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The Doughnut Destination: applying Kate Raworth’s Doughnut Economy perspective to rethink tourism destination management Stefan Hartman and Jasper Hessel Heslinga Abstract Stefan Hartman and Purpose – In this viewpoint paper, the authors explore and discuss how Kate Raworth’s (2017) Doughnut Jasper Hessel Heslinga are Economy perspective and accompanying “Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist” can be both based at the European applied to rethink the future of tourism destination management for the better. Tourism Futures Institute Design/methodology/approach – The authors take a “transferability” approach, being a process performed (ETFI), NHL Stenden by the authors as readers of existing work noting its specifics in order to compare them to the specifics of an University of Applied environment with which they are familiar. In this viewpoint paper, the authors apply the work of Raworth to the Sciences, Leeuwarden, The environment of tourism destination development. Netherlands. Findings – The Doughnut Economy perspective and the accompanying “seven ways” help forward tourism destination management in the future, even more when it is interpreted and tailored to a tourism context and reconceptualized as the Doughnut Destination as presented in this paper. Originality/value – The work of Kate Raworth has been gaining interest and support throughout academia, society and in various (economic) policy domains. Surprisingly, it has not been applied to the tourism context to its full extent, even though it offers much potential in recent discussions on overtourism, carrying capacity and limits of acceptable change as well as offering a possible framework to structure monitoring effects in the pursuit of developing smart tourism destinations. Keywords Tourism management, Destination development, Governance, Resilient destinations Paper type Viewpoint 1. Introduction In 2017, Kate Raworth published the influential book “Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think Like a 21st-Century Economist”. In this book, she proposes a visual framework for sustainable development – shaped like a doughnut or lifebelt – combining the concept of planetary boundaries Received 19 January 2022 Revised 31 March 2022 with the complementary concept of social boundaries (Raworth, 2017). She elaborates seven ways Accepted 2 May 2022 to rethink economic development. Surprisingly, this innovative way of thinking has not been applied © Stefan Hartman and Jasper yet in a tourism context; hence, we think the approach has great potential for improving future Hessel Heslinga. Published in tourism destination management. First, it advocates a welcome paradigm shift that resonates well Journal of Tourism Futures. Published by Emerald Publishing with current lines of thinking in tourism, which need to be connected further, e.g. related to Limited. This article is published regenerative tourism, resilience, transitions thinking, purpose economy and carrying capacity. under the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY 4.0) licence. Second, it offers an overarching perspective seeking wider system transformation, which we believe Anyone may reproduce, is crucial, as well as still underdeveloped in tourism studies, to counter the still quite dominant distribute, translate and create derivative works of this article (for growth-oriented, boosterism-inspired ways of developing tourism destinations (Hartman, 2022). both commercial and non- commercial purposes), subject In this viewpoint paper, we build upon the work of Raworth and introduce The Doughnut to full attribution to the original Destination as an alternative perspective to examine tourism destinations and better manage publication and authors. The full terms of this licence may be seen them. After introducing the approach itself, by focusing on the model, we apply Raworth’s ideas by at http://creativecommons.org/ transferring the “seven ways” she identified into the realm of tourism to propose seven ways of licences/by/4.0/legalcode. DOI 10.1108/JTF-01-2022-0017 VOL. 9 NO. 2 2023, pp. 279-284, Emerald Publishing Limited, ISSN 2055-5911 JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES PAGE 279 j j framing tourism destinations. We use a “transferability” approach, being a process performed by the authors as readers of existing work, in our case the work of Raworth, noting its specifics in order to compare them to the specifics of an environment with which they are familiar, in our case tourism destination development. The work of Raworth inspires new ways of looking at tourism, leading to conclusions on the transferability of the concept and its value/power to rethink the future of tourism destination management. 