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Forest Systems Services Provisioning in Africa: Case of Gambari Forest Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria

Forest Systems Services Provisioning in Africa: Case of Gambari Forest Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria Hindawi International Journal of Forestry Research Volume 2021, Article ID 8823826, 6 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8823826 Research Article Forest Systems Services Provisioning in Africa: Case of Gambari Forest Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria Tolulope Ayodeji Olatoye , Sonwabo Perez Mazinyo, Akinwunmi Sunday Odeyemi, Israel Ropo Orimoloye, and Emmanuel Tolulope Busayo Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, Province of the Eastern Cape, South Africa Correspondence should be addressed to Tolulope Ayodeji Olatoye; olatoyetolu@gmail.com Received 27 June 2020; Revised 10 June 2021; Accepted 25 June 2021; Published 7 July 2021 Academic Editor: Nikolaos D. Hasanagas Copyright © 2021 Tolulope Ayodeji Olatoye et al. *is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. *is study, therefore, which is focused on forest systems services provisioning in Africa, case of Gambari Forest Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria, provides policy makers, decision makers, ecologists, environmentalists, the academia, and other stakeholders with a document geared towards promoting national development through sustainable forest products utilization practices. In this study, a total of 200 key respondents participated in it, out of which 194 copies were returned and distributed among the seven main communities in the study area, namely, Ibusogbora, Oloowa, Daley north and south, Onipe, Mamu, Olubi, and Onipanu, respectively. *e respondents stated that moringa 164 (84.5%), mint leaf (166 (85.6%), bitter kola 143 (73.7%), and shea tree accounts for 176 (90.7%), and the wood species utilized by producers in the study area include Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena glauca, Gliricidia sepium, Tectona grandis, and Gmelina arborea, among others. *e study recommends that there is need for African governments to restore public awareness campaign in the area of timber planting initiatives and sustainable forest resource management and increase allocation to fund forestry research in the African continent. transforming and utilizing carbon dioxide into 1. Introduction usable forms such as chemical energy or starch. In addition, photosynthesis plays important roles. Vegetation accounts for two-thirds of all different types of terrestrial ecosystems in tropical, subtropical, temperate, (ii) Forest ecosystems restock the supply of atmo- Mediterranean, and boreal regions [1]. From the foregoing, spheric oxygen, which could otherwise be rapidly forest ecosystems offer an enormous variety of environ- exhausted by respiration processes of organisms mental roles and services, which include sequestration of and by burning substances. Put differently, the carbon, conservation of biodiversity, water supply, flood process of photosynthesis produces oxygen re- control, protection against soil erosion, and desertification. quired for respiration by animals; hence, photo- According to Olatoye et al. [2], the ecological benefits of synthesis is the only process involved in the forests are highlighted. elimination of carbon dioxide when released through respiration, combustion, and decompo- (i) Photosynthesis: this is a procedure that involves sition into the biosphere. the interaction of the biotic (plants) and abiotic (iii) Forests ecosystems serve as the only process that (such as water and carbon dioxide) constituents of can utilize the enormous energy supply from the the environment for the improvement, distribu- tion, and continued existence of all living organ- sun and is therefore very essential in food cycles. isms. Plants are also the only living components of (iv) *ey ultimately ensure the continued survival the biosphere that have the functional capability of through the supply of energy requirements for all 2 International Journal of Forestry Research function and benefits of ecosystem services are generally biotic components in the biosphere. Unfortu- nately, the tremendous volumes of carbon dioxide defined as the ecosystem processes considered useful to humans. *e benefits accruable from ecosystems (as eluci- in the atmosphere far outweighs the available vegetal resources required to carry out photo- dated by the cascade model) include tangible natural resources synthesis on account of inadequate self-regulatory derived from provisioning services (e.g., vegetation, crops, mechanisms required by plants for the regulation wood, and water) or some regulating services (e.g., clean water of carbon dioxide concentration levels. for multiple uses provided by water purification). (v) Air conditioning: the release of oxygen in the at- 2. Aim of the Study mosphere during photosynthesis helps in envi- ronmental purification, and as a result of this, *e aim of this research is to investigate forest systems vegetal resources in coastal and tropical climes services provisioning in Africa: Case of Gambari Forest have adopted survival strategies by serving as sinks Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria. for carbon dioxide concentration. (vi) Shelterbelts or windbreaks: the establishment of 2.1. (e Study Area. Gambari Forest Reserve (GFR) is lo- shelterbelts and other tree shelters has been cated in the Mamu locality (Gambari Forest), Coordinate 3.7 established in coastal environments so as to mit- and 3.9E″ and latitude 7.05 and 7.14, i.e., 17 km southeast of igate the effects of flooding and ameliorate the Ibadan on the Ijebu-Ode road, 2 km from the nearest road. environmental conditions to conducive levels for GFR consists of one compact block of 311.6 acres. *e ef- biota