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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies DOI: 10.2478/environ-2023-0004 Environ. Socio.-econ. Stud., 2023, 11, 1: 45-57 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Original article Watershed management and climate change adaptation mechanisms used by people living in dryland areas of Lokere catchment in Karamoja, Uganda 1, 2 1 Alex Barakagira *, Isaiah Ndungo Nkumba University, School of Sciences, Post Office Box 237, Entebbe, Uganda Kyambogo University, Faculty of Science, Post Office Box 1, Kyambogo, Kampala, Uganda E–mail address (corresponding author*): firstname.lastname@example.org ORCID iD: Alex Barakagira: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-0305-9193; Isaiah Ndungo: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-2859-7772 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ A B S T R A C T The effects of climate change in Uganda are manifested by severe and sometimes extreme weather events such as droughts and landslides. An Integrated Watershed Management (IWM) plan was initiated in the Karamoja region, aimed at generating information that could be used to reduce climate vulnerabilities among the rural poor. The study aimed at determining the local community’s perception of the effects of climate change on their livelihoods; and, to examine the effectiveness of the Integrated Watershed Management practices (IWMPs) on agricultural production within the area. Three hundred and ninety-seven households were randomly chosen and included in the survey. Interviews with local government officials who held high posts were conducted. Direct observations were also used for data collection. Findings showed that droughts and increases in pests and diseases; were some of the impacts caused by climate change events. Despite the initiation of IWMPs, climate change events moderately increased food insecurity (γ = 0.556; P=0.000) and also moderately affected community assets like roads and valley dams (γ = 0.426; P=0.000). In addition, household income insecurity was moderately and positively related to climate change effects (γ = 0.556; P=0.000). A weak positive relationship was found between the application of IWMPs and agricultural production (γ = 0.273; P=0.000). The Uganda Government should emphasize and intensify the implementation of IWMPs among the farmers living in agricultural watersheds as a means of continuously improving agricultural production and building the farmers’ resilience to climate change events. KEY WORDS: agricultural production; climate variability; food security; Integrated Watershed Management Iinitiative; livelihood components ARTICLE HISTORY: received 5 October 2022; received in revised form 19 February 2023; accepted 24 February 2023 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1. Introduction (HANSEN, 1988). Researchers like CHIJIOKE ET AL. (2011) and MIKOVA ET AL. (2015) predicted floods and The history of the study of climate change in droughts together with more powerful heatwaves environmental science can be traced back to the as global warming increased. Consequently, it 19th century when the concept of the “Ice Age” and was stated that global warming would lead to the “Greenhouse Effect” were proposed (IPCC, 2001, unprecedented and highly damaging impacts like 2020). The early 1980s saw a sharp increment in desertification and reduced agricultural food worldwide temperatures and numerous specialists production (IPCC, 2001; ONOJA ET AL., 2011). point to 1988 as the basic turning point for when SALINGER (2005) and NYENJE & BATELAAN (2009) watershed occurrences put global warming within found that the major climate patterns of the 21st the spotlight (HANSEN, 1988). In the United States century included rapid temperature increases in for example, the summer of 1988 was the most high latitudes of the Northern Hemisphere, which scorching and saw a broad dry spell and rapidly caused more dryness in the Mediterranean regions spreading fires within the United States for example and also led to erratic and unpredictable weather changes. This adversely affected the day-to-day 1.1. Theoretical framework livelihoods of human beings (BAGAMBA ET AL., 2012). This is because according to KHANAL (2009), NELSON The study was anchored on the Theory of Change ET AL. (2009) and TUBIELLO (2012), agriculture, rural (ToC) model of climatic change adaptation as put livelihoods and food security are inseparably forward by BOURS ET AL. (2014). This is because, the connected with climate change. Hence, according theory emphasizes well-coordinated long-term to GROOTAERT & VAN BASTELAR (2002) and FAO interventions to climate change adaptation and (2005), climate change impacts can adversely affect ecosystem services as is the case with the IWM access to livelihood components for community (STEIN & VALTERS, 2012; SERRAT, 2013; ROGERS, members by jeopardizing livelihood outcomes. 