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Chemometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Candesartan Cilexetil and Hydrochlorothiazide in Binary Combinations
Chemometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Candesartan Cilexetil and...
Ali, Diyar Salahuddin
Hindawi Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry Volume 2023, Article ID 5107317, 14 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/5107317 Research Article Chemometric Methods for Simultaneous Determination of Candesartan Cilexetil and Hydrochlorothiazide in Binary Combinations 1,2 Diyar Salahuddin Ali Department of Chemistry, College of Science, Salahaddin University, Kurdistan Region, Erbil, Iraq Department of Medical Laboratory Science, College of Health Sciences, Lebanese French University, Kurdistan Region, Erbil, Iraq Correspondence should be addressed to Diyar Salahuddin Ali; firstname.lastname@example.org Received 16 September 2022; Revised 5 December 2022; Accepted 7 January 2023; Published 17 January 2023 Academic Editor: Ricardo Jorgensen Cassella Copyright © 2023 Diyar Salahuddin Ali. Tis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Simple, accurate, precise, and cost-efective chemometric techniques for the measurement of candesartan cilexetil and hy- drochlorothiazide in synthetic mixtures were improved and validated. H-point standard addition, Q-absorption ratio, and correction absorbance spectrophotometric techniques were utilized for the simultaneous determination of both medicines in real pharmaceutical formulations. A new calibration approach was implemented based on chemical H-point standards. Tis approach was developed to resolve signifcantly overlapping spectra of two analytes and provide direct correction of both proportional and constant errors caused by the matrix of the sample. Te frst method of simultaneous determination of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide was carried out using the H-point standard addition method at wavelengths 239 and 283. For the ratio of the absorption at two selected wavelengths, one of which is the isoabsorptive point and the other being the maximum of one of the two components, the second method absorption ratio method was utilized. In distilled water, the isoabsorptive point of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide occurs at 258 nm. λ of hydrochlorothiazide is 273 nm, which is the second wavelength used. max Lastly, the absorbance correction method was implemented. Tis approach is based on absorbance correction equations and uses distilled water as the solvent for the examination of both medicines. In NaOH/EtOH solvent, the absorbance maxima of candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide are 250 nm and 340 nm, respectively. For both wavelengths, candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide exhibited linearity over a concentration range of 1–46 μg/ml and 1–44 μg/ml, respectively, for H-point standard addition. Te Q-absorption ratio approach provides linearity over the concentration ranges of 1–46 μg/ml at 273 nm for candesartan cilexetil and 1–29 μg/ml for hydrochlorothiazide, 1–46 μg/ml at 258 nm for candesartan cilexetil, and 1–44 μg/ml for hydrochlorothiazide. For hydrochlorothiazide, the linearity for the correction absorbance method was obtained throughout a concentration range of 1–46 μg/ml at wavelengths 250 and 340 nm and 1–44 μg/ml at wavelength 250 nm. Te results of the analysis have been statistically and empirically supported by recovery studies. All methods yielded recoveries in the range of 96 ̶102% for both medications. Te LOD ranged from 0.46 ̶0.94 μg/mL for hydrochlorothiazide and from 1.26 ̶2.40 μg/mL for candesartan cilexetil. Te approaches were then used to quantify candesartan cilexetil and hydrochlorothiazide in pharmaceutical tablets. used mainly for the treatment of high blood pressure and 1. Introduction congestive heart failure. Candesartan has a very low Candesartan cilexetil (CAN) 2-ethoxy-1-((4-[2-(2H-1,2,3,4- maintenance dose. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCT), 6-chloro- tetrazol-5-yl) phenyl] phenyl, methyl))-1H-1, 3-benzodia- 3,4-dihydro-2H-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-7-sulfonamide-1,1- zole-7-carboxylic acid is an angiotensin receptor blocker dioxide, is one of the oldest thiazide diuretics. Recently, 2 Journal of Analytical Methods in Chemistry CAN has been difcult to be separated from HCT in most . Two straight lines with a common point in H (−C , A ) H H tablets [1, 2]. Candesartan is an efective, irreversible an- are depicted in Figure 2 . tagonist because it has the highest known receptor afnity of Te measured quantity of X is added. Finally, absorbance all the ARBs, and high doses of angiotensin II (Ang II) don’t at two specifed wavelengths is measured according to the push it of the receptor. Study after study has shown the following equations: positive efects of candesartan cilexetil in the treatment of A � b + b + M C , (1) high blood pressure and heart failure (HF) . For more (λ1) 0 λ1 i than 50 years, thiazide-type diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (HCT) has been available for clinical usage . HCT is also (2) A � A + A + M C , (λ2) 0 λ2 i used to lower blood pressure while walking, which is mostly where A and A represent the absorbances at λ and λ caused by a drop in blood pressure at night . In clinical (λ1) (λ2) 1 2, respectively, b and A represent the analytical signals of X at trials lasting anywhere from 8 weeks to 3 years, the fxed- 0 0 A and A (b ≠ A ), and b and A represent the analytical dose combination medication candesartan and hydrochlo- λ1 λ2 0 0 signals of Y at A and A (b � A ). M and M are the rothiazide has emerged as a key option in the treatment of λ1 λ2 λ1 λ2 slopes of the calibration lines at λ and λ . Lastly, C signifes hypertension due to its great efcacy in lowering blood 1 2 i the addition of X. As illustrated in Figure 2, the H-point is pressure and preventing damage to target organs . dependent on the analyte concentration. Various mathematical techniques have been developed Since C � C is derived from equations (1) and (2), for the use of chemometric strategies, such as partial least i H where A � A squares, so it is possible to study drug̶excipient interactions λ1 λ2 in a single sample without resorting to costly and time- (3) b + b + M −C � A + A + M −C . 0 λ1 H 0 λ2 H consuming chemical separation , and multiple linear regression [8, 9], Te H-point standard addition method Hence, (HPSAM) is also used to assess binary mixtures in che- mometric techniques . It was afterward changed to