conservation and growth. Vegetation pro- fective productive area of the reserve is therefore 306.9 acres, tects the top soil and sustains soil fertility, in ad- no allowance being made for subsidiary roads and com- dition to inhibiting watershed disturbance by partment boundaries. *e forest reserve is owned by Oyo/ acting as barriers against soil or gully erosion. *ey Ogun state governments. Formerly, Ibadan District Council also shelter buildings and other biotic components Forest Reserve and Gambari Forest Reserve. Gambari Forest from natural phenomena such as intense heat from Reserve is divided into five series, namely, Onigambari, sunlight and windstorms. Busogboro, Onipe, Olonde, and Mamu. It was originally (vii) Forests also serve as a safe haven for hydrological 12,535.6 ha of which 1,036 ha was dereserved by the Oyo and wildlife conservation State Government for the Cocoa Research Institute of (viii) Forests perform a very important function of at- Nigeria. Later in 1986, another 1,000 hectares were given to mospheric humidification, as well as ensuring the Safa Splints Nigeria Limited for industrial use. Present, the regulation of the earth’s weather and climate working area in the reserve is 10,429.6 ha. *e study area is (ix) Forest vegetation is an essential ecosystem com- shown in Figure 2, presenting Gambari Forest Reserve ponent which establishes a vital link in nutrients in within Oyo State and Nigeria. addition to the absorption of inorganic compo- A low ridge runs from the northern to southern direction nents and integrating them into organic com- on the western side of the central part of the reserve. *e pounds in living tissues drainage runs westwards from the north and west into the River Ona. In the southeast, streams drain into River Awun (x) Recent studies have shown (such as [3]) that which flows southwards. *e topography of the study area is coastal vegetation is among the most efficient more or less undulating. *e average altitude in the whole carbon sinks in the world. From the foregoing, the reserve is 122–152 m above the sea level. ecological and economic benefits of costal eco- system services are further illustrated with the cascade model as shown in Figure 1. 2.2. Vegetation and Land Use. *e vegetation of the area lies between the lowland rainforest. *e vegetation of the area is Figure 1 shows the cascade framework proposed by Potschin and Haines-Young [5]. *e model provides a dominated by tree forms ranging from shrubs to dense vegetation. A number of strata of trees can be recognized linkage between natural systems to elements of human wellbeing, following a pattern similar to a production chain, though they are not always clearly differentiated. *e tallest stratum has a discontinuous foliage canopy made up of from ecological structures and processes generated by emergent trees with rounded crowns. Below the stratum of ecosystems to the services and benefits eventually derived by emergents, another set of trees with spreading crowns forms humans [6]. According to La Notte et al. [4], the advantage a continuous canopy at a height varying from 15 to 30 of this framework is to effectively communicate societal meters. *e third tree stratum is less regular, being made up dependence on ecosystem services in key areas such as of varying sizes of trees with much foliage. Under the tree observations from a biocentred or holistic approach, i.e., biophysical structures and processes/functions belonging to strata, shrub forms which are quite distinct from small trees form a significant layer with foliage at a height of about two the ecological sphere and which are considered as a whole. Furthermore, the word function is generally used inter- meters. Apart from trees, the rainforest is composed of herbs, climbers, epiphytes, saprophytes, and parasites. *e changeably with the ecological process and/or ecosystem service. Additionally, the cascade model explains the rainforest is evergreen, and there is no time in the year that International Journal of Forestry Research 3 Ecosystem service Human wellbeing Ecosystem and biodiversity Structure and processes Function Biophysical structures that Benefit Functioning of create the the ecosystem basis for The used that is needed functioning of share of the Value to produce the ecosystem potential of ecosystem ecosystem Economic, services services. social, health Benefits can (physical or also be spiritual), and nonmaterial the intrinsic value of the benefit Figure 1: *e cascade model with integrated indicators of ecosystem service (La Notte et al. [4]). Figure 2: Map of the study area within Oyo State and Nigeria. unequalled elsewhere. *ere are many tree species in the the trees shed their leaves. Most forest trees have whitish- grey barks, tall and slender boles, and spreading foliage forest reserve such as Celtis zenkeri, Sterculia rhinopetala, canopies. Some of the larger varieties also develop im- Strombosia spp., Trilepsium madagascariensis, and Trip- pressive buttresses at their bases. Researchers have noted lochiton scleroxylon. Other exploitable species include Ter- that the lowland tropical rainforest is noted for being the minalia superba, Antiaris africana, Milicia excelsa, most diverse, luxuriant, and productive in terms of organic Terminalia ivorensis, Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, and matter on earth; hence, a reservoir of genetic materials Pinus caribaea. *e dominant rural land use in the forest 4 International Journal of Forestry Research Table 1: Gender respondent’ characterization. reserve is for agriculture. Shifting cultivation is the system of agriculture that is mostly practiced. *e food crops include Variable Frequency Percentage Manihot esculenta (cassava), Xanthosoma sagittifolium Sex (cocoyam), and Zea mays (maize), among others. Tree crops Males 101 52.1 such as (eobroma cacao (cocoa), coffee, and Cola spp. are Females 93 47.9 also found in the study area. *e dominant species are Cola Age millenii, Angylocalyx oligophyllus, Cissus spp., Dioscorea 21–30 39 20.1 spp., Combretum spp., and Chromolaena odorata. All land 31–40 51 26.3 use activities are geared towards the establishment and 41–50 47 24.2 maintenance of forest units. 