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Hindawi Journal of Advanced Transportation Volume 2023, Article ID 9318505, 13 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/9318505 Research Article Do Residents Living in Transit-Oriented Development Station Catchment Areas Travel More Sustainably? The Impacts of Life Events 1 2,3 4,5 2 Tonggaochuan Shen , Long Cheng , Yongjiang Yang , Jialin Deng, 2 6,7 Tanhua Jin , and Mengqiu Cao Te Architectural Design and Research Institute of Zhejiang University Co. Ltd., Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China Department of Geography, Ghent University, Ghent, Belgium Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Urban ITS, Jiangsu Collaborative Innovation Centre of Modern Urban Trafc Technologies, Southeast University, Nanjing, China Ningxia Highway Administration Centre, Yinchuan, China Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Waseda University, Tokyo, Japan School of Architecture and Cities, University of Westminster, London, UK Department of Statistics, London School of Economics and Political Science, London, UK Correspondence should be addressed to Long Cheng; email@example.com Received 30 October 2022; Revised 6 December 2022; Accepted 18 March 2023; Published 4 April 2023 Academic Editor: Wenxiang Li Copyright © 2023 Tonggaochuan Shen et al. Tis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Transit-oriented development (TOD) is an urban designed model aimed at attracting more sustainable travellers. However, not all TOD projects succeed in maintaining a high rate of sustainable travel behaviour. To examine the impacts of TOD on residents’ travel behaviour, this paper applies binary logistic regression to analyse survey data for 1,298 residents living in the TOD areas in Hangzhou collected in 2020. Te results show that socioeconomic characteristics, built environment factors, and travel attitudes play important roles in infuencing their travel mode choices. Furthermore, the number of children in households and higher levels of car ownership signifcantly infuence residents’ sustainable travel behaviours. However, it appears that only a limited number of factors can convince car users to shift to sustainable modes of travel, such as their workplace being accessible by metro and attitudes towards changes in accessibility. Tis research study contributes to the existing literature in terms of enhancing the understanding of travel mode choice behaviours, particularly with regard to people who live near public transport infrastructure, as well as formulating evidence-based TOD policies to achieve more sustainable transport systems. difers from that of a car. Terefore, sustainable transport 1. Introduction development has become widely recognised as a key ini- Many governments around the world are attempting to tiative for developing an environmentally, socially, and tackle the environmental, social, and economic issues caused economically sustainable neighbourhood [7, 8]. Transit- by widespread motorisation and the overuse of private cars oriented development (TOD) is an urban development via the development of sustainable transport (e.g., public strategy, aiming to maximize the space of working, resi- transport, walking, and cycling) [1–5]. Sustainable travel dential, and other daily activities within the catchment areas behaviour, as defned by Sunio and Schm ocker ¨ , refers to of transit nodes . Advocates of transit-oriented devel- decreased environmental, social, and economic impacts opment (TOD) regard it as vital to incorporate sustainable when an individual makes a travel mode choice that often transport development into a solution for addressing the 2 Journal of Advanced Transportation fndings regarding the efects of childbirth on car usage are aforementioned issues caused by high car dependency [10–14]. Introducing TOD projects in urban areas could mixed, and some studies have shown a signifcant increase in usage , while other studies have found no signifcant signifcantly infuence the travel decisions of residents living nearby [11, 15]. Increases in sustainable transport behav- changes [20, 36]. In addition, factors such as changes in iours can be attributed to the growth in the level of TOD monthly income, changes relating to driving licences, [16, 17], but changes in travel behaviours can also occur in household structure, and distance to work are associated response to life events, such as residential relocation , with changes in car ownership, which leads to a greater driving licence ownership , and childbirth [20, 21]. preference for car usage [38–40]. In addition, life events such As many aspects of travel behaviour are tied to day- as getting married and residential relocation also play a vital role in travel decision-making [20, 32, 41]. For example, to-day routines, life events can have a substantial impact on individuals’ travel behaviour by disrupting existing routines residential relocation to a cycle-friendly neighbourhood facilitates a more positive attitude towards cycling behaviour [21–23]. Changes in travel behaviours have attracted con- siderable attention in the transport research feld in terms of . Furthermore, moving