2014). BOURS ET AL. (2014) argued that the ToC The outcomes include reduced income, reduced model is well suited for climate change adaptation vulnerability to climate change effects, and increased and evaluation because, although, the ultimate goal food insecurity (KRANTZ, 2001; SERRAT, 2017). and time frame may extend far beyond the reach The livelihood components according to ASHLEY & of the IWM initiative at hand, the model would be CARNEY (1999), KRANTZ (2001), FAO (2005) and used to evaluate the outcomes of the project in SERRAT (2017) include human, social, natural, physical the near term. ROGERS (2014) also postulates that and financial aspects. This study mainly focused the ToC explains how strategies put forward by on the human, natural, physical and financial the IWM may be adapted and responded to, as a components. This is because, the components may result of the emerging issues for a particular outcome. be used as indicators in the study area that enable It is also believed that the ToC articulates how the the farmers to recover from stress and shocks IWM interventions can be used as a precondition brought about by climate change effects (ASHLEY & to achieve long term outcomes that may include CARNEY, 1999; SERRAT, 2017). The components may food security and sustained livelihoods among also be used as a measure of an individual’s well- community members (REINHOLZ & ANDREWS, 2020). being (GOLLNICK & CHINN, 2013). Disruptions to The Integrated Watershed Management Practices livelihood components caused by climate change (IWMPs) introduced as a way to adapting to the impacts are therefore more likely to affect the effects of climate change were aimed at promoting outcomes of a farmer’s livelihood (SERRAT, 2017). social changes among community members and When considering the livelihood components, hence the ToC was regarded as a perfect theory some studies (IPCC, 2001, 2020; OLSSON ET AL., 2019) upon which the study hinged (CHETTY, 2018). show that the impacts of climate change are likely Therefore, the ToC model follows a planning to be more severe for people in developing countries hierarchy of ecosystems which are sustainably than for people in developed countries and are more managed for long term visions and is able to likely to have undesirable effects on poor households support the implementation of the ecosystems in particular (BUCHS ET AL., 2011). In addition, KAISER services’ development strategies, with the view of (2006) posited that the impact of climate change alleviating poverty and sustaining people’s livelihoods on agriculture in developing countries is enormous as outputs (BOURS ET AL., 2014). since these countries tend to strongly depend on climatic conditions. CHIJIOKE ET AL. (2011) and IPCC 1.2. Conceptual background (2020) add that increases in climatic variability bring about increases in extreme weather events The term climate change is defined as the changes which translates to low food production and in climatic conditions that can be identified by availability especially in sub-Saharan Africa. climate’s variability characteristics and that persists Integrated Watershed Management (IWM), a over long periods of time (IPCC, 2012, 2020). The modern method of land rehabilitation and climate NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL (2010) argued that adaptation (HADUSH, 2015), was introduced and climate change is the statistical distribution of used to counteract some of the impacts caused by long-lasting weather patterns spanning decades climate change, especially in developing countries to millions of years. LANDMAN (2010) define climate (GEBREGZIABHER ET AL., 2016). This is because, change as a change in the statistical properties watershed ecosystems are reported to be highly (mean and spread) of the climate system, caused vulnerable to climate extremes due to the nature directly or indirectly by man, when considered of most of their landscapes, which are characterized over long periods of time. Hence, this study views by hilly terrain with both gentle and steep slopes climate change as the state of the climate system that that are subject to intense erosion (GEBREGZIABHER has been naturally or anthropogenically caused and ET AL., 2016; NBI, 2017). persists for an extended period of time. IWM is defined according to some scholars such scale aims to promote the conservation of soil, as GEBREGZIABHER ET AL. (2016), WANG ET AL. (2016), water and natural vegetation by using soil and HADUSH (2015), KARPUZCU & DELIPINARI (2011), and water conservation practices such as terracing, FORCH (2009), as an adaptive, integrated, and multi- mulching, and planting basins that may lead to a disciplinary systems approach to management higher productivity of crops and livestock and that aims to maintain the productivity and integrity thus improving peoples’ livelihoods and protecting of ecosystems in terms of water, soil, plants and the environment from the effects of climate animals within watersheds, thereby protecting change. Hence, an IWM approach aims at balancing ecosystem services for environmental and economic human and environmental needs, while guarding benefit and restoration. The authors further view ecosystem services and biodiversity (BAKKER, IWM as the process of organizing the use of land 2012; WANG ET AL.,2016). and other resources within a watershed to provide In this way, IWMPs are believed to enhance the services people want in a sustainable manner food security and alleviates poverty among members without impacting soil and water resources. Rain- of the local community who live in watershed fed agriculture contributes about 58% of the world’s areas (NBI, 2014; HADUSH, 2015; GEBREGZIABHER food basket (RAJU, 2008) and it