51 and above 57 29.4 Marital status 3. Materials and Methods Single 76 39.2 Married 83 42.8 *e methodology adopted in the course of this research Divorced 12 6.2 includes qualitative and quantitative methods. In this study, Widow/widower 23 11.9 a total of 200 key respondents participated in it, drawn from Educational level the seven main communities, namely, Ibusogbora, Oloowa, No formal education 38 19.6 Daley north and south, Onipe, Mamu, Olubi, and Onipanu, Primary education 29 14.9 Secondary education 73 37.6 respectively. *ese included government officials, civil ser- Tertiary education 14 7.2 vants (related to vegetation conservation), headsmen, local leaders, traditional healers, farmers, traders, artisans, grass Household size ≤3 11 5.7 root dwellers, fishermen, hunters, lumbers, community 4–6 65 33.5 members, and the general public residing in the study area. 7–9 54 27.8 Out of the 200 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 194 10–12 46 23.7 were returned, giving a response rate of 97%. *is offered Above 12 18 9.3 rich information about the impacts of forest loss at the study Income level area. Both primary (i.e., field survey) and secondary (i.e., ≤N20,000 54 27.8 review of e-books, journals, e-databases, and reports) data N21,000–N40,000 61 31.4 sources were employed for this study. *e questionnaire was N41,000–N70,000 33 17 designed to capture information by respondents regarding N71,000–N90,000 28 14.4 obtainable ecosystem goods and services and the utilization Above N90,000 18 9.3 of forest resources. Copies of the questionnaire were dis- Source: Fieldwork 2020. tributed covering the areas given in Table 1. Benefits derived from study area 3.1. Research Findings Economic benefits, Raw materials, 171 3.1.1. Benefits Derived from the Study Area. Results from analysis of the questionnaire revealed that 171 (86.6%) re- spondents stated that there were raw material benefits, while 186 (95.8%) and 166 (85.5%) respondents stated that they derived medicinal and economic benefits from the study area, respectively, as shown in Figure 3. Medicinal purposes, 186 3.1.2. Obtainable Medicinal Plants Collected by the Raw materials Respondents. *e authors sought to investigate the medicinal Medicinal purposes Economic benefits plants collected from the study area, for the purpose of uti- lizing their barks, roots, and leaves for treatment of different Figure 3: Pie chart depicting the benefits derived from study area (source: Fieldwork 2020). types of ailments and diseases. *e results revealed that moringa 164 (84.5%), mint leaf (166 (85.6%), bitter kola 143 (73.7%), and shea tree (176/90.7%), among others were ob- Findings from the study show that supplies from preferred tainable in the study area. *e results are tabulated in Table 2. species are inadequate, and selectivity in terms of species has declined significantly. Producers noted that species which in the past were not utilized, owing to less than optimal 3.1.3. Wood Species Utilized by Fuelwood Producers. characteristics, are now being burnt for fuel. Most of the fuelwood production in Gambari Forest Reserve area originates from a handful of species: Leucaena leuco- cephala, Leucaena glauca, Gliricidia sepium, Tectona grandis, 3.1.4. Pattern of Energy Consumption. Emphasis in this Gmelina arborea, Swietenia macrophylla, Acacia spp., section is laid on the analysis of the pattern of fuel wood Albizia spp., Cassia siamea, and Pithecellobium saman. consumption in the study area relative to commercial fuels International Journal of Forestry Research 5 Table 2: Obtainable medicinal plants collected by the respondents (N � 194). Variable Scientific name Availability of medicinal plants Nonavailability of medicinal plants Awopa (Yaani) Enantia chlorantha 136 (70.1%) 58 (29.9%) Beau (Jenjoko) Cissampelos owariensis 128 (65.9%) 66 (34.0%) Benth (Oruwo) Morinda lucida 129 (66.4%) 65(33.5%) Bitter kola (Orogbo) Garcinia kola 143 (73.7%) 51 (26.3%) Coral plant (Ogege) Jatropha multifida 172 (88.7%) 22 (11.3%) Cotton leaf (Botuje pupa) Jatropha gossypiifolia 168 (86.6%) 26 (13.4%) Cut leaf cherry (Koropo) Physalis angulata 142 (73.2%) 52 (26.8%) Ginger (Ata ile) Zingiber officinale 150 (77.3%) 44 (22.7%) Girdle pod (Irawo ile) Mitracarpus scaber 157 (80.9%) 37 (19.1%) Iyeye Spondia mombin 149 (76.8%) 45 (23.2%) Mint leaf (Ewe minti) Mentha x piperita 166 (85.6%) 28 (14.4%) Moringa (Ewe ile) Moringa oleifera 164 (84.5%) 30 (15.5%) Locust bean (Igi iru) Parkia biglobosa 101 (52.1%) 93 (47.9%) Satinwo Terminalia ivorensis 157 (80.9%) 37 (19.1%) Schumach (Ajinrin) Momordica foetida 99 (51.1%) 95 (48.9%) Shea tree (Ori) Butyrospermum paradoxum 176 (90.7%) 18 (9.3%) White weed (Imiesu) Ageratum conyzoides 144 (74.2%) 50 (25.8%) Source: Fieldwork 2020. such as fuelwood, kerosene, and electricity. Analysis shows Table 3: Domestic energy utilization (N � 194). that those using fuel woods constituted the highest number Energy Frequency % of respondents (157/80.9%), as given in Table 3. Fuel wood 157 80.9 *is is followed by electricity (138/71.1%). *is result Electricity 138 71.1 implies that fuel wood accounted for major sources of en- Kerosene 56 28.9 ergy, and consequently, its impact on deforestation will also Source: Fieldwork 2020. be significant. *is indicates that fuel wood contributes positively to the livelihood of the community, and there is strong evidence that the poor in the community engage in Table 4: Reason for fuel wood preference. fuel wood extraction because it is less capital intensive. *e respondents utilize fuelwood to supplement their income Reasons Frequency % and engage