to a more urban environment is likely to result in decreased car usage , as well as bringing understanding why and how individuals’ travel behaviours change over time during their life cycles [3, 19, 22–25]. For about a signifcant change in people’s attitudes towards instance, previous studies revealed that childbirth can in- nonmotorised modes of transport [18, 41], such as active crease car dependency . Tis may be explained by the travel . reason that childbirth can increase motorised travel demand Existing studies have demonstrated that changes in associated with child-related maintenance activities (e.g., travel modes are more likely to occur in response to life health and education) [27, 28]. Changes in household events, such as childbirth, changes in income, and household structure. However, previous studies on life composition and income are also found to be associated with changes in travel-related outcomes . Changing jobs can events and travel mode choices have produced limited insights into sustainable transport mode choices [32, 35]. also lead to daily travel pattern changes because it may change people’s commuting distances and activity In addition, studies in this feld have primarily focused on specifc target groups, such as the general population participation . Mobility biography is an approach which maps trajec- [3, 20, 35], residential relocators [18, 36, 41], and couples tories in the mobility domain and their connections with life , without considering residents living in TOD catch- events . Mobility biography studies are based on the idea ment areas. Te latter group should not be overlooked as that day-to-day travel behaviour as a routine-based activity they are most likely to respond directly to TOD develop- may be events that occur during an individual’s life course ment. Tus, it is important to track signifcant life events [3, 18–20, 32–34]. As there is a correlation between the that bring about changes in their daily routines and travel mode choices to achieve higher rates of sustainable stability of an individual’s circumstances and travel be- haviour, changes in travel behaviour may occur if one aspect transport use within the TOD catchment areas. Against this backdrop, this study uses data from of an individual’s circumstances is disrupted (e.g., by a life event) [32, 33]. Changes in travel behaviour may be Hangzhou, in China, to gain further insight into the de- prompted by certain life events, including residential re- terminants of sustainable travel mode choices among resi- location events, household/family events, educational and dents living near TOD facilities. Particular attention is paid employment events, and other broader events relating to an to changes brought about by life events, with the aim of individual’s social network. For example, childbirth, providing new insights that urban planners can use to design whether for the frst time or not, may change household roles and implement tailored policies to achieve a higher rate of played by men and women, and it has been found that sustainable transport use within the TOD station catchment mothers are more likely to use private cars than fathers . areas. Tis study addresses the aforementioned gaps in two main ways: (1) exploring how life events afect sustainable Studies have also suggested that educational and employ- ment events, for example, a change in commuting distance travel mode choices and (2) gaining insights into the sus- tainable travel behaviours of residents living in the resulting from a job change, may infuence an individual’s commuting travel mode preference [3, 18]. Using the data TOD areas. from the UK, Clark et al.  showed that a change of over Te remainder of this paper is organised as follows: two miles in commuting distance resulted in a higher Section 2 briefy introduces the study area and explains the likelihood of an individual switching from nonmotorised data and methodology used in this study. Section 3 presents travel modes to travelling by car. and discusses the modelling results. Finally, the key fndings To date, nearly all the empirical studies in the feld have are highlighted, and policy implications are provided in Section 4. focused on the practical impact of life events and life transitions on travel behaviours, i.e., changes in travel mode choices [19–21, 31, 34, 35]. For example, Scheiner and Holz- 2. Data and Methodology Rau  found that becoming a parent reduced the likeli- hood of choosing sustainable modes of transport, especially 2.1. Study Area and the Retrospective Survey. Te data for this public transport usage. Another study conducted by study were obtained from a retrospective survey conducted Scheiner and Holz-Rau in the same year also revealed that in Hangzhou, China, in July 2020. Hangzhou is the capital childbirth is negatively linked to cycling. However, city of Zhejiang province and had a population of 11.936 Journal of Advanced Transportation 3 by sustainable transport modes (i.e., metro, bus, cycling, or million in 2020. Hangzhou is an ideal city to use as a case study in order to gain further insight into the relationship walking), it was coded as 0; if travel involved using a car or taxi, it was