is viewed as a focus ET AL. 2016). GEBREGZIABHER ET AL. (2016) further of poverty, malnutrition, food insecurity, vulnerability state that IWMPs are able to restore vegetation in to severe land degradation, water insecurity and poor previously eroded places and thus enhance the social and institutional infrastructure (ROCKSTROM ET productivity of watershed areas. AL. 2007). A watershed development programme is, therefore, seen as an effective tool to address 1.3. Contextual background many of these issues and these are recognized as potential drivers of agricultural growth and In Uganda, climate change is being felt in all development in vulnerable rain-fed areas (WANI parts of the country, particularly manifested in ET AL., 2006). Watershed development projects unpredictable, violent and sometimes extreme according to GEBREMEDHIN (2006), have been weather events such as droughts, floods and designed to address several issues with the aim of landslides (HEPWORTH, 2008; FAO, 2017). The scale, promoting appropriate technologies for soil frequency and severity of these disasters, especially protection, land productivity enhancement, and the droughts, have increased in recent decades (FAO, efficient and sustainable use of natural resources and 2017). Specifically, in the region of Karamoja, agricultural productivity. Watershed management is evidence of climate change comes in the form of reported to be at the centre of rural development intolerable heat waves, droughts and extreme and focuses on improving the livelihoods of local rainfall, resulting in undermining development communities and households by promoting gains and the lack of basic needs (CHAPLIN ET AL., sustainable farming systems (DESTA ET AL., 2005; 2017). The region is highly vulnerable to climate GEBREGZIABHER ET AL., 2016). variability and change while suffering dramatic IWM practices according to FORCH (2009), environmental degradation and deforestation which SANDEEP (2015), JAMALI & RAEESI (2015) and is a result of charcoal production, bush fires, GEBREGZIABHER ET AL. (2016) improve resilience deforestation and landscape change due to mineral towards climate change effects especially in arid extraction (MWE, 2017). Recurring droughts and areas by making water available in order to flooding in Karamoja cause overwhelming food increase food productivity and to protect the agro- and income insecurity (NYENJE & BATELAAN, 2009; ecosystem thus raising peoples’ socioeconomic MWE, 2017) among the Karimojong and specifically conditions based on food security, health and within the Lokere catchment. Similarly, the prolonged education. Reports show that climate hazards such droughts have led to complete crop failures with as floods, droughts, frosts, soil erosion and landslides far-reaching effects on food security and the are reducing in areas where IWMPs have been vulnerability of communities to hunger; less water implemented (YACOB ET AL., 2008; GEBREGZIABHER and pasture for cattle; disease outbreaks; loss of ET AL., 2016). For GURJAR ET AL. (2011) and KERSE biodiversity and increased conflict over resource (2017), IWM programmes are initiated in dryland use (TAYLOR ET AL., 2014; MWE, 2017). To address areas for the collective use of agricultural lands, these impacts of climate change, particularly in water and vegetation to lessen the shortcomings Karamoja, the Government of Uganda, through brought about by climate change and they aim to the Ministry of Water and Environment in the improve people’s livelihoods. KERR (2002), ROCKSTROM 2003 Water Resources Reform, aimed to improve ET AL. (2007) and NBI (2014) add that the the resilience of watershed communities and management of natural resources at the watershed agricultural systems by starting an integrated watershed management programme to mitigate by the River Lokere and its tributaries, and the the impacts, by linking the management of water Lower Lokere wetland complex. The catchment resources with the management of land, ecosystems area is located on a large inland plateau, 400 m and socio-economic systems. Most of the watershed above sea level. 3,083 m above sea level. Mount inhabitants in developing countries like Uganda Moroto which is 3,083 m above sea level, is the practice agriculture for a livelihood (SHENG, 1994). catchment’s most noticeable landmark, while Mt. Given that the catchment is highly volatile and Napak located on the southern boundary of the highly vulnerable to climate change shocks, it was catchment is about 3,000 m above sea level. realistic to assume that IWMPs have the potential to address climate change-related issues in the Lokere catchment (MWE, 2017). The main focus was to maintain agricultural productivity, as the distribution of rainfall is highly uneven and easily constrained by the effects of climate change, which adversely affect people’s livelihoods (GEORGIS ET AL., 2010). Agricultural activities and smallholder farming in the Lokere catchment have been used as engines to retain the natural resource base of the drylands in order to contribute to the adaptation and mitigation of climate change. However, little information is known and documented about the initiative’s successes and failures, if any, since the initiative was launched. This study therefore focuses on the Lokere catchment, in the Karamoja region of Uganda, to explore