2. The Doughnut Destination The seeming simplicity of the “doughnut model” makes it both attractive and effective (see Figure 1). It summarizes a complex storyline in a set of basic items. The basic model shows a “safe space” when the social foundation is not jeopardized (if so: shortfall), and the ecological ceiling is considered (if so: overshoot). The model shows thresholds between light green and dark green which, if crossed, mean economies enter a danger zone. When the outer limits, between the dark green and the white space inside and outside of the model, are crossed, it means economies are out of balance. Transferring the model to a tourism context, we find that social, environmental, economic and technical overshoots are widely identified, e.g. related to overtourism, social uprising, displacement, CO emissions, ecosystem degradation and depletion of resources (energy, water and food). More examples are given in Figure 2. Shortfalls can be related to bankruptcies, poverty, unemployment, poor working conditions, degradation of infrastructures, inaccessibility and low visitor satisfaction (also see Figure 2). Understanding overshoots and shortfalls can help to identify upper and lower limits as well as thresholds, which subsequently can be monitored and function as early warning signals (thresholds) and emergency signals (limits) for stakeholders in tourism management. When thresholds are reached, or worse, limits are exceeded, a destination has been pushed out of balance, and immediate action is needed. To stay within the “safe space”, as shown in green in Figure 2, destinations need to find a balance between the quality of work for entrepreneurs and employees, the quality of experience for visitors, the quality of life for inhabitants and the quality of the place (public space, heritage and ecosystems) while avoiding overshoot and shortfalls (cf. Koens et al., 2019; CELTH, 2022). The transfer of Raworth’s model to a tourism context draws attention to what we call the Doughnut Destination (Figure 2) and allows us to raise awareness about what it takes to implement a Doughnut Destination in practice. This is discussed in the following section making use of Raworth’s “seven ways”. Figure 1 Doughnut model PAGE 280 JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES VOL. 9 NO. 2 2023 j j Figure 2 The Doughnut Destination 3. Seven ways of reframing tourism destinations In her book, Raworth identified seven ways to think like a 21st century economist, by criticizing the old principles of economic thinking and introducing a set of new principles that should be guiding in the future. We transfer these same principles into a tourism context and support this by examples observed from practice. 3.1 Change the goal: tourism as a means Similar to the observation of “over 70 years economics has been fixated on GDP, or national output, as its primary measure of progress” by Raworth (p. 28), tourism scholars Cave and Dredge (2020, p. 505) note that in a tourism context, “seven decades of growth have thwarted any appetite to imagine new and alternative economic models”.However,theyalsostate that there are emerging shifts in thinking focusing on “how to thrive in balance” (p. 28). For example, the Netherlands Board of Tourism and Conventions (NBTC), being the Dutch National Tourism Organization (NTO) as well as the city of Amsterdam, publicly announced that tourism should become a means for development instead of solely being a goal in itself (NBTC, 2019; City of Amsterdam, 2021). 3.2 See the big picture: tourism is embedded into a larger whole Tourism is not a stand-alone industry. It is intrinsically connected to and/or part of wider regions (cities, rural areas and remote areas) and their communities, landscapes and ecosystems (Heslinga et al., 2017; Hartman, 2021a; Postma and Yeoman, 2021). What is more, tourism’s success often depends on these connections. The tourism industry should appreciate these connections, value and respect them, and seek to make such connections mutually beneficial (also see principle 6 on regenerative and responsible tourism). Stakeholders involved in tourism, including the public sector, should develop the competencies to address tourism as such. 3.3 Nurture human nature: tourists are not rational economic men Many tourists are tempted to seek the best deal in price/quality ratio. Yet the price is not always the core aspect as emotions play a big role as well. People seek experiences, transformations VOL. 9 NO. 2 2023 JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES PAGE 281 j j and may also seek ways to reduce impact, travel sustainably and give back to local communities, businesses and ecosystems all as part of fulfilling their needs. Tourists can do good, many want to do good but may not know how to do so. The industry is generally not fully helpful here, or worse, not even interested as it might complicate matters and affect their business models. 