in it as business due to unemployment, while Cheap 124 63.9 others are involved in it as hobby. In addition, with farming Easy to get 20 10.3 being the major occupation of residents in the study area, it Convenient 14 7.2 Availability 36 18.6 is easier for residents to fetch firewood from the reserve. Total 194 100 *ere are a number of reasons why respondents prefer the use of fuel wood to other sources. *e result of this analysis is Source: Fieldwork 2020. presented in Table 4. sustainable utilization of the timber species and other ecological resources found at the study area. 4. Discussion 4.1. (e Conflicts between Sustainable and Nonsustainable 5. Conclusion Forces in the Study Area. *e relevance of ecological system services to human wellbeing in the study area cannot be It is germane to state that fuel wood production in Gambari overemphasized [7]. Consequently, there is need for sus- Forest Reserve is a profitable business. Aside from its po- tainability regarding the conservation and protection of tential role for domestic cooking and agricultural processing, timber species in the study area on the one hand and the it also has significant potential of providing reliable income utilization of the timber species for fuelwood, furniture for rural households and other forest-dependent people in making, and pole and paper making on the other. While the area. *e market price of fuel wood do not reflect their timber species utilization is viewed from the perspectives of full economic costs, profit on fuel wood has a negative promoting human wellbeing, environmentalists and ecol- relationship with what fuel wood collectors pay to the ogists, on the other hand, underscore the need to conserve government, and the market is dominated by supplies the timber species in the study area, by providing a common originating from open access to forest. *e bulk of the fuel platform, which is the landscape for conservationists, ge- wood supplied to the market has zero stumpage value; this ographers, planners, scientists, and engineers to function does not reflect the social cost or true value of the wood and together so as to ensure an optimum society where man and creates a disincentive for farmers and private entrepreneur nature can both flourish optimally over time. It is on this who want to grow trees for fuel wood because production premise that the author advocates the need to ensure cost will reduce profit margin. Furthermore, the renewable 6 International Journal of Forestry Research [4] A. La Notte, D. D’Amato, H. Makinen ¨ et al., “Ecosystem nature of the forest also offers potential for sustained output services classification: a systems ecology perspective of the of wood for fuel, provided appropriate harvesting and cascade framework,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 74, pp. 392–402, management can be instituted; hence, there is a clear need for the development of integrated management approaches [5] M. Potschin and R. Haines-Young, “Conceptual frameworks to this forest resource such as establishment of fuel wood or and the cascade model,” in OpenNESS Ecosystem Services village woodlots so as to ensure the sustainability of the Reference Book, European Centre for Nature Conservation, resource. Tilburg, Netherlands, 2016, http://www.openness-project.eu/ library/reference-book/cascade-model. [6] M. Nassl and J. Loffler, ¨ “Ecosystem services in coupled 5.1. Recommendation. In conclusion, forest systems services social–ecological systems: closing the cycle of service provision provisioning in Africa can be developed in the following and societal feedback,” Ambio, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 737–749, 2015. ways: [7] T. A. Olatoye, G. O. Odularu, O. J. Pelemo, O. M. Ogoliegbune, C. F. Agbor, and O. S. Afolabi, “*e geography of forestry (i) First, there is need for African governments to establishments in Nigeria as important economic entities (case restore public awareness campaign in the area of study of forestry research Institute of Nigeria,” in Proceedings of timber planting initiatives as well as sustainable the 36th Annual Proceeding of Forestry Association of Nigeria forest resource management in the study area [FAN], p. 17, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria, November 2013. (ii) Increasing allocation to fund forestry research in the continent (iii) Recycling and reduction of wood wastes and es- tablishment of gene banks to prevent timber species extinction, introduction of domestication pro- grammes, and workable legislation in the forestry sector (iv) Creation of implementable poverty alleviation and youth empowerment programmes so as to control the use of fuelwood in local African communities (v) *ere is need for African governments to develop alternative, accessible, and affordable sources of energy Data Availability *e data used to support the findings of this study are in- cluded within the article. Conflicts of Interest *e authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Acknowledgments *e authors wish to acknowledge the funding support from Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre (GMRDC), University of Fort Hare, Alice, Province of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. References [1] F. Botez and C. Postolache, “Nitrogen deposition impact on terrestrial ecosystems,” Romanian Biotechnological Letters, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 8723–8742, 2013. [2] T. A. Olatoye, A. M. Kalumba, S. P. Mazinyo, and A. S. Odeyemi, “Ecosystem functioning, goods, services and economic benefits in buffalo city metropolitan municipality (BCMM) eastern Cape, South Africa,” Journal of Human Ecology, vol. 67, 2019. [3] D. C. Donato, J. B. Kauffman, D. Murdiyarso, S. Kurnianto, M. Stidham, and M. Kanninen, “Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 293–297, 2011. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Forestry Research Hindawi Publishing Corporation