the effectiveness of the initiated IWMP in building adaptive capacity and ultimately mitigating the impacts of climate change (MWE, 2017). The primary focus was to generate the information needed by the local community Fig. 1. Location of Lokere catchment, Karamoja Region members to appreciate the effects of climate change impacts in watersheds and to make informed The River Lokere rises in the mountains of decisions about their mitigation and adaptation. Moroto and Napak and the rugged mountains of This would enable members of the local community the Kenyan border. The river flows to the southwest, to implement appropriate interventions that will via a network of seasonal rivers and extensive enhance their resilience towards climate change wetlands which eventually merges with the Awoja impacts. Specifically, the objectives that guided catchment located on the eastern part of Lake the study were to determine the local people’s Bisina. From there, the water flows west through perception of the effects of climate change on the Awoja wetlands to Lake Kyoga. The Lokere their livelihoods; and to examine the effectiveness of catchment includes five sub-catchments: Kapir, the IWMPs on agricultural production in the Omanimani, Akokorio, Lockoman and Nangaloapolon Lokere catchment. (MWE, 2017). 2. Methodology 2.2. Techniques and instrumentations 2.1. Study area This study included a descriptive cross-sectional survey using both quantitative and qualitative data The current study was undertaken in the Lokere structures. The descriptive cross-sectional survey catchment located in the Karamoja region (Fig. 1) design provided information about the study where the Integrated Watershed Management was variables of the Integrated Watershed Management initiated. The survey was conducted from the month and how it affected climate change adaptation at of January to September, 2019. The catchment some point in time (HALL, 2008). Qualitative data covers the districts of Kaabong, Moroto, Napak, helped to confirm and enrich the quantitative Nakapiripirit and Kotido. The Lokere catchment information obtained from the study (LINDLOF & covers a total area of 8,156 km , and has a population TYLOR, 2011; SARANTAKOS, 2005). A number of of 420,000 people from 51,299 households (MWE, complementary strategies were used to collect the 2017). The River Lokere Basin is strongly influenced vast amount of information. These strategies had as representative for the entire population. As the advantage of improving our ability to decipher suggested by KOTHARI (2004), at a significance the information collected as suggested by HOGGART level of 5%, the results represent the true condition ET AL. (2002). of the population and the use of the large sample Key primary data for respondents in the study size ensured a minimal sampling error. The area were collected by means of a questionnaire households used in the study were randomly (appended). The questionnaire was used to gather selected. One grown-up individual, aged 18 or over, information from community members and was was chosen from each selected household, and pre-tested in another area. Pre-testing allowed informed that the reason for the study was academic, interviewers to familiarize themselves with the and the respondent’s secrecy and anonymity was questionnaire and provided the opportunity to guaranteed. The questionnaire was administered use and audit the survey instruments. The reliability to the respondent in the form of an interview and statistics for the items found in the questionnaire in the common local dialect, since the larger part were determined and the Cronbach’s alpha statistic, of the respondents (70%) had no formal education α = 0.879, was obtained. The Cronbach’s alpha and were thought to have a low understanding of statistic exceeded α = 0.70 which indicated that the survey instrument. there was good reliability and internal-consistency The key informants were purposively selected in of the research instrument (AMIN, 2005). Pre-testing order to acquire an expert’s opinion about the topic the questionnaire also helped us assess how of study. Their answers about the variables were respondents comprehended the questions and to compared in order to determine the effectiveness determine if they had any problems responding. of IWM interventions in creating the adaptive The questionnaire focused on respondents’ capacities of the communities and to mitigate climate understanding of watershed management and change impacts in the dryland areas of Karamoja. adaptations to climate change in the arid region Also, purposive sampling of the respondents of the Lokere catchment found in Karamoja. The provided the study with a rich background of respondents were asked for their perceptions information on the topic under study (KOMBO, 2006). and opinions on the effectiveness of the IWM interventions for agricultural production. This was 2.4. Statistical `analysis done for both farmers who do, or do not, employ the Integrated Watershed Management interventions The data gathered using the questionnaire on their farmland within the Lokere catchment. were analyzed using version 20.0 of IBM-SPSS for In addition, an interview guide was used to Windows. This provided descriptive and inferential gather data from key informants who held the statistics concerning the IWM