacts understanding of the morphological change of old and new campuses on the morphological around university campuses at different stages of structure of the surroundings (Table 2). Hakozaki studentification and de-studentification could be campus, which is the oldest campus of Kyushu reached. University, was established in 1911 and moved out For the analysis, a 1.2 km radius buffer area to Ito campus in 2018. Ropponmatsu Campus, which around the campuses was selected. As 1.2 km is is located near to the core of Fukuoka City, was equal to a 15 minutes’ walk; and students and staff established in 1921 and moved out to the new would probably be interested in living within 15 campus of Ito in 2009. By analysing the surroundings minutes’ walk from their campuses. Moreover, of Hakozaki and Ropponmatsu campuses from business owners and decision makers would also 1993 till 2017, patterns of the impact of de- be interested in investing within 15 minutes’ walk studentification on the city could be visualised in two from campuses to gain more student foot traffic different stages of moving out: at the beginning of for their student-oriented businesses. Therefore, the move-out process such as in the Hakozaki a 1.2 km radius buffer area was found to be suitable campus area and after the move-out process in for the analysis (Fig. 1). Furthermore, building height the Ropponmatsu campus area. On the other hand, and building use datasets from 1993 to 2017 were Kyushu University’s newest campus, Ito campus, used for the analysis to map where and how the was selected to visualise the impact of studentification temporal change occurred over a 24-year period. caused by new campuses on the surroundings. Since 1985 Fukuoka City Urban Affairs Bureau Moreover, Ohashi campus was also selected for conducts socio-economic surveys every five years and these data were made available for researchers and mixed-use index. By applying these methods, upon request in the year following the 5-year interval. the temporal change in urban density and building These datasets have been analysed using two functionalities could be visualized. different urban morphology indicators: spacematrix Table 2. A comparison of Kyushu University campuses Ropponmatsu Info. Hakozaki campus Ito campus Ohashi campus campus Campus model Gated campus Gated campus Open campus Gated campus Location Higashi Ward Chuo Ward Nishi Ward Minami Ward 2 2 2 2 Area 627,430 m 86,640 m 2,717,130 m 63,058 m No. of schools 7 1 9 1 Established 1911 1921 2005 1968 Moved-out 2018 2009 ----- ----- Fig. 1. Map showing the location of selected campuses in Fukuoka City (derived from OpenStreetMap [2022-02-07]) 3.2. Spacematrix measurements can also be retrieved from a spacematrix such as number of layers (L) and A spacematrix is a multi-variant index that is open space ratio (OSR). The use of a Geographical used to represent urban density according to the Information System (GIS) can easily calculate FSI urban form in a quantitative way. Although research and GSI values using building datasets. Spacematrix has shown the limitation of a spacematrix, it is values can be calculated using the following still used as one of the common indices in urban equations (BERGHAUSER & HAUPT, 2010): practice to represent the morphological structure FSI = F/A f f in a simplified easy to read way (ALEXANDER, 1993; F = sum of floors area in m , A = area of urban FORSYTH, 2003). The spacematrix correlates a ground f fabric in m . space index (GSI) with a floor space index (FSI) to GSI = B/A have nine different types of urban forms: low-rise f f point, low-rise strip, low-rise block, mid-rise point, B = building footprint in m , A = the area of urban mid-rise strip, mid-rise block, high-rise point, high- fabric in m . rise strip, and high-rise block (Fig. 2). Other OSR and L can also be calculated from the following 3.3. Mixed-use Index (MXI) equations: L = FSI / GSI The Mixed-use Index (MXI) is another common f f index that is widely used in urban practice to OSR = (1- GSI ) / FSI f f f represent the functionality of the urban fabric and to distinguish mono-functional, bi-functional, and multi-functional urban blocks (VAN DEN HOEK, 2010). Urban blocks or buildings that have one function are classified as mono functional. Mono functionality in the MXI is classified as housing, amenities or work places. The functionality of amenities includes shops, stores, leisure, sports facilities, schools, recreational facilities, universities, and related building uses. However, the functionality of work places includes industrial facilities, workshops, factories, farms, agricultural facilities, and related building uses. Accordingly, a mix of two of those functionalities is described as bi-functional, and a mix of three functionalities is classified as multi- Fig. 2. Spacematrix functional (Fig. 3). In some cases, it is difficult to classify building uses according to the MXI. For For the analysis, values of FSI and GSI for selected example, coffee shops could be considered as areas of study were calculated using ArcGIS Desktop amenities or work places depending on the context 10.4 software (ESRI, 2001) and building datasets and the user. Although it has its limitations, MXI for 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, 2012 and 2017. In order is still considered as one of the pragmatic