coded as 1. Hence, a binary logistic regression was between TOD and sustainable travel behaviour. Hangzhou’s metro network has been undergoing rapid expansion since applied in this study. Te estimated equations are repre- the frst line opened in 2012, and it now comprises a total of sented as seven lines, covering a distance of 306 km and 133 stations. β +Σβ x ( 0 i i) By 2022, eleven lines and four interurban railways would be PY � 1x , x , · · · x � , 1 2 m β +Σβ x ( ) 0 i i in operation. In addition, Hangzhou is regarded as a pio- 1 + e neering city for the implementation of TOD, which makes it an important indicator of TOD practices in relation to logit PY � 1x , x , · · · x � ln 1 2 m China’s urbanisation process more generally. Recently, a few 1 − P new TOD projects have been implemented, including � β + β x + · · · + β x +Ɛ, 0 1 1 m m construction of multiple residential areas around Hang- zhou’s metro stations. However, it should be noted that, if (1) residents living within the metro station catchment area do where the dependent variable Y has a binary value (0 or 1), x not adopt and maintain sustainable travel behaviours, the represents the vectors of independent variables, P(x) stands road trafc system may become fooded with cars. Tus, for the probability of y � 1 given the value of x, β is gaining a greater understanding of Hangzhou residents’ a constant, the parameters β (i � 1, 2, . . ., m) are the co- sustainable travel behaviours is particularly important be- efcients of each x, β reveals the possible impact of each cause of the implications for TOD and because it can provide independent variable on the dependent variable, andƐ is the crucial insights into subsequent sustainable transport de- error term. velopment within the TOD areas. Data collection was conducted via an online question- naire due to the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic and the 3. Results and Discussion resultant restrictions on in-person interactions. In this re- search study, we defne those who use the metro for daily 3.1. Descriptive Statistics. Te descriptive statistics for the commuting as residents living in the TOD catchment area. two TOD sites are shown in Table 3. For this analysis, we At the beginning of the questionnaire, we inquired the individually summarised the questionnaire data relating to respondents whether they use metro in daily life to ensure Ding’an Road Station and Qibao Station. Te results show their eligibility. For this study, we selected two TOD that the residents of both sites exhibited a relatively high rate stations in Hangzhou, Ding’an Road Station and Qibao of sustainable travel behaviours, particularly in the case of Station (see Figure 1). Te frst group of stations on metro travel, for which the fgures were approximately 47% Hangzhou Metro Line 1 opened in 2012. Dense residential for both Ding’an Road Station and Qibao Station. Tis neighbourhoods surround these two stations, and the land proves that metro stations can attract metro users to a sig- use is mixed. Ding’an Road Station is a regenerated TOD nifcant degree within the station catchment areas. However, station that exemplifes compact development within an we also found that the rate of private car use for the area existing older residential district, whereas Qibao Station is around Qibao Station (a new TOD station) was 7.11% higher a new TOD station outside of the city centre and was than that of residents living in the Ding’an Road Station newly constructed. catchment area. In addition, there were more households To collect data from residents living within each of the with at least one car in the Qibao Station catchment area areas studied, the online questionnaire was distributed to than in the Ding’an Road Station catchment area (79.6% the local community social media groups (WeChat) via versus 73.4%). Te higher average income and the larger weblinks in July 2020. Respondents (aged 18 or above) number of parking spaces available at new stations such as were asked to complete the questionnaire by providing Qibao could partly account for this diference. Cyclists’ information about the following topics: daily travel be- satisfaction with Qibao Station was slightly lower than ex- haviours, sociodemographics, perceptions of the built pected. Tey complained that the commercial level of de- environment, travel attributes, and to recall any life events velopment, which is a feature of the mixed land use, creates and behavioural changes dating back over the last fve barriers for cyclists, because they have to navigate several years (2015). A total of 1,298 valid responses were re- foors before they can get onto the road. Regarding the ceived, comprising 597 samples collected from Ding’an distance respondents had to travel to their workplaces, the Road Station and 701 samples from Qibao Station, re- data revealed that the most common distance for Ding’an spectively. A description of the variables is provided in Road Station residents was 1–5 km, whereas the distance was Tables 1 and 2. generally longer for Qibao Station residents. Finally, whether respondents had metro access to their workplaces was also shown to be a variable of a signifcant diference (P val- 2.2. Methodology. Tis study focuses on the sustainable ue � 0.003). 