and climate change highest positions within the local government of adaptation in the dryland areas of the Lokere the departments of Agriculture, Veterinary, Natural catchment in Karamoja. Descriptive statistics like Resources and Forestry from the districts. Also, the measure of frequency and mean were used to direct field observations were made concerning provide information on the respondent’s household the methods members of the local community characteristics and their knowledge concerning employed to counter the effects of climate change the IWM practices based on the 5-point Likert scale. and also to observe what was happening to some The association of the attributes within the study physical assets. Digital photographs were used to were tested using the Chi-square test. In addition, represent the information directly observed in correlation analysis was employed to determine the field and these were used to confirm the the possible associations between some variables reliability of information provided by the study under study such as the result brought about by participants during the survey. the effects of the occurrence of climate change on food security in the study area. An ANOVA test was 2.3. Sample size and sample selection performed to understand whether the differences that exist in the application of the various IWMPs The households used in the study were part of were as a result of the level of education of members the 51,299 total households found in the whole of of the local community. Inferential statistics allowed the Lokere catchment within the Karamoja region us to generalize the data while reporting on specific (MWE, 2017). Slovin’s formula, n = N/1+Ne , was points in the study. Generalization enabled the used to calculate the required sample size. research findings to be extrapolated in order to (n=sample size, N=Total number of households, reflect the characteristics of the entire population e=Significant level, 5%). Therefore, the sample as stated by BRYMAN (2004) and SARANTAKOS (2005). size, n, was 397 households, which was regarded Data from key informants were thematically categorized based on specific interests as stated their livelihoods, despite the IWM interventions by SARANTAKOS (2005). in the area. The livelihood components that were covered in this study include human components, 3. Results natural components, physical components and financial components. 3.1. Household characteristics Climate change effects brought many problems in the Lokere catchment. These effects include droughts The majority (68%) of the respondents were on natural assets as reported by 99% of the female and some 31% of the respondents formed respondents, followed by the prevalence of pests a bigger proportion aged 48 years and above. This and diseases (91%) on human assets and then was closely followed by a quarter of the respondents wildfires (86%). Some other respondents (49%) (25%) whose age group was 28–37 years. The experienced floods affecting natural assets as a biggest proportion (70%) of the respondents never result of climate change. obtained formal education and only 21% were Climate change effects negatively affected the primary (elementary) school graduates (Table 1). food security of the people of the Karamoja region This was an indication that almost the entire where the two variables were found to have a population (91%) at χ = 685.7 (P = 0.05) living in moderate and significant relationship (γ = 0.556; the Lokere catchment whose education was not P = 0.000) as shown in Table 2. This depicted that beyond elementary level had few skills and little whereas there was an initiation of IWMPs in the knowledge (less human capital) to qualify them study area, an increase in climate change events to seek formal employment for their improved tended to increase food insecurity and hence socio-economic status. Hence, they mostly depended negatively affect the financial assets of community on the surrounding natural resources for agricultural members. activities for their livelihoods. Such members of In addition, a significant and moderately positive the community were likely to be adversely affected relationship (γ = 0.426; P = 0.000) was obtained by climate change occurrences. when climate change occurrence and community assets were correlated as shown in Table 3. The Table 1. Household characteristics of the respondents community assets (physical components) that (Researcher’s Questionnaire Survey, 2019) were under study in the Karamoja region include roads, markets, valley tanks and dams. Therefore, Variable Frequency Chi-square irrespective of the implementation of IWMPs in Gender the study area, an increase in climate change Male occurrences moderately affected community assets χ = 52.3; P = 0.05 as well. Female The information was supported by some field Age group (years) observations during a transect walk in the area of 18 – 27 study. It was observed that most boreholes (water 28 – 37 points) were spoilt as a result of heavy rains and 38 - 47 χ = 9.2; P = 0.05 floods which dug out the underneath of the 48 and above boreholes’ apron that made them collapse. The few functional boreholes seemed to be following suit Education level since it was even observed that floods (Fig. 2) still None linger around them. Primary (elementary) Secondary χ = 685.7; P = 