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J. Meijerink, E. Schoenmakers (2020)Why are online reviews in the sharing economy skewed toward positive ratings? Linking customer perceptions of service quality to leaving a review of an Airbnb stay
Journal of Tourism Futures
C. Dossena, F. Mochi, R. Bissola, B. Imperatori (2020)Restaurants and social media: rethinking organizational capabilities and individual competencies
Journal of Tourism Futures
H. Ruel, E. Njoku (2020)AI redefining the hospitality industry
Richard Johnson, D. Stone, Kimberly Lukaszewski (2020)The benefits of eHRM and AI for talent acquisition
Huub Ruel Huub Ruel is based at the Introduction to the special issue Research Centre, Theme: The future of e-HRM and artiﬁcial intelligence in the hospitality and tourism Hotelschool The Hague, industry Den Haag, The Netherlands. The international hospitality and tourism industry has been one of the sectors most severely hit by the COVID-19 pandemic. Millions of jobs have been lost, and all over the world hospitality and tourism businesses are struggling to survive despite the relief that governments may offer. Expectations differ about how quickly the industry may recover from the consequences of the pandemic. The most optimistic voices claim that international tourism will soon reach the levels of the pre-pandemic era and beyond. Pessimistic voices try to convince us that international travel and tourism will suffer for many years to come because of enduring travel anxiety, something new such as post-pandemic stress disorder, a global economic recession and expected necessary government budget cuts to recoup the generous and lengthy ﬁnancial support offered to businesses. What do these considerations mean for human resource management (HRM) and global talent management (GTM) in the hospitality and tourism industry? And even more, what do they mean for the future of technology in HRM and GTM? The possible answers to these questions will depend on the choices that societies, governments, industry leaders, citizens and future guests make. If these stakeholders continue to choose a cost- and proﬁt-driven hospitality and tourism industry future, then technology for HRM and GTM will be used to replace human resources and talents as much as possible and to make HRM and GTM processes more cost-efﬁcient from hiring to ﬁring. If the stakeholders mentioned prefer a long-term, sustainable and responsible hospitality and tourism industry future, then technology will be used to enhance the quality of jobs and working life and to improve HRM and GTM processes to nurture and develop human talents and organizations. The ﬁrst choice implies that the hospitality and tourism businesses are considered independent actors that predominantly need to respond to shareholder and investor demands. Organizations are then a nexus of contracts. The second choice implies that hospitality businesses are inseparable from society and have a duty to respond to societal demands or even to push the bar higher to help societies to develop. Organizations are then © Huub Ruel. Published in communities of people working together. Technological developments are subject to the Journal of Tourism Futures. Published by Emerald societal contexts in which they take place and as a result also to the way they are applied. Publishing Limited. This article is published under the Creative For the post-COVID future, which most likely will confront us with similar challenges sooner or Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Anyone may later, the international hospitality and tourism industry ﬁnds itself at a crossroads. Will it reproduce, distribute, translate remain an industry that has an image of a rather unattractive employer in many societies, or and create derivative works of this article (for both commercial will it aim to become a leader in sustainable and responsible HRM and GTM that serve and non-commercial purposes), societies? subject to full attribution to the original publication and authors. This special issue on the future of e(lectronic)-HRM and GTM and artiﬁcial intelligence in the The full terms of this licence may beseenat http:// hospitality and tourism industry is proud to present four articles that in one way or another creativecommons.org/licences/ by/4.0/legalcode address these questions. PAGE 2 JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES VOL. 7 NO. 1 2021, pp. 2-4, Emerald Publishing Limited, ISSN 2055-5911 DOI 10.1108/JTF-03-2021-192 j j The ﬁrst contribution by Jeroen Meijerink and Emma Schoenmakers, entitled “Why are online reviews in the sharing economy skewed toward positive ratings? Linking customer perceptions of service quality to leaving a review of an Airbnb stay,” refers to one of the major hospitality and tourism industry developments, namely, the emergence of online platforms such as Airbnb. In an era in which guest experiences and customer ratings are often included in employee performance reviews (whether this is good or not is another question), the authors found that the more positive the customers’ experience, the more likely they are to leave a review. Therefore, online reviews are skewed and may not be the most informative and useful about how and what to improve for hospitality and