54.92% of Qibao Station residents’ workplaces transport mode choice behaviour of residents living within were accessible via metro, which is 8.2% higher than the the TOD catchment areas. In this case, the choice of sus- fgure for Ding’an Road Station residents. Tis fnding may tainable transport mode is binary; if travel was undertaken be partly attributable to residents’ self-selection, as this has 4 Journal of Advanced Transportation Qibao Station Ding'an Road station Line 1 Main City Centre 3 KM Figure 1: Hangzhou’s metro network. been shown to be the case in many similar studies . If an of travelling by car. Tus, it is imperative to prevent existing individual’s workplace is sufciently well served by public sustainable travellers from switching to private vehicles in TOD areas. Te associations between travel behaviours and transport, it could infuence their choices regarding where to live. In this case, these individuals were attracted to buy the related variables are discussed in greater depth in a new home close to the TOD stations. Section 3.2. With regard to changes in travel behaviours that occur Additional information about respondents’ travel over time, private car drivers are less likely to switch to choices, including the main reasons for choosing to travel by sustainable travel modes. According to the survey (Table 3), private car or metro, weekend travel behaviours, the main 108 respondents within the Ding’an Road Station area used purpose of travelling at weekends, and their opinions of cars as their primary mode of transport in 2015; 77 still did public amenities around the sites, was also sought (Figure 2). so in 2020, representing a 71.3% retention ratio. Te situ- Te most popular reasons for choosing to travel by metro were its reliability and speed (cited by 25% of respondents). ation for Qibao Station residents was similar: 113 out of 165 respondents continued to use unsustainable travel modes, Safety, comfort, and low carbon emissions were also cited by many respondents as reasons for using metro. For private representing a 68.5% retention ratio. It is also worth noting that, although the rate of travel by metro increased by more car drivers, the fexibility of private vehicles was the biggest than 15% in both the TOD areas (from 30% to 47.4% for attraction (approximately 24%); the same proportion of Ding’an Road Station residents and from 31.2% to 46.5% for respondents used cars to transport their families, including Qibao Station residents), many of the new users had tran- doing the school run. Comfort and speed were also men- sitioned from other sustainable travel modes such as buses tioned as important factors for using cars (approximately and bicycles. Both sites experienced increased car travel over 13%). In addition, 12% of the respondents noted that they the last fve years (from 18.1% to 23.5% in the Ding’an Road needed private cars for their work. With regard to difer- Station area and from 23.5% to 31.3% in the Qibao Station ences in residents’ travel behaviours at the weekends (Table 3), private car usage increased by 5% compared to area). Te increase in car use was more pronounced in the area around the new TOD station. In addition, 42.2% of the weekday usage among respondents in the Ding’an Road Station area. Te diference was even greater for respondents car driver respondents answered “I do not know” to the questions about the built environment and metro accessi- living in the Qibao Station area, where the number of car bility. Tis demonstrates that car drivers have little interest users increased by 10.1% at weekends. Shopping was in public transport development once they get into the habit identifed as the main reason for travelling at weekends as Journal of Advanced Transportation 5 Table 1: Description of the variables. Categories Variables (in 2020) Description Gender 0 � female; 1 � male Age In years 1 � middle school and below; 2 � secondary school; 3 � college and Education undergraduate; 4 � postgraduate and above Marital status 0 � single; 1 � married 1 � ¥2,000–3,000; 2 � ¥3,001–5,000; 3 � ¥5,001–10,000; 4 � ¥10,001–15,000; Sociodemographics Monthly income 5 � ¥15,001–20,000; 6 � ¥20,000 and above Household size Number of household members Children 0 � no; 1 � yes Residential tenure 0 � owner; 1 � renter Car ownership Number of motor vehicles available in the household Driving licence 0 � no; 1 � yes 1≤ 1.0 km; 2 �1.1–5.0 km; 3 � 5.1–10.0 km; 4 �10.1–20.0 km; 5 � 20.0 km Distance to work and above Accessibility to workplace by metro 0 � not accessible; 1 � accessible Built environment Pleasant walking environment 0 � no; 1 � yes Pleasant cycling environment 0 � no; 1 � yes Convenient access to metro stations 0 � no; 1 � yes Site 0 � Ding’an Road Station; 1 � Qibao Station Attitudes Travel-related attitudes 0 � preference for metro; 1 � preference for car Increase in monthly income (from 2015 to 2020) Change between 2015 and 2020 Increase in household size (from 2015 to 2020) Change between 2015 and 2020 Increase in the number of children (from 2015 to 2020) Change between 2015 and 2020 Increase in car ownership (from 2015 to 2020) Change between 2015 and 2020 0 � no change; Changes relating to driving licence (from 2015 to 2020) 1 � obtained a driving licence Increase in distance to workplace (from 2015 to 2020) Change between 2015 and 2020 Changes that took place between 2015 and Changes in accessibility to workplace by metro (from 2015 to 0 � no change; 2020) 1 � new access to workplace by metro Changes relating to the walking environment (from 2015 to 0 � no change; 2020) 1 � improved walking environment Changes relating to the cycling environment (from 2015 to 0 � no change; 2020) 1 � improved cycling environment Changes relating to access to metro stations (from 2015 to 0 � no change; 2020) 1 � improved access to metro stations a b We asked respondents to answer the question in relation to the changes that occurred between 2015 and 2020. ¥100 � $14.49 in 2020. 6 Journal of Advanced Transportation Table 2: Demographic characteristics of the respondents. Ding’an Road Station Qibao Station (N � 695) (N � 581) Variables Category Frequency Percent Frequency Percent Male 215 30.9 205 35.3 Gender Female 480 69.1 376 64.7 18–30 255 36.7 148 25.5 Age 30–45 342 49.2 147 25.3 45+ 98 14.1 286 49.2 Middle school and below 65 9.4 85 14.6 Secondary school 158 22.7 179 30.8 Education College and undergraduate 431 62.0 308 53.0 Postgraduate and above 41 5.9 9 1.5 Single 120 17.3 112 19.3 Marriage status Married 575 82.7 469 80.7 Under ¥5,000 100 14.4 304 52.3 ¥5,000–10,000 183 26.3 205 35.3 Income 2020 ¥10,000–15,000 269 38.7 43 7.4 ¥15,000 or more 143 20.6 29 5.0 Under ¥5,000 454 65.3 423 72.8 ¥5,000–10,000 180 25.9 123 21.2 Income 2015 ¥10,000–15,000 36 5.2 19 3.3 ¥15,000 or more 25 3.6 16 2.8 engage in and maintain sustainable travel behaviours than cited by respondents from both the sites (Figure 2(c)). Dining out and entertainment were also identifed as younger residents. Tis fnding is consistent with those of the existing studies conducted in China . Having a higher popular reasons for weekend travel, while grocery shopping was more commonly cited by residents living around educational background increases the probability of in- Ding’an Road Station as a reason for travelling by car at dividuals using private vehicles, which is in line with a recent weekends. Although the land use around both the TOD study conducted by Zhang and Zhao in China . How- stations is diverse, residents nonetheless claimed that many ever, some studies carried out in western countries produced services were lacking in their respective neighbourhoods, diferent results; they found that highly educated people tend including sufcient employment opportunities, restaurants, to prefer more sustainable transport modes [43–45]. It is and shopping malls. (Figure 2(d)). One notable point was likely that highly educated people in Hangzhou (and maybe that recreation centres for older people were in demand, more generally in most Chinese cities) are more concerned with social status and enjoy a more comfortable travel ex- especially around regenerated TOD stations, while sports centres were greeted with more enthusiasm when they were perience ofered by private cars. Monthly income is another widely studied sociodemographic variable which has an located at new TOD stations. Te fndings confrmed that TOD projects do restrict car usage to some extent on impact on travel mode choices. Tis fnding is also in line weekdays. Promoting the use of the metro at weekends and with those of other studies [46, 47]: people on higher in- holiday times could therefore be a key aim of sustainable comes are less likely to use sustainable travel methods. Tis transport studies. association is still signifcant even for residents living within the metro catchment area. In addition, our results also show that residents who rent 3.2. Binary Logistic Regression Model Results properties instead of owning them are more likely to use 3.2.1. Travel Mode Choices. Before proceeding with the sustainable means of travel. Tis may be because they do not have their own parking space, or they are not allowed to own model specifcation, we applied the variance infation factor (VIF) to avoid any multicollinearity issues in the fnal re- a private vehicle that has permission to enter Hangzhou city gressions. As a result, we removed car ownership and driving centre, due to the licensing regulations and peak-hour license status. Te VIF results showed that all the remaining driving restriction policies. Some previous studies have variables were under the value of 3.0, suggesting that there argued that households with a larger number of family were no multicollinearity issues in our fnal regressions. Te members are more likely to use public transport as the car regression results are summarised in Table 4. Travelling by has to be shared between more people, and couples with sustainable travel (metro, bus, cycling, and walking) or car dependent children are also more likely to use a car [37, 47]. (private car and taxi) were treated as the dependent In our sample, however, both household size and having variables. children under 18 were found to encourage the use of private Table 4 shows that gender does not have an efect on cars. In