0.05 Diploma Degree 3.2. Effects of climate change on the livelihoods of people living in Lokere catchment in Karamoja region The watershed communities were asked for their perceptions and opinions about the Fig. 2. Floods around a borehole in the study area (Ndungo, 2019) occurrences of the effects of climate change on Household income, as one of the financial assets household income for the members of the local for the people living in the Lokere catchment was community. However, it was realized that an found to be moderately related to the occurrence increase in climate change occurrences in the of the climate change effects (γ = 0.556; P = 0.000) as study area led to a moderate increase in the shown in Table 4. Initiation of IWMPs in the insecurity of household incomes. study area were expected to positively impact on Table 2. Correlation analysis between climate change events and food insecurity in Lokere catchment (Researcher’s Questionnaire Survey, 2019) Variables Climate change occurrence Food insecurity Correlation coefficient 1.000 0.556** Climate change occurrence Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 Spearman’s rho N 397 394 Correlation coefficient 0.556** 1.000 Food insecurity Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 N 394 394 **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) Table 3. Correlation analysis between climate change occurrence and community assets in Lokere catchment (Researcher’s Questionnaire Survey, 2019) Variables Climate change occurrence Community assets Correlation coefficient 1.000 0.426** Climate change occurrence Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 Spearman’s rho N 397 395 Correlation coefficient 0.426** 1.000 Community assets Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 N 395 395 **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) Table 4. Correlation analysis between climate change occurrence and household income insecurity in Lokere catchment (Researcher’s Questionnaire Survey, 2019) Variables Climate change events Income insecurity Correlation coefficient 1.000 0.556** Climate change occurrence Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 Spearman’s rho N 397 394 Correlation coefficient 0.556** 1.000 Household income insecurity Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000 N 394 394 **Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed) 3.3. Effectiveness of Integrated Watershed The respondents who used micro-basins (Zai pits) Management on agricultural production in were n=267, trenches (n=335), terraces (n=347), the Lokere catchment afforestation (n=379), composting (n=251), and mulching (n=367). The respondents’ knowledge, perception and The respondents’ level of knowledge of Integrated application of various Integrated Watershed Watershed Management practices on agricultural Management practices in the Lokere catchment production were determined by focusing on finding were considered to examine the effectiveness of out whether members of the local community the initiative on agricultural production in the have adequate knowledge of using micro-basins catchment. An average number of three hundred (Zai pits), trenches, contour bands or terraces, and twenty-four (324) respondents, corresponding afforestation, compost making and mulching, as to 81.8% of the cohort applied different Integrated a means used to improve agricultural outputs. Watershed Management Practices in the catchment. The study revealed that the respondents had adequate knowledge and used Integrated Watershed obtained from the study (Table 5) indicated a mean Management practices aimed at improving value of 4.0 based on the 5-point Likert scale that agricultural outputs with a mean of 4.0 which positively deviates from the optimal mean of 2.5 was measured using a 5-point Likert scale that which signifies that the IWMPs including use of assumed the optimal mean of 2.5. micro-basins, trenches, contour bands, tree planting The respondents’ perception of the effectiveness and others, improves agricultural production in of IWMPs on agricultural production was studied the study area. In line with some other information bearing in mind the notion that most rural obtained from key informants, someone stated communities have mixed feelings concerning new that: initiatives introduced in the area. The information “The members of the local community who obtained from some key informants revealed that managed to practice some IWMPs, realized some members of the community were skeptical about improvement on their crop yields, and this is likely the usefulness of the initiative, with some stating to promote their well-being and hence be able to that the initiative was a gimmick for promoting popularize the use of the introduced Integrated some academic concepts. However, the results Watershed Management Practices”. Table 5. Responses on farmers’ knowledge on use of Integrated Watershed Management Practices, based on a 5-point Likert scale (Researcher’s Questionnaire Survey, 2019) Item Level of response Frequency Percentage Mean I have adequate knowledge on Strongly disagree 15 4 use of micro-basins (Zai pits) Disagree 106 27 Not sure 0 0 3.7 Agree 120 32 Strongly agree 147 37 I have adequate knowledge on Strongly disagree 6 2 use of trenches Disagree 56 14 Not sure 0 0 3.9 Agree 216 54 Strongly agree 119 