Open Advanced Search
Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day.
Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.
Learn More →
Measurement Method of Comprehensive Transportation Development Quality Based on Transportation Efficiency
Measurement Method of Comprehensive Transportation Development Quality Based on Transportation...
Zhan, Jiahao;Yang, Shengwen;Wang, Xueyin;Fan, Ting
Hindawi Journal of Advanced Transportation Volume 2023, Article ID 3238777, 15 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/3238777 Research Article Measurement Method of Comprehensive Transportation Development Quality Based on Transportation Efficiency 1,2 1,2 3 3 Jiahao Zhan , Shengwen Yang , Xueyin Wang, and Ting Fan College of Mechanics and Transportation, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China Key Laboratory of Environmental Protection and Safety of Motor Vehicles in Highland Mountainous Areas of Yunnan University, Southwest Forestry University, Kunming 650224, China Yunnan Provincial Department of Transport Road Network Monitoring and Emergency Command Center, Kunming 650000, China Correspondence should be addressed to Shengwen Yang; firstname.lastname@example.org Received 10 October 2022; Revised 22 February 2023; Accepted 14 March 2023; Published 23 March 2023 Academic Editor: Jaeyoung Lee Copyright © 2023 Jiahao Zhan et al. Tis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Transportation is the forerunner of economic and social development. Terefore, the high-quality development of comprehensive transportation is of great signifcance to ensure overall economic and social progress and the smooth implementation of major national strategies. Te essence of high-quality development in transportation is to realize the optimal allocation of transportation resources. Tis study handles two aspects. First, the factors that refect the quality of comprehensive transportation development are defned and analyzed, and an evaluation system is proposed to build China’s comprehensive transportation development quality with transportation efciency as the core is proposed, taking into account transportation infrastructure and transportation scale. Second, the static comprehensive evaluation value is calculated by the entropy weight method, and then the incentive control model is constructed by introducing incentive factors to achieve a dynamic comprehensive evaluation of comprehensive transportation development. Te research results not only propose new indicators but also evaluate diferent modes of transportation within the same dimension. Te results show that the quality of comprehensive transportation development in China is generally on the rise, but there are obvious regional diferences. Te proposed model is derived from evaluation cases in transportation-related felds and has not yet been applied in the transportation feld. It can help understand the development status of the industry and assist in policy formulation. conducive to the optimization of transportation resource 1. Introduction allocation. To achieve comprehensive development of the Promoting the high quality and high efciency development country, we must ensure the high-quality development of of an integrated transportation system, realizing the com- integrated transport in all regions. An integrated trans- plementary advantages of various modes of transportation, portation system is defned as a transport complex in which and improving the supporting role of an integrated trans- the various modes of transport are divided, organically portation system for social and economic development are integrated, connected, and reasonably laid out according to the key issues that need to be solved in China’s trans- their technical and economic characteristics, within the portation industry at present. A comprehensive and sys- scope of socialized transport and in a unifed transport tematic evaluation of the technical and economic process. From the perspective of resource allocation, its characteristics of the entire integrated transportation system high-quality development is to achieve a rational division of in a region is an indispensable means to promote its sci- labor and efective collaboration among various modes of entifc development. It is not only conducive to a more transport so that the transport capacity of the entire system reasonable layout of integrated transportation but also can be optimized to meet transport needs to the maximum 2 Journal of Advanced Transportation extent. Transport efciency is defned as the maximization of freight productivity of current and future freight systems proft at the minimum cost in the process of transport and to measure the efciency of freight networks  and proposes a method to determine the weights of the production, which corresponds to the purpose of optimal resource allocation. We conclude that the essence of high- Malmquist Productivity Index (MPI) in the context of quality transport development is the issue of efcient gov- double frontier Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) measures ernance under the premise of ensuring safety. Terefore, it is freight efciency , introduces the SBM-undesirable necessary