addition, the impact of household size on travel behaviour choices was found to be more signifcant, re- sustainable transport mode choices. When residents living in the TOD catchment areas grow older, they are more likely to gardless of whether children were present or not (P Journal of Advanced Transportation 7 Table 3: Descriptive statistics and summary test statistics (chi-squared test). Ding’an Road Station Qibao Station Chi-square test Variables Sample size Percentage Sample size Percentage P value Residential tenure 0.000 Owner 478 80.07 488 69.61 Renter 119 19.93 213 30.39 Car ownership 0.000 0 159 26.63 143 20.40 1+ 438 73.37 558 79.60 Distance to work 0.005 <1.0 km 95 15.91 71 10.13 1.1–5.0 km 207 34.67 216 30.81 5.1–10.0 km 163 27.30 212 30.24 10.1–20.0 km 83 13.90 129 18.40 20.0 km and above 49 8.21 73 10.41 Pleasant walking environment 0.486 Yes 504 84.42 593 84.59 No 55 9.21 76 10.84 I do not know 38 6.37 32 4.57 Pleasant cycling environment 0.019 Yes 506 84.75 566 80.74 No 58 9.72 101 14.41 I do not know 33 5.53 34 4.85 Convenient access to metro stations 0.085 Yes 448 75.04 548 78.17 No 128 21.44 126 17.98 I do not know 21 3.52 27 3.85 Weekday travel mode choice (in 2020) 0.001 Private car 133 22.28 206 29.39 Metros 283 47.40 326 46.50 Bus 83 13.90 65 9.27 Cycle 66 11.06 73 10.42 Walk 25 4.19 18 2.57 Taxi 7 1.17 13 1.85 Whether the workplace is accessible by metro 0.003 Yes 280 46.90 385 54.92 No 208 34.84 224 31.96 Walking/cycling only 83 13.90 76 10.84 I do not know 26 4.36 16 2.28 Weekend travel mode choice 0.000 Private car 163 27.30 277 39.52 Metro 273 45.73 291 41.51 Bus 71 11.89 53 7.56 Cycle 51 8.54 51 7.28 Walk 26 4.36 20 2.85 Taxi 13 2.18 9 1.28 Weekday travel mode choice (in 2015) — Private car 106 17.76 146 20.83 Metros 179 29.98 219 31.24 Bus 198 33.17 219 31.24 Cycle 87 14.57 72 10.27 Walk 24 4.02 28 3.99 Taxi 3 0.50 17 2.43 Te statistically signifcant diferences assessed by the chi-square test were defned as having a P value <0.05. We asked respondents to answer the question about changes in travel behaviour between 2015 and 2020. value � 0.073). One possible explanation for this is that an Table 4 also illustrates how the subjective variables of increase in the number of family members reduces the per perceptions of the built environment and attitudes towards capita cost of private car use, as it is a common practice to travel impact residents’ travel mode choices. Te model give family members rides to work in China, and travelling demonstrated that, even for residents living in the TOD together in one car instead of using public transport also catchment areas, an increase in distance to work makes it provides a stronger sense of family unity and privacy. more likely that they will travel by car, which is consistent 8 Journal of Advanced Transportation Failure to obtain a driving licence: 1% Others : 4% I have to use a car for my Unable to purchase a car : 3% family’s needs : 24% Cost of using private cars is high: 3% More fexible : 24% Others: 1% No parking space at workplace : 4% I need to use a car for To protect the environment: 13% my work : 12% More private: 4% Provides a social environment: 2% More comfortable : 12% Would be looked down upon if Faster: 14% did not use a car : 1% More reliable (on time): 24% Safer : 5% Safer : 12% More comfortable : 12% Faster: 25% (a) (b) 60 25 0 0 Ding'an Road station Qibao station Ding'an Road station Qibao station (c) (d) Figure 2: Additional travel information chart: (a) reasons for using metro, (b) reasons for using cars, (c) travel purposes at weekends, and (d) lack of services. Table 4: Logistic regression analysis results regarding the travel choices of residents living in TOD catchment areas. Independent variables Coef S.E. Sig. ∗∗∗ Constant −2.537 0.600 0.000 Sociodemographics Gender 0.270 0.161 0.093 ∗∗∗ Age −0.248 0.059 0.000 ∗∗ Education 0.268 0.124 0.031 Marital status 0.181 0.276 0.512 ∗∗∗ Monthly income 0.231 0.068 0.001 ∗∗∗ Household size 0.169 0.063 0.008 Children 0.432 0.240 0.073 ∗∗∗ Residential tenure −0.758 0.198 0.000 Built environment ∗∗∗ Distance to work 0.195 0.066 0.003 ∗∗∗ Accessibility to the workplace by metro −1.073 0.157 0.000 Pleasant walking environment 0.156 0.268 0.561 Pleasant cycling environment −0.136 0.247 0.581 ∗∗∗ Convenient access to metro stations −0.649 0.179 0.000 Site 0.001 0.161 0.996 ∗∗∗ Attitudes 1.825 0.247 0.000 Model ft Nagelkerke’s R 0.311 ∗ ∗∗ ∗∗∗ Note. P< 0.1; P< 0.05; P< 0.01. (%) Dining out Shopping Grocery shopping Entertainment Social activity Extra-curricular classes for kids Others (%) Employment Restaurants Shopping areas Grocery markets Entertainment venues Green spaces and parks Chidlren's education Community health centre Elder's recreation centres Sports centre Services are adequate Others Journal of Advanced Transportation 9 Table 5: Logistic regression analysis results related to changes in sustainable transport users’ travel behaviour. Independent variables Coef S.E. Sig. ∗∗∗ Constant −1.233 0.431 0.004 Variables entered ∗∗∗ Age −0.314 0.069 0.000 ∗∗∗ Monthly incomes 0.273 0.081 0.001 ∗∗∗ Residential tenure −0.820 0.233 0.000 ∗∗∗ Accessibility to the workplace by metro −1.157 0.211 0.000 ∗∗ Convenient access