necessities to make the readability of FSI and GSI maps of urban practice to represent functionalities in a comparable, maps were rasterized with a cell size of simplified way. MXI values have been calculated 100 m x 100 m which was considered suitable to based on the percentage of each functionality in cover most large buildings in the areas of study. the urban fabric using building floor area (VAN Importantly, the spacematrix results are considered NES ET AL., 2012). For a better readability, MXI as relative values not absolute ones. The spacematrix values were calculated based on a raster cell size classifies the urban density of the urban fabric in of 100 m x 100 m and represented as raster maps relation to other urban fabrics within one system, using the raster calculator and spatial analyst therefore, the spacematrix results show the urban tools in ArcGIS Desktop 10.4 software (ESRI, 2001). density in the areas under study in relation to the MXI maps have been created for 1993, 1998, rest of the urban fabric in Fukuoka City. The resultant 2003, 2008, 2012 and 2017. By comparing the maps have been classified into nine different resultant maps, temporal changes in building categories that represent different types of urban uses could be visualised to then assess the impact density. By comparing these maps, temporal of studentification and de-studentification on the changes in urban density around the campuses socio-economic surroundings of the campuses. could be visualised and patterns of change could also be examined. Fig. 3. Mixed-use Index (MXI) 4. Results multi-functional (20% amenities + housing + working) and multi-functional (30% amenities + The spacematrix has been classified into low- housing + working). Therefore, this section compares rise point, low-rise strip, low-rise block, mid-rise the spacematrix and MXI results over the years in a point, mid-rise strip, mid-rise block, high-rise point, descriptive way instead of a numerical way. In order high-rise strip and high-rise block. On the other to enhance the readability of the spacematrix and hand, MXI values have been classified into mono MXI abstract maps Figure 4 provides the latest housing, mono amenities, mono working, bi-functional available dataset for 2017 of building footprints and (housing + amenities), bi-functional (housing + land use accompanied by surrounding street names working), bi-functional (amenities + working), multi- and train stations to understand the functional and functional (10% amenities + housing + working), social links between the campus and its surroundings. Fig. 4. Building footprints and land uses accompanied by surrounding street names and train stations (2017 Dataset) 4.1. Hakozaki campus number of bi-functional cells started to decrease overtime. However, if we have a closer look at The move-out process at the Hakozaki campus raster maps, we notice that the distribution and started in 2005 and ended in 2018. Therefore, location of the spacematrix and MXI values started to results show the early stages of the impact of de- take a different pattern (Fig. 7). Spacematrix raster studentification on the urban morphological form maps have shown that since 1993 there was a in the area. Figure 5 shows that the number of cluster of mid-rise strip cells located between the cells that belong to higher degrees of urban density campus, Hakozaki station and Hakozaki Kyudai started to decrease over time especially mid-rise Mae station. However, over the years this cluster and high-rise cells. This means that other areas of started to be considered as relatively low-rise cells. Fukuoka City started to have higher degrees of urban This shows that the area started to have a relatively density which caused the area around Hakozaki lower degree of urban density compared to other campus to have relatively lower values of urban parts of the city. Similarly, the area around Kaizuka density. Similarly, Figure 6 shows that the overall station along Route 3 used to have high rise point cells. However, over the years the urban density morphological change appeared in the area before in the city changed and these high-rise point cells the campus move-out process took place, the move- became mid-rise ones. Moreover, MXI raster maps out process may have contributed to this change have also shown that the area between the campus, in a direct or indirect way. Taking into consideration Hakozaki station and Hakozaki Kyudai Mae station that the decision to move out from the campus used to have a higher degree of multi-functional was taken in the early 1990s, this could have cells in 1993. But, over time lower degrees of multi- influenced decision makers, stakeholders, investors, functional cells started to appear. Although, the and business owners. Fig. 5. Classification of Spacematrix values (Hakozaki campus) Fig. 6. Classification of MXI values (Hakozaki campus) Fig. 7. Spacematrix and MXI maps for Hakozaki campus 4.2. Ropponmatsu campus values remained concentrated along Route 202 and around Ropponmatsu and Befu stations. Moreover, Ropponmatsu campus moved out of the area the area around the campus along Route 557 in 2009. Therefore, the results show the impact of retained mid-rise strip cells. This could be explained de-studentification on the area over 8 years since because in 2005 three new stations opened in the the campus