Forest Systems Services Provisioning in Africa: Case of Gambari Forest Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria

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Copyright © 2021 Tolulope Ayodeji Olatoye et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Hindawi International Journal of Forestry Research Volume 2021, Article ID 8823826, 6 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2021/8823826 Research Article Forest Systems Services Provisioning in Africa: Case of Gambari Forest Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria Tolulope Ayodeji Olatoye , Sonwabo Perez Mazinyo, Akinwunmi Sunday Odeyemi, Israel Ropo Orimoloye, and Emmanuel Tolulope Busayo Faculty of Science and Agriculture, University of Fort Hare, Alice 5700, Province of the Eastern Cape, South Africa Correspondence should be addressed to Tolulope Ayodeji Olatoye; olatoyetolu@gmail.com Received 27 June 2020; Revised 10 June 2021; Accepted 25 June 2021; Published 7 July 2021 Academic Editor: Nikolaos D. Hasanagas Copyright © 2021 Tolulope Ayodeji Olatoye et al. *is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. *is study, therefore, which is focused on forest systems services provisioning in Africa, case of Gambari Forest Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria, provides policy makers, decision makers, ecologists, environmentalists, the academia, and other stakeholders with a document geared towards promoting national development through sustainable forest products utilization practices. In this study, a total of 200 key respondents participated in it, out of which 194 copies were returned and distributed among the seven main communities in the study area, namely, Ibusogbora, Oloowa, Daley north and south, Onipe, Mamu, Olubi, and Onipanu, respectively. *e respondents stated that moringa 164 (84.5%), mint leaf (166 (85.6%), bitter kola 143 (73.7%), and shea tree accounts for 176 (90.7%), and the wood species utilized by producers in the study area include Leucaena leucocephala, Leucaena glauca, Gliricidia sepium, Tectona grandis, and Gmelina arborea, among others. *e study recommends that there is need for African governments to restore public awareness campaign in the area of timber planting initiatives and sustainable forest resource management and increase allocation to fund forestry research in the African continent. transforming and utilizing carbon dioxide into 1. Introduction usable forms such as chemical energy or starch. In addition, photosynthesis plays important roles. Vegetation accounts for two-thirds of all different types of terrestrial ecosystems in tropical, subtropical, temperate, (ii) Forest ecosystems restock the supply of atmo- Mediterranean, and boreal regions [1]. From the foregoing, spheric oxygen, which could otherwise be rapidly forest ecosystems offer an enormous variety of environ- exhausted by respiration processes of organisms mental roles and services, which include sequestration of and by burning substances. Put differently, the carbon, conservation of biodiversity, water supply, flood process of photosynthesis produces oxygen re- control, protection against soil erosion, and desertification. quired for respiration by animals; hence, photo- According to Olatoye et al. [2], the ecological benefits of synthesis is the only process involved in the forests are highlighted. elimination of carbon dioxide when released through respiration, combustion, and decompo- (i) Photosynthesis: this is a procedure that involves sition into the biosphere. the interaction of the biotic (plants) and abiotic (iii) Forests ecosystems serve as the only process that (such as water and carbon dioxide) constituents of can utilize the enormous energy supply from the the environment for the improvement, distribu- tion, and continued existence of all living organ- sun and is therefore very essential in food cycles. isms. Plants are also the only living components of (iv) *ey ultimately ensure the continued survival the biosphere that have the functional capability of through the supply of energy requirements for all 2 International Journal of Forestry Research function and benefits of ecosystem services are generally biotic components in the biosphere. Unfortu- nately, the tremendous volumes of carbon dioxide defined as the ecosystem processes considered useful to humans. *e benefits accruable from ecosystems (as eluci- in the atmosphere far outweighs the available vegetal resources required to carry out photo- dated by the cascade model) include tangible natural resources synthesis on account of inadequate self-regulatory derived from provisioning services (e.g., vegetation, crops, mechanisms required by plants for the regulation wood, and water) or some regulating services (e.g., clean water of carbon dioxide concentration levels. for multiple uses provided by water purification). (v) Air conditioning: the release of oxygen in the at- 2. Aim of the Study mosphere during photosynthesis helps in envi- ronmental purification, and as a result of this, *e aim of this research is to investigate forest systems vegetal resources in coastal and tropical climes services provisioning in Africa: Case of Gambari Forest have adopted survival strategies by serving as sinks Reserve, Ibadan, Nigeria. for carbon dioxide concentration. (vi) Shelterbelts or windbreaks: the establishment of 2.1. (e Study Area. Gambari Forest Reserve (GFR) is lo- shelterbelts and other tree shelters has been cated in the Mamu locality (Gambari Forest), Coordinate 3.7 established in coastal environments so as to mit- and 3.9E″ and latitude 7.05 and 7.14, i.e., 17 km southeast of igate the effects of flooding and ameliorate the Ibadan on the Ijebu-Ode road, 2 km from the nearest road. environmental conditions to conducive levels for GFR consists of one compact block of 311.6 acres. *e ef- biota conservation