to metro stations −0.508 0.226 0.024 ∗∗∗ Attitudes towards travel 1.599 0.302 0.000 ∗∗∗ Increase in the number of children (computed) 0.417 0.158 0.009 ∗∗∗ Car ownership increase (computed) 0.810 0.171 0.000 Model ft Nagelkerke’s R 0.306 ∗ ∗∗ ∗∗∗ Note. P< 0.1; P< 0.05; P< 0.01. with fndings for other cities [48, 49]. Te results showed twenty independent variables in the initial model but re- that, when individuals’ workplaces are better connected to duced these to eight variables in the fnal model after the metro network, they are more likely to use sustainable applying the forward selection. Te results show that methods of transport instead of private vehicles. Regarding residents living in the TOD station catchment areas are less their views about the local built environment, the quality of likely to switch from using sustainable transport modes to the walking and cycling environment had a less impact on private cars as they age. Tis is probably because older the travel mode choices of residents living in the TOD generations are less willing to make changes in their life- catchment areas. However, better access to metro stations styles than their younger counterparts. Earning a higher income could make it more likely that people will switch signifcantly increased the likelihood of individuals choosing to travel by sustainable transport modes; it follows that good from using sustainable modes of travel to private cars. accessibility to metro stations ofers more opportunities to People on higher incomes often seem to prefer more use metro, and travelling by metro is tied to frst/last mile comfortable travel experience and greater fexibility ofered trips involving walking/cycling to and from metro stations by a car. [50, 51]. Tus, policymakers could consider redesigning the Te results displayed in Table 5 show that renters, in- internal pathways and neighbourhood entrances to improve cluding residents whose workplaces have good links to the use of sustainable transport modes within the station metro stations, are less likely to change their sustainable catchment area. Regarding attitudes towards travel, a pref- travel behaviours. Similarly, if metro stations have a high level of accessibility, this could serve to prevent sustainable erence for metro signifcantly increased the likelihood of residents in the TOD catchment areas choosing sustainable travellers from switching to unsustainable modes of trans- port . Furthermore, having a positive attitude towards transport modes, a fnding which is also in line with those of previous studies [48, 49]. metro encourages residents living in the TOD catchment areas to maintain sustainable travel behaviours . Re- garding the efect of life events, it was found that childbirth 3.2.2. Travel Behaviour Changes. Two additional binary lo- signifcantly increases the likelihood of an individual gistic regression models were employed to capture the de- switching from sustainable transport modes to car travel, terminants of changes in residents’ travel behaviour relating echoing the fndings of previous studies [1, 36, 37]. A to their daily routines (during the period from 2015 to 2020). possible explanation is that newborn children may bring Te independent variables were augmented, including the about child-related maintenance activities, such as regular healthcare and playgroups. Many parents believe that the existing descriptive variables used in the travel choice model and the computed variables which were used to measure private car is a good solution for the travel needs of child- related activities. Te presence of newborn children in internal and external changes that took place between 2015 and 2020, such as an increase in the monthly income and an a household may make parents more time constrained. increase in the number of children in a household. Tus, it is Terefore, they may consider a car necessary to reduce the difcult to manually delete unnecessary factors in order to time spent commuting and access multiple destinations for avoid the problem of underlying multicollinearity between their children’s needs during one trip. We also found that if each variable. We applied a forward selection (likelihood a household owns more than one car, this has a negative ratio) approach to data entry, that is, a stepwise selection efect on sustainable transport mode usage, which aligns method, in which entry testing is based on the signifcance of with a previous study by Scheiner and Holz-Rau . In the score statistic and deletion testing is based on the China, it is a common practice for an individual to buy a car at some point in their life as a signifer of their high quality of probability of the likelihood-ratio statistic. Te results of the analysis of changes in residents’ travel life and social status. Tis increases their interest in and desire to buy and use a car, which may lead them to abandon behaviour relating to their use of sustainable transport modes are shown in Table 5. We originally considered sustainable forms of travel. 