tourism entrepreneurs. For the future of e-HRM and artiﬁcial intelligence-based global talent management (AI-GTM), this may imply that if guest and customer online reviews and evaluations are to be used for employee performance reviews and for guest experience improvements, more needs to be done to avoid skewed review data. The second contribution to this special issue is from Claudia Dossena, Francesca Mochi, Rita Bissola and Barbara Imperatori, entitled “Restaurants and social media: rethinking organizational capabilities and individual competencies.” It addresses the issue of how restaurant managers can use social media for strategic purposes rather than for relational and marketing purposes only. The COVID-19 pandemic has pushed thousands of restaurants to focus on online ordering and home delivery only. Many of these businesses were not ready or capable of doing this before the pandemic broke out. The post-pandemic future may show that online ordering and home delivery are here to stay and part of their catering future. Social media are key for restaurant owners and managers to promote and develop their businesses. This has consequences for their human resource and talent management aspects. The article shows that social media usage can go beyond relational and marketing purposes. Social media can be used strategically if speciﬁc capabilities and competencies are hired, nurtured or developed by restaurants. The third article, entitled “The beneﬁts of e-HRM and AI for talent acquisition” by Richard Johnson, Dianne Stone and Kim Lukaszewski, discusses how hospitality and tourism organizations can use e-HRM and artiﬁcial intelligence (AI) to help recruit and select qualiﬁed employees, increase individual retention rates and decrease the time needed to replace employees. The authors ﬁnd that e-HRM and AI have the potential to transform recruitment and selection in hospitality and tourism businesses. But they warn that care must be taken to ensure that e-HRM and AI are well received by employees and that they lead to better employee and organizational outcomes. The fourth article by Huub Ruel and Esther Njoku, entitled “AI redeﬁning the hospitality industry,” addresses the question of how AI technologies redeﬁne the hospitality industry and how they impact employee engagement, retention and productivity levels. In their contribution, Ruel and Njoku deﬁne AI-GTM as: all kinds of digital analytics technology or neural network-based intelligence with training and learning capabilities that an organisation chooses to put in place in a consciously, ethically and regulatory correct and focused way for the systematic identiﬁcation of pivotal positions, and the development and deployment of a talent pool of high-performing, high-potential employees that contribute to an organisation’s competitive advantage in the short or long term. Rue¨l and Njoku ﬁnd it important to stress the addition of “consciously, ethically and regulatory correct” to the deﬁnition. The human application of information technology always carries the risk of invading privacy and compromising human integrity, but given the relatively aggressive progress pushed by Silicon Valley investments, they believe that the application of AI will be at risk of compromising human integrity and invading privacy to a greater extent than e-HRM. The application of AI to GTM needs careful consideration, and Rue¨l and Njoku believe that societies around the world do not yet have the legal framework in place to guide and regulate AI applications for GTM. This concerns the issue of allowing AI to serve GTM in new and better ways as well as avoiding the application of AI to GTM that disrespects the VOL. 7 NO. 1 2021 JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES PAGE 3 j j talents’ individual integrity and rights in favor of the integrity and rights of the talent workforce as a collective. I believe that these four articles provide a useful contribution to the debate on the future of e- HRM and AI-GTM in the hospitality and tourism industry. References (with early cite link) Dossena, C., Mochi, F., Bissola, R. and Imperatori, B. (2020), “Restaurants and social media: rethinking organizational capabilities and individual competencies”, Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print, doi: 10.1108/JTF-06-2019-0050. Johnson, R.D., Stone, D.L. and Lukaszewski, K.M. (2020), “The beneﬁts of eHRM and AI for talent acquisition”, Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print, doi: 10.1108/JTF-02- 2020-0013. Meijerink, J. and Schoenmakers, E. (2020), “Why are online reviews in the sharing economy skewed toward positive ratings? Linking customer perceptions of service quality to leaving a review of an Airbnb stay”, Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print, doi: 10.1108/JTF-04-2019-0039. Ruel, H. and Njoku, E. (2020), “AI redeﬁning the hospitality industry”, Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of-print, doi: 10.1108/JTF-03-2020-0032. For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: firstname.lastname@example.org PAGE 4 JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES VOL. 7 NO. 1 2021 j j
Journal of Tourism Futures – Emerald Publishing
Published: May 13, 2021
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