and growth. Vegetation pro- fective productive area of the reserve is therefore 306.9 acres, tects the top soil and sustains soil fertility, in ad- no allowance being made for subsidiary roads and com- dition to inhibiting watershed disturbance by partment boundaries. *e forest reserve is owned by Oyo/ acting as barriers against soil or gully erosion. *ey Ogun state governments. Formerly, Ibadan District Council also shelter buildings and other biotic components Forest Reserve and Gambari Forest Reserve. Gambari Forest from natural phenomena such as intense heat from Reserve is divided into five series, namely, Onigambari, sunlight and windstorms. Busogboro, Onipe, Olonde, and Mamu. It was originally (vii) Forests also serve as a safe haven for hydrological 12,535.6 ha of which 1,036 ha was dereserved by the Oyo and wildlife conservation State Government for the Cocoa Research Institute of (viii) Forests perform a very important function of at- Nigeria. Later in 1986, another 1,000 hectares were given to mospheric humidification, as well as ensuring the Safa Splints Nigeria Limited for industrial use. Present, the regulation of the earth’s weather and climate working area in the reserve is 10,429.6 ha. *e study area is (ix) Forest vegetation is an essential ecosystem com- shown in Figure 2, presenting Gambari Forest Reserve ponent which establishes a vital link in nutrients in within Oyo State and Nigeria. addition to the absorption of inorganic compo- A low ridge runs from the northern to southern direction nents and integrating them into organic com- on the western side of the central part of the reserve. *e pounds in living tissues drainage runs westwards from the north and west into the River Ona. In the southeast, streams drain into River Awun (x) Recent studies have shown (such as [3]) that which flows southwards. *e topography of the study area is coastal vegetation is among the most efficient more or less undulating. *e average altitude in the whole carbon sinks in the world. From the foregoing, the reserve is 122–152 m above the sea level. ecological and economic benefits of costal eco- system services are further illustrated with the cascade model as shown in Figure 1. 2.2. Vegetation and Land Use. *e vegetation of the area lies between the lowland rainforest. *e vegetation of the area is Figure 1 shows the cascade framework proposed by Potschin and Haines-Young [5]. *e model provides a dominated by tree forms ranging from shrubs to dense vegetation. A number of strata of trees can be recognized linkage between natural systems to elements of human wellbeing, following a pattern similar to a production chain, though they are not always clearly differentiated. *e tallest stratum has a discontinuous foliage canopy made up of from ecological structures and processes generated by emergent trees with rounded crowns. Below the stratum of ecosystems to the services and benefits eventually derived by emergents, another set of trees with spreading crowns forms humans [6]. According to La Notte et al. [4], the advantage a continuous canopy at a height varying from 15 to 30 of this framework is to effectively communicate societal meters. *e third tree stratum is less regular, being made up dependence on ecosystem services in key areas such as of varying sizes of trees with much foliage. Under the tree observations from a biocentred or holistic approach, i.e., biophysical structures and processes/functions belonging to strata, shrub forms which are quite distinct from small trees form a significant layer with foliage at a height of about two the ecological sphere and which are considered as a whole. Furthermore, the word function is generally used inter- meters. Apart from trees, the rainforest is composed of herbs, climbers, epiphytes, saprophytes, and parasites. *e changeably with the ecological process and/or ecosystem service. Additionally, the cascade model explains the rainforest is evergreen, and there is no time in the year that International Journal of Forestry Research 3 Ecosystem service Human wellbeing Ecosystem and biodiversity Structure and processes Function Biophysical structures that Benefit Functioning of create the the ecosystem basis for The used that is needed functioning of share of the Value to produce the ecosystem potential of ecosystem ecosystem Economic, services services. social, health Benefits can (physical or also be spiritual), and nonmaterial the intrinsic value of the benefit Figure 1: *e cascade model with integrated indicators of ecosystem service (La Notte et al. [4]). Figure 2: Map of the study area within Oyo State and Nigeria. unequalled elsewhere. *ere are many tree species in the the trees shed their leaves. Most forest trees have whitish- grey barks, tall and slender boles, and spreading foliage forest reserve such as Celtis zenkeri, Sterculia rhinopetala, canopies. Some of the larger varieties also develop im- Strombosia spp., Trilepsium madagascariensis, and Trip- pressive buttresses at their bases. Researchers have noted lochiton scleroxylon. Other exploitable species include Ter- that the lowland tropical rainforest is noted for being the minalia superba, Antiaris africana, Milicia excelsa, most diverse, luxuriant, and productive in terms of organic Terminalia ivorensis, Tectona grandis, Gmelina arborea, and matter on earth; hence, a reservoir of genetic materials Pinus caribaea. *e dominant rural land use in the forest 4 International Journal of Forestry Research Table 1: Gender respondent’ characterization. reserve is for agriculture. Shifting cultivation is the system of agriculture that is mostly practiced. *e food crops include Variable Frequency Percentage Manihot esculenta (cassava), Xanthosoma sagittifolium Sex (cocoyam), and Zea mays (maize), among others. Tree crops Males 101 52.1 such as (eobroma cacao (cocoa), coffee, and Cola spp. are Females 93 47.9 also found in the study area. *e dominant species are Cola Age millenii, Angylocalyx oligophyllus, Cissus spp., Dioscorea 21–30 39 20.1 spp., Combretum spp., and Chromolaena odorata. All land 31–40 51 26.3 use activities are geared towards the establishment and 41–50 47 24.2 maintenance of forest units. 