30 I have adequate knowledge on Strongly disagree 7 2 use of terraces Disagree 43 11 Not sure 0 0 4.1 Agree 184 46 Strongly agree 163 41 I have adequate knowledge on Strongly disagree 2 1 use of afforestation Disagree 16 4 Not sure 0 0 4.5 Agree 156 39 Strongly agree 223 56 I have adequate knowledge on Strongly disagree 11 3 use of compost Disagree 135 34 Not sure 0 0 3.6 Agree 98 25 Strongly agree 153 39 I have adequate knowledge on Strongly disagree 1 0 use of mulching Disagree 29 7 Not sure 0 0 4.4 Agree 137 35 Strongly agree 230 58 Average 4.0 A Chi-square test (Table 6) was performed to of the effectiveness of IWMPs on agricultural ascertain whether perception of the effectiveness production and education level of respondents, of IWMPs on agricultural production was associated since the P-value generated (P=0.312) was greater with the level of education of respondents in the than α=0.05. Therefore, despite the fact that some study area. The study found out there was no elite persons were skeptical of the effectiveness association between the respondents’ perception of the initiative in the Lokere catchment, the majority of the members of the local community, education of the members of the local community though not educated (70%) perceived that the in the Lokere catchment. A correlation coefficient Integrated Watershed Management practices in test was performed to find out whether application the Lokere catchment were very effective for of IWMPs in the study area resulted in increased agricultural production. agricultural production. The study revealed a weak A one-way ANOVA test was performed to positive relationship between application of understand whether application of various Integrated Watershed Management practices and Integrated Watershed Management practices by agricultural production (γ = 0.273; P=0.000). This the local community members of the Lokere probably meant that some other factors such as catchment was based on their level of education. local people’s attitudes towards implementation The study revealed that there was no mean of Integrated Watershed Management practices, difference between the application of various soil type of the area and seed-specific studies, among Integrated Watershed Management practices in others, in addition to the applied Integrated the Lokere catchment and the level of education Watershed Management practices contributed to of the respondents (F=1.285; P=0.275) as shown the improvement of agricultural production in in Table 7. Therefore, the application of IWM the Lokere catchment. interventions is independent of the level of Table 6. Chi-square test between educational level and perception of farmers on the effectiveness of Integrated Watershed Management practices on agricultural production (Researcher’s Questionnaire Survey, 2019) Variables Value df Asymptotic significance (2-sided) Pearson Chi-square 77.362 72 .312 Likelihood ratio 64.748 72 .716 Linear-by-linear association .282 1 .596 N of valid cases 397 a.76 cells (80.0%) have expected count less than 5. The minimum expected count is .00 Table 7. One-way ANOVA between educational level of farmers and application of Integrated Watershed Management Practices (Researcher’s Questionnaire Survey, 2019) Variables Sum of squares df Mean square F Sig. Between groups 109.479 4 27.370 1.285 .275 Within groups 8346.445 392 21.292 Total 8455.924 396 Thus, it can be concluded that despite integrated watershed management practices. It implementation of integrated watershed caused droughts (99%), which led to pests and management practices in the Karamoja region, diseases flourishing (91%), and floods (49%). In continued increase in occurrences of the effects of addition, climate change events significantly affected climate change to some extent negatively affected community assets, and to some extent contributed to the local community livelihoods, exhibited by food insecurity and household income insecurity. food insecurity, household income insecurity, The results tend to agree with the studies conducted lower human assets and destruction of physical by BASIIMA (2018), who stated that floods hindered assets. However, a wave of relief was experienced food production in the Kasese district, Uganda, by the participants when the effects of climate that led to increased food prices. FUNK (2005), change occurrences were countered as a result of BROUWER (2015) and OLUWOLE ET AL. (2017) the initiation of watershed management practices, documented that heavy rains and prolonged dry like the use of micro-basins, terraces, mulching and spells brought about by the climate change afforestation which resulted in some improvements enhanced crop failure in Uganda and in some in the agricultural production. other sub-Saharan countries. A study conducted in Zimbabwe by DZVIMBO (2017) and OKONYA ET 4. Discussion AL. (2013) posited that climate change effects impacted on agriculture negatively through extensive Climate change occurrences continued to cause and prolonged periods of drought, unpredictable significant negative effects to people living in the rainfall patterns and floods, yet agriculture was Karamoja region despite the implementation of known to be the backbone of food security in the country and more especially for the rural low- IWM practices aimed at conservation of soil, water income