3.4 Get savvy with systems: tourism is part of a dynamic complex system Various authors argue the relevance of adopting a systems perspective on destination development (Hartman, 2021b; Postma and Yeoman, 2021; Ma and Hassink, 2013; Baggio, 2008). Understanding the tourism industry, a tourism business or a destination as a complex system helps to understand how their development is affected by external forces that drive change within systems, trigger adaptation by change agents within systems and potentially create new emergent structures along the way when their adaptive actions gain momentum and become widespread – often in a self-organizing manner. Also, adopting a complex systems approach implies that no single actor is in complete control. Systems will always be dynamic, they even have to be, for agents to adapt and systems to co-evolve in relation to other (also dynamic) systems. We have to see tourism as part of widersystems (e.g.cityorregion) andnot try to address it on its own, making a case for a focus on resilient regions (Heslinga et al., 2020; Heslinga, 2022). 3.5 Tourism needs to be redistributive: tourism benefits all In tourism, the idea of growth will eventually be abandoned and slowly substituted by the idea that tourism needs to become a means for community development wherein all stakeholders benefit (Higgins-Desbiolles, 2020). In the Netherlands, the aim of “tourism benefits all” has made its way into Perspective 2030, a future vision of the NBTC, the Dutch NTO and also to more regional tourism policy documents, such as in the Gastvrij Fryslan 2028 [Hospitality Friesland 2028] vision by the Province of Friesland, The Netherlands or the 2025 vision “Rethinking the Visitor Economy” by Amsterdam & Partners, the destination marketing organization (DMO) of the City of Amsterdam. These are examples of frontrunners that are trying to flip the perspective from a focus on the industry and economic gains to societal benefits and include the voices of local communities, stimulate place making, involve local small and medium enterprises (SMEs) and support local or regional supply and value chains. 3.6 Create to regenerate: tourism needs to be regenerative Whereas understanding of responsible tourism, referring to a type of tourism “that creates better places for people to live in, and better places to visit” (City of Cape Town, 2002), has been around since the 2002 Cape Town Declaration, the term “regenerative tourism” has been gaining increasing attention in recent years, which describes the ideal that tourism leaves a place better than it was before (Cave and Dredge, 2020). 3.7 Be agnostic about growth: tourism growth is not endless The idea that growth is not endless is pertinent for the tourism industry and tourism destination development. However, too many tourists visiting a destination will eventually lead to overtourism, indicating that social and/or environmental thresholds have been reached, and limits are exceeded. Some destinations, for example the city of Amsterdam, have laid down in their local regulations that there is a maximum and minimum number of visitors. Entirely in line with the ideas of Raworth, the city adopted a minimum of 10 million visitors and a maximum of 20 million visitors as emergency signals (limits) and appointed 12 and 18 million visitors as early warning signals (thresholds) (City of Amsterdam, 2021). PAGE 282 JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES VOL. 9 NO. 2 2023 j j 4. Discussion and conclusions In this viewpoint paper, we build on the work of Raworth to propose the Doughnut Destination as an alternative way to look at destinations. The perspective fits very well to a tourism context as explained above. The doughnut model provides destinations with a seemingly simple but powerful and relevant guiding narrative, and the “seven ways” offer a set of practical themes to adopt and further contextualize specific destinations. Here, we should be aware of tourism’s interrelationship with other sectors or policy domains, implying that applying the model in the regeneration and planning of a destination presents challenges as tourism does not operate