51 and above 57 29.4 Marital status 3. Materials and Methods Single 76 39.2 Married 83 42.8 *e methodology adopted in the course of this research Divorced 12 6.2 includes qualitative and quantitative methods. In this study, Widow/widower 23 11.9 a total of 200 key respondents participated in it, drawn from Educational level the seven main communities, namely, Ibusogbora, Oloowa, No formal education 38 19.6 Daley north and south, Onipe, Mamu, Olubi, and Onipanu, Primary education 29 14.9 Secondary education 73 37.6 respectively. *ese included government officials, civil ser- Tertiary education 14 7.2 vants (related to vegetation conservation), headsmen, local leaders, traditional healers, farmers, traders, artisans, grass Household size ≤3 11 5.7 root dwellers, fishermen, hunters, lumbers, community 4–6 65 33.5 members, and the general public residing in the study area. 7–9 54 27.8 Out of the 200 copies of the questionnaire distributed, 194 10–12 46 23.7 were returned, giving a response rate of 97%. *is offered Above 12 18 9.3 rich information about the impacts of forest loss at the study Income level area. Both primary (i.e., field survey) and secondary (i.e., ≤N20,000 54 27.8 review of e-books, journals, e-databases, and reports) data N21,000–N40,000 61 31.4 sources were employed for this study. *e questionnaire was N41,000–N70,000 33 17 designed to capture information by respondents regarding N71,000–N90,000 28 14.4 obtainable ecosystem goods and services and the utilization Above N90,000 18 9.3 of forest resources. Copies of the questionnaire were dis- Source: Fieldwork 2020. tributed covering the areas given in Table 1. Benefits derived from study area 3.1. Research Findings Economic benefits, Raw materials, 171 3.1.1. Benefits Derived from the Study Area. Results from analysis of the questionnaire revealed that 171 (86.6%) re- spondents stated that there were raw material benefits, while 186 (95.8%) and 166 (85.5%) respondents stated that they derived medicinal and economic benefits from the study area, respectively, as shown in Figure 3. Medicinal purposes, 186 3.1.2. Obtainable Medicinal Plants Collected by the Raw materials Respondents. *e authors sought to investigate the medicinal Medicinal purposes Economic benefits plants collected from the study area, for the purpose of uti- lizing their barks, roots, and leaves for treatment of different Figure 3: Pie chart depicting the benefits derived from study area (source: Fieldwork 2020). types of ailments and diseases. *e results revealed that moringa 164 (84.5%), mint leaf (166 (85.6%), bitter kola 143 (73.7%), and shea tree (176/90.7%), among others were ob- Findings from the study show that supplies from preferred tainable in the study area. *e results are tabulated in Table 2. species are inadequate, and selectivity in terms of species has declined significantly. Producers noted that species which in the past were not utilized, owing to less than optimal 3.1.3. Wood Species Utilized by Fuelwood Producers. characteristics, are now being burnt for fuel. Most of the fuelwood production in Gambari Forest Reserve area originates from a handful of species: Leucaena leuco- cephala, Leucaena glauca, Gliricidia sepium, Tectona grandis, 3.1.4. Pattern of Energy Consumption. Emphasis in this Gmelina arborea, Swietenia macrophylla, Acacia spp., section is laid on the analysis of the pattern of fuel wood Albizia spp., Cassia siamea, and Pithecellobium saman. consumption in the study area relative to commercial fuels International Journal of Forestry Research 5 Table 2: Obtainable medicinal plants collected by the respondents (N � 194). Variable Scientific name Availability of medicinal plants Nonavailability of medicinal plants Awopa (Yaani) Enantia chlorantha 136 (70.1%) 58 (29.9%) Beau (Jenjoko) Cissampelos owariensis 128 (65.9%) 66 (34.0%) Benth (Oruwo) Morinda lucida 129 (66.4%) 65(33.5%) Bitter kola (Orogbo) Garcinia kola 143 (73.7%) 51 (26.3%) Coral plant (Ogege) Jatropha multifida 172 (88.7%) 22 (11.3%) Cotton leaf (Botuje pupa) Jatropha gossypiifolia 168 (86.6%) 26 (13.4%) Cut leaf cherry (Koropo) Physalis angulata 142 (73.2%) 52 (26.8%) Ginger (Ata ile) Zingiber officinale 150 (77.3%) 44 (22.7%) Girdle pod (Irawo ile) Mitracarpus scaber 157 (80.9%) 37 (19.1%) Iyeye Spondia mombin 149 (76.8%) 45 (23.2%) Mint leaf (Ewe minti) Mentha x piperita 166 (85.6%) 28 (14.4%) Moringa (Ewe ile) Moringa oleifera 164 (84.5%) 30 (15.5%) Locust bean (Igi iru) Parkia biglobosa 101 (52.1%) 93 (47.9%) Satinwo Terminalia ivorensis 157 (80.9%) 37 (19.1%) Schumach (Ajinrin) Momordica foetida 99 (51.1%) 95 (48.9%) Shea tree (Ori) Butyrospermum paradoxum 176 (90.7%) 18 (9.3%) White weed (Imiesu) Ageratum conyzoides 144 (74.2%) 50 (25.8%) Source: Fieldwork 2020. such as fuelwood, kerosene, and electricity. Analysis shows Table 3: Domestic energy utilization (N � 194). that those using fuel woods constituted the highest number Energy Frequency % of respondents (157/80.9%), as given in Table 3. Fuel wood 157 80.9 *is is followed by electricity (138/71.1%). *is result Electricity 138 71.1 implies that fuel wood accounted for major sources of en- Kerosene 56 28.9 ergy, and consequently, its impact on deforestation will also Source: Fieldwork 2020. be significant. *is indicates that fuel wood contributes positively to the livelihood of the community, and there is strong evidence that the poor in the community engage in Table 4: Reason for fuel wood preference. fuel wood extraction because it is less capital intensive. *e respondents utilize fuelwood to supplement their income Reasons Frequency % and engage in it as business due to unemployment, while