moved. Like Hakozaki campus, the area Ropponmatsu, Befu and Sakurazaki. Both spacematrix results have shown a noticeable Ropponmatsu and Befu stations are located near decrease in mid-rise cells (Fig. 8). This shows to the campus which allowed the area to keep its that the area started to have a low urban density by middle values of urban density. On the other that time in relation to other parts of the city. On hand, MXI maps also show that the area around the other hand, MXI results have shown that the the campus was surrounded with high degrees of area around Ropponmatsu campus continued to multi-functional cells. However, in 2012, three years have relatively similar degrees of functionality after the campus moved out, the area adjacent to the over the years except that there was a sudden campus had relatively lower degrees of multi- decrease in bi-functional cells in 2012 that was functional cells. Moreover, the area along Route 202 followed by a slight increase in 2017 (Fig. 9). has retained multi-functional cells over years. However, the spacematrix and MXI raster maps This could also be explained by the fact that have shown that the distribution of cells has changed Route 202 is considered to be one of the main over the years (Fig. 10). In the spacematrix maps, routes in Fukuoka City that connects the city’s mid-rise strip cells started to be considered as wards from east to west. low-rise cells over time. However, mid-rise strip Fig. 8. Classification of Spacematrix values (Ropponmatsu campus) Fig. 9. Classification of MXI values (Ropponmatsu campus) Fig. 10. Spacematrix and MXI maps for Ropponmatsu campus 4.3. Ito campus cells (Fig. 12). Furthermore, there was a noticeable increase in amenity cells caused by the construction Unlike Hakozaki and Ropponmatsu campuses, of the campus over time. Spacematrix maps have Ito campus is the newest campus of Kyushu shown that mid-rise strip and high-rise strip cells University that was started in 2005 and finished have appeared for the first time in the area in the in 2018. Therefore, results show the early impact years after the campus was established (Fig. 13). of studentification on the area. The impact caused This shows that the existence of the campus has by the campus here is considered more visible, as contributed to the urban density in the area especially the campus was built in the suburban outskirts of along Route 567. Conversely, MXI maps have shown the city. Spacematrix values have shown steady that the area started having mono amenity cells increases over the years and new types of cells caused by the existence of the campus. However, have appeared for the first time such as mid-rise bi, and multi-functional values remained relatively and high-rise strip cells (Fig. 11). On the other hand, similar over the years. This shows that the MXI values have shown a decrease in mono housing establishment of the campus has contributed to the cells accompanied by an increase in other types of urban density more than the degree of mix of functions. Fig. 11. Classification of Spacematrix values (Ito campus) Fig. 12. Classification of MXI values (Ito campus) Fig. 13. Spacematrix and MXI maps for Ito campus 4.4. Ohashi campus (Fig. 14). On the other hand, MXI values have remained relatively similar over the years (Fig. 15). Ohashi campus was established in 1968 as Furthermore, the distribution of mid-rise strip cells Kyushu Institute of Design. However, in 2003, it in spacematrix maps have remained concentrated merged with Kyushu University to become the around the campus and along Nisseki Dori Street School of Design. Therefore, the Ohashi campus especially near to Ohashi station (Fig. 16). Moreover, results show the impact of the existence of the MXI maps have shown that the distribution and university campuses on the area over a long period location of cells is relatively similar over the years of time. By doing so, a better understanding of the with no significant change unlike previous case trends of other campuses moving in or out could studies. Due to the unique location of the campus be reached and then compared. Like Hakozaki and near to Ohashi station, high degrees of multi- Ropponmatsu campuses, the spacematrix results functional cells have existed over years around have shown a decrease in mid-rise strip cells the campus along Nisseki Dori and Shiobaru 59 accompanied by an increase in low-rise strip cells Streets. Fig. 14. Classification of Spacematrix values (Ohashi campus) Fig. 15. Classification of MXI values (Ohashi campus) Fig. 16. Spacematrix and MXI maps for Ohashi campus 5. Discussion Working and mix 10% Amenities + Housing + Working). Although the move-out process of By comparing the results of the spacematrix and Ropponmatsu campus was completed in 2009 MXI for Hakozaki, Ropponmatsu, Ito and Ohashi and Hakozaki campus was still moving out, their campuses, the impact of different trends of impact on the surrounding mixed use of functions moving in and out could be understood. Hakozaki is relatively similar. This could be understood and Ropponmatsu campuses have shown similar according to the fact that the impact of campuses trends in their impact on the surrounding mixed use moving out on their surroundings starts before of functions. The high values of multi-functional the campus has moved out. Investors, business cells (mix 30% Amenities + Housing + Working) owners, decision makers and stakeholders may were replaced with mid and low values of multi- behave according to “word of mouth” in a way functional cells (mix 20% Amenities + Housing + that would make the impact of the move-out processes on the area start early (BUTTLE, 1998). 