in isolation but is in turn dependent on and influenced by other external factors beyond the planner’s control. Also, the Doughnut Destination model developed in this paper (see Figure 2) offers a possible framework for monitoring as it can help to support smart tourism destination development and management. By selecting and closely monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs), the destination model can identify when overshoots of shortfalls are within reach and improve future decision-making, making better informed (urgent) decisions to bring the destination back to the safe space. To further develop the explorative work presented in this paper requires empirical work in the form of case study research to analyze applications in practice (e.g. case Amsterdam) or explore the enablers and barriers to implement the perspective of the Doughnut Destination. References Baggio, R. (2008), “Symptoms of complexity in a tourism system”, Tourism Analysis,Vol.13No. 1, pp. 1-20. Cave, J. and Dredge, D. (2020), “Regenerative tourism needs diverse economic practices”, Tourism Geographies, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 503-513, doi: 10.1080/14616688.2020.1768434. CELTH (2022), Agenda Conscious Destinations, Centre of Expertise Leisure, Tourism and Hospitality (CELTH), Breda. City of Amsterdam (2021), “Verordening op toerisme in balans Amsterdam”, available at: https://zoek. officielebekendmakingen.nl/gmb-2021-238072.html. City of Cape Town (2002), Responsible Tourism in Cape Town, City of Cape Town, Tourism Department, Cape Town. Hartman, S. (2021a), “Adaptive tourism areas in times of change”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 87, doi: 10.1016/j.annals.2020.102987. Hartman, S. (2021b), “Destination governance in times of change: a complex adaptive systems perspective to improve tourism destination development”, Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. ahead-of-print No. ahead-of- print, doi: 10.1108/JTF-11-2020-0213. Hartman, S. (2022), “Different success definitions of tourism impacts: implications for tourism planning and governance”, in Stoffelen, A. and Ioannides, D. (Eds), Handbook of Tourism Impacts: Social and Environmental Considerations, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, forthcoming. Heslinga, J.H. (2022), “Resilient destinations”, in Buhalis, D. (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Tourism Management and Marketing, Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, forthcoming. Heslinga, J.H., Groote, P.D. and Vanclay, F. (2017), “Using a social-ecological systems perspective to understand tourism and landscape interactions in coastal areas”, Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. 3 No. 1, pp. 23-38, doi: 10.1108/JTF-10-2015-0047. Heslinga, J.H., Groote, P.D. and Vanclay, F. (2020), “Towards resilient regions: policy recommendations for stimulating synergy between tourism and landscape”, Land, Vol. 9 No. 2, p. 44, doi: 10.3390/ land9020044. Higgins-Desbiolles, F. (2020), “Socialising tourism for social and ecological justice after COVID-19”, Tourism Geographies, Vol. 22 No. 3, pp. 610-623, doi: 10.1080/14616688.2020.1757748. Koens, K., Melissen, F., Mayer, I. and Aall, C. (2019), “The smart city hospitality framework: creating a foundation for collaborative reflections on overtourism that support destination design”, Journal of Destination Marketing and Management, Vol. 19, 100376, doi: 10.1016/j.jdmm.2019.100376. VOL. 9 NO. 2 2023 JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES PAGE 283 j j Ma, M. and Hassink, R. (2013), “An evolutionary perspective on tourism area development”, Annals of Tourism Research, Vol. 41, pp. 89-109. NBTC (2019), Perspectief 2030: Bestemming Nederland, NBTC, Den Haag. Postma, A. and Yeoman, I. (2021), “A systems perspective as a tool to understand disruption in travel and tourism”, Journal of Tourism Futures, Vol. 7 No. 1, pp. 67-77, doi: 10.1108/JTF-04-2020-0052. Raworth, K. (2017), Doughnut Economics: Seven Ways to Think like a 21st-Century Economist, Random House, London. Corresponding author Stefan Hartman can be contacted at: email@example.com For instructions on how to order reprints of this article, please visit our website: www.emeraldgrouppublishing.com/licensing/reprints.htm Or contact us for further details: firstname.lastname@example.org PAGE 284 JOURNAL OF TOURISM FUTURES VOL. 9 NO. 2 2023 j j
Journal of Tourism Futures – Emerald Publishing
Published: May 23, 2023
Keywords: Tourism management; Destination development; Governance; Resilient destinations
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