Cheap 124 63.9 others are involved in it as hobby. In addition, with farming Easy to get 20 10.3 being the major occupation of residents in the study area, it Convenient 14 7.2 Availability 36 18.6 is easier for residents to fetch firewood from the reserve. Total 194 100 *ere are a number of reasons why respondents prefer the use of fuel wood to other sources. *e result of this analysis is Source: Fieldwork 2020. presented in Table 4. sustainable utilization of the timber species and other ecological resources found at the study area. 4. Discussion 4.1. (e Conflicts between Sustainable and Nonsustainable 5. Conclusion Forces in the Study Area. *e relevance of ecological system services to human wellbeing in the study area cannot be It is germane to state that fuel wood production in Gambari overemphasized [7]. Consequently, there is need for sus- Forest Reserve is a profitable business. Aside from its po- tainability regarding the conservation and protection of tential role for domestic cooking and agricultural processing, timber species in the study area on the one hand and the it also has significant potential of providing reliable income utilization of the timber species for fuelwood, furniture for rural households and other forest-dependent people in making, and pole and paper making on the other. While the area. *e market price of fuel wood do not reflect their timber species utilization is viewed from the perspectives of full economic costs, profit on fuel wood has a negative promoting human wellbeing, environmentalists and ecol- relationship with what fuel wood collectors pay to the ogists, on the other hand, underscore the need to conserve government, and the market is dominated by supplies the timber species in the study area, by providing a common originating from open access to forest. *e bulk of the fuel platform, which is the landscape for conservationists, ge- wood supplied to the market has zero stumpage value; this ographers, planners, scientists, and engineers to function does not reflect the social cost or true value of the wood and together so as to ensure an optimum society where man and creates a disincentive for farmers and private entrepreneur nature can both flourish optimally over time. It is on this who want to grow trees for fuel wood because production premise that the author advocates the need to ensure cost will reduce profit margin. Furthermore, the renewable 6 International Journal of Forestry Research [4] A. La Notte, D. D’Amato, H. Makinen ¨ et al., “Ecosystem nature of the forest also offers potential for sustained output services classification: a systems ecology perspective of the of wood for fuel, provided appropriate harvesting and cascade framework,” Ecological Indicators, vol. 74, pp. 392–402, management can be instituted; hence, there is a clear need for the development of integrated management approaches [5] M. Potschin and R. Haines-Young, “Conceptual frameworks to this forest resource such as establishment of fuel wood or and the cascade model,” in OpenNESS Ecosystem Services village woodlots so as to ensure the sustainability of the Reference Book, European Centre for Nature Conservation, resource. Tilburg, Netherlands, 2016, http://www.openness-project.eu/ library/reference-book/cascade-model. [6] M. Nassl and J. Loffler, ¨ “Ecosystem services in coupled 5.1. Recommendation. In conclusion, forest systems services social–ecological systems: closing the cycle of service provision provisioning in Africa can be developed in the following and societal feedback,” Ambio, vol. 44, no. 8, pp. 737–749, 2015. ways: [7] T. A. Olatoye, G. O. Odularu, O. J. Pelemo, O. M. Ogoliegbune, C. F. Agbor, and O. S. Afolabi, “*e geography of forestry (i) First, there is need for African governments to establishments in Nigeria as important economic entities (case restore public awareness campaign in the area of study of forestry research Institute of Nigeria,” in Proceedings of timber planting initiatives as well as sustainable the 36th Annual Proceeding of Forestry Association of Nigeria forest resource management in the study area [FAN], p. 17, University of Uyo, Uyo, Nigeria, November 2013. (ii) Increasing allocation to fund forestry research in the continent (iii) Recycling and reduction of wood wastes and es- tablishment of gene banks to prevent timber species extinction, introduction of domestication pro- grammes, and workable legislation in the forestry sector (iv) Creation of implementable poverty alleviation and youth empowerment programmes so as to control the use of fuelwood in local African communities (v) *ere is need for African governments to develop alternative, accessible, and affordable sources of energy Data Availability *e data used to support the findings of this study are in- cluded within the article. Conflicts of Interest *e authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Acknowledgments *e authors wish to acknowledge the funding support from Govan Mbeki Research and Development Centre (GMRDC), University of Fort Hare, Alice, Province of the Eastern Cape, South Africa. References [1] F. Botez and C. Postolache, “Nitrogen deposition impact on terrestrial ecosystems,” Romanian Biotechnological Letters, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 8723–8742, 2013. [2] T. A. Olatoye, A. M. Kalumba, S. P. Mazinyo, and A. S. Odeyemi, “Ecosystem functioning, goods, services and economic benefits in buffalo city metropolitan municipality (BCMM) eastern Cape, South Africa,” Journal of Human Ecology, vol. 67, 2019. [3] D. C. Donato, J. B. Kauffman, D. Murdiyarso, S. Kurnianto, M. Stidham, and M. Kanninen, “Mangroves among the most carbon-rich forests in the tropics,” Nature Geoscience, vol. 4, no. 5, pp. 293–297, 2011.

Journal

International Journal of Forestry ResearchHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Jul 7, 2021

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