2013). However, this was not the case for Ito On the other hand, the spacematrix middle values campus as MXI values have shown no significant for areas around Hakozaki and Ropponmatsu change except for the new amenity cells that belong campuses have also been shown to decrease over to the campus buildings. This could be understood in time. However, this was also noted in the area around the context of campus accessibility. As shown in Ohashi campus. When Fukuoka city started having Figure 4, there is no subway or train station near taller buildings and a higher urban density in its to the campus only bus stops, so, the area around the th core, especially at the end of its 6 phase of growth, campus is considered less accessible in comparison this affected the relative urban density in other to other campuses, therefore, the accessibility parts of the city. Therefore, the change happening attribute has potentially hindered the stimulation in the urban density here is considered a general of mixed land use in the area (MOHAMMED & UKAI, phenomenon in the whole city that is not necessarily 2021). related to the moving out process of campuses. We can conclude that Ito campus has been shown The impact caused by campuses moving out to impact the urban density of the area more than on the surrounding mixed use of functions can be the mixed use of functions. Therefore, the impact understood in the context of campus-city functional of new university campuses on their physical relationship. As campuses are usually accompanied relationship with the city is more significant by a high demand of services and amenities in than their impact on the functional relationship. addition to housing. The capacity needed to cover This also confirms that universities have been the needs of students stimulates the mixed use of described as extensive landholders that are capable functions. Therefore, high concentrations of students of changing the urban landscape of the city (LARKHAM, are usually associated with economic changes that 2000; BORSI & SCHULTE, 2018). Thus, we can would result in high degrees of multi-functional summarize that the move-out process affects the buildings (MACINTYRE, 2003). This also confirms mixed use of functions in the area. On the other that universities have been described as the main hand, the move-in process affects the urban density driver of the revitalization of cities (STOKER ET AL., of the area. Furthermore, there are other factors 2015). Therefore, when Hakozaki and Ropponmatsu that should be taken into consideration that campuses moved out, the gap between supply might affect the impact of campuses on their and demand increased in a way that affected the surroundings such as the accessibility attribute, surrounding mixed use of functions which is the size of the campus, the location of the campus considered to be one of the common after-effects and campus openness. Therefore, we can say that of de-studentification (KINTON ET AL., 2016). new campuses have the potential to act as agents Therefore, the impact of campuses moving out on for urban physical change. However, moved out their functional relationship within the city is campuses have the potential to act as agents for considered more significant than their impact on urban functional change. Since there are various the physical relationship. Although Hakozaki and other factors that could facilitate more to the Ropponmatsu campuses were in a uniquely urban morphology such as laws and legislation, accessible location near to different train and developers, builders, planners and architects, subway stations, their impact on the surrounding university campuses could be considered as indirect mixed use of functions was still noticeable. This agents of change (OLIVEIRA, 2016). shows the extent to which moved out campuses impact the mixed use of functions of their 6. Conclusion surroundings. On the other hand, the area around Ito campus University campuses have been known to play has witnessed mid-rise and high-rise strip cells a significant role in the urban development and for the first time over 24 years. Most of these the landscape of innovation of their respective mid/high-rise buildings belong to the campus. cities. However, due to the expansion and However, their existence contributed to the internationalisation of universities, they move construction of other mid/high rise buildings in out of old campuses and expand to larger new the area. Therefore, Ito campus as a new campus campuses in a process that is accompanied by has accelerated the urban density in the area which studentification and de-studentification trends. is known as the natural urban transformation These emergent trends impact the surroundings process (VAN NES & YE, 2014). 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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies – de Gruyter
Published: Mar 1, 2022
Keywords: Spacematrix; mixed-use index; urbanization; campus planning; urban agent
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