farmers. TUBIELLO (2012) and MIKOVA ET and other natural resources which eventually AL. (2015) intimate that agricultural systems are promoted agricultural productivity and improved the most vulnerable due to the presence of the livelihoods of local communities. droughts and floods which in turn affected crop Scholars like GEBREGZIABHER ET AL. (2016) production. GEORGIS ET AL. (2010) reported that reported that integrated watershed management agricultural production was always constrained practices formed a central point for rural by high climate variability and long dry spells development and were a means of poverty which resulted in poor crop yields. WREFORD ET alleviation among rural communities. Similary, AL. (2010), TUBIELLO (2012) and MIKOVA ET AL. KARPUZCU & DELIPINARI (2011) and HADUSH (2015) (2015) stated that increased climatic extremes affirmed that IWM practices enabled positive promoted plant diseases and pest outbreaks. economic growth by increasing the incomes of KERSE (2017) adds that climate change effects communities who lived in the watersheds. GURJAR encouraged pests and diseases and allowed them ET AL. (2011) stated that some of the purposes of to flourish which constrained crop production implementing IWM programmes, like planting even when IWM initiatives were implemented. vegetation, were to reduce drought impacts and IPCC (2020) reported that climate change negatively moderation of floods. KERR (2002), ALEMU & affected crop yields especially in drylands and KIDANE (2014) and KEBEDE (2015) state that crop low-latitude regions including those in sub-Saharan production and Integrated Watershed Management Africa. In addition, HADUSH (2015) and IPCC (2020) objectives promote conservation of soil, water wrote that droughts due to longer dry spells and natural vegetation, which in turn lead to high encouraged the spread of alien weed species and productivity of crops that improve people’s crop pests which led to a reduction in the yields livelihoods. In addition, Integrated Watershed of crops which was more pronounced in Africa. Management practices undertaken in the Kenya The Integrated Watershed Management practices Highlands resulted in increased yields as affirmed which were introduced by the initiative aimed at by OKOBA & DE GRAAFF (2005). countering climate change effects culminated in a Furthermore, KATO ET AL. (2011) mentioned positive and significant benefit to agricultural that the use of stone bunds and grass strips as some production in the area of study. Results from the form of terracing, resulted in robust and positive Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a slight outputs especially on crops which were grown in positive relationship between the application of low rainfall areas. Other authors such as HERWEG Integrated Watershed Management Practices and & LUDI (1999), TENGE (2005) and TESHOME (2013) agricultural production. Findings of some scholars also noted that the application of more than one like JOSHI (2005) and WANI ET AL. (2008), were in Integrated Watershed practice, like the use of agreement with the results where they reported composting, bunds, and planting basins increased that watershed development programmes were soil moisture content and reduced soil erosion, considered to be an effective tool for agricultural which in turn increased crop yields. growth especially in fragile and rainfed ecosystems. ROCKSTROM ET AL. (2007) posits that management 5. Conclusions of natural resources at the watershed scale produced a number of benefits including increased food A host of effects have been documented to production and environmental protection. have affected the livelihoods of people living in VANCAMPENHOUT ET AL. (2006) and RAES ET AL. the Lokere catchment, in the Karamoja region as (2007) in their investigations reported that the a result of climate change. The study found that use of soil bunds as one of the IWM practices led intermittent droughts, prevalence of pests and to enhanced yields in crops which were grown in diseases, wildfires and floods resulted in food Tigray-Ethiopia and Tanzania respectively. SANDEEP insecurity and household income insecurity among (2015) reported that water harvesting structures the households in the Lokere catchment. like terraces enhanced water sustainability and Climate change effects also resulted in the hence led to an improvement in crop yields. destruction of some physical assets like roads, MEKURIA ET AL. (2007), GIRMAY ET AL. (2008) and markets, and water points, which were perceived KERSE (2017) stated that the use of soil and water to have negatively affected the livelihoods of conservation measures in watershed areas promoted community members living in watershed areas. infiltration, which eventually led to availability of Government should emphasize and intensify water that resulted in increased crop yields. implementation of the watershed management SHENG (1994) and NBI (2014) documented that practices including, among others, micro basins, Dvimbo M.A. 2017. 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Environmental & Socio-economic Studies – de Gruyter
Published: Mar 1, 2023
Keywords: agricultural production; climate variability; food security; Integrated Watershed Management Iinitiative; livelihood components
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