10 Journal of Advanced Transportation Table 6: Logistic regression analysis results related to changes in private car users’ travel behaviour. Independent variables Coef S.E. Sig. ∗∗∗ Constant −1.633 0.246 0.000 Variables entered ∗∗∗ Workplace is accessible by metro 1.625 0.305 0.000 ∗∗∗ Attitudes towards travel −1.793 0.521 0.001 ∗∗∗ Changes in accessibility to metro stations (computed) 1.155 0.350 0.001 Model ft Nagelkerke’s R 0.278 ∗ ∗∗ ∗∗∗ Note. P< 0.1; P< 0.05; P< 0.01. Table 6 shows that, although the same twenty in- in any public transport development once they get into the habit of travelling by car. dependent variables were initially considered in relation to changes in private car users’ travel behaviour, only three of Moreover, this study revealed that age, monthly in- them were retained after the forward selection. Tus, it can comes, residential tenure, whether an individual’s workplace be concluded that only a few factors can encourage car users is accessible by metro, convenient access to metro stations, to give up their car travel habits and adopt more sustainable attitudes towards travel, car ownership, and the number of modes of transport. In contrast to the results obtained from children in a household are all factors that infuence sus- the model assessing sustainable transport users’ behaviour, tainable travel behaviours. Te fndings imply that only whether an individual’s workplace is accessible by metro and a high level of accessibility to metro stations could prevent having a preference for metro travel were both found to have sustainable travellers from turning to unsustainable modes a signifcant efect on reducing car users’ intention to of travel, and making minor improvements to accessibility continue using unsustainable transport. Another valuable may not be enough for this trend. Te presence of newborn children in a household could result in parents deciding to fnding is that improving accessibility to metro stations has a signifcant efect on attracting car users to switch to reduce their commuting time and increase the need for a car sustainable modes of transport. Tis is perhaps unsurprising so that they can access multiple destinations during one trip. as it follows that, if travelling by metro is made more Our research study shows that there are only a few factors convenient and comfortable, it will improve the quality of that could encourage car users to give up driving and switch the overall travel experience and thus increase the likelihood to more sustainable transport modes, working somewhere that car users will want to use this sustainable form of that is accessible by metro, changing attitudes towards travel, transport. and making metro stations more accessible. Our fndings may help provide insights that could be used to inform policies designed to encourage sustainable 4. Conclusions travel behaviours. Local governments should provide more rental housing around metro connections as renters are Using the data about residents in Hangzhou, we ran a series of logistic regressions to analyse how the sustainable more likely to use metro services. In addition, our study showed evidence that residents living in the TOD catchment transport mode choices of residents living in the TOD catchment areas are afected by signifcant life events. We areas are more concerned with the accessibility of metro stations. Providing better access to metro stations would also assessed the probability of individuals switching from sustainable modes of transport to cars and vice versa over have a threefold positive efect, encouraging sustainable time. Tis study extends the existing literature by providing travel mode choices, promoting and maintaining sustainable new insights into the relationships between life events and travel habits, and prompting residents to switch from car travel behaviours among residents living in the TOD travel to more sustainable modes of travel. Tus, policy- catchment areas. makers and planners should focus on improving the ac- Te results demonstrated that new TOD stations are cessibility of metro stations. For example, regular upgrades can be implemented to improve the accessibility of metro generally seen as more attractive to younger people. It was also found that if new TOD projects contain commercial stations, such as redesigning internal pathways and neigh- bourhood entrances. Moreover, public transit agencies, areas, which are a feature of their mixed land use, this could create barriers for cyclists, so it is therefore recommended along with shared mobility operators, can increase the that a more comprehensive cycling network should be density of shared mobility services within the metro constructed when designing future TOD projects . It was catchment areas . Also, building a mobility-as-a-service shown that private car drivers living close to the TOD platform may promote metro use, on which intermodal stations are less likely to change their travel behaviours and travel plans and fare concessions related to metro-integrated switch to more sustainable travel modes as evidenced by the usage can be accessed. mode retention ratio of approximately 70%. Te increased However, our study has several limitations which should number of metro users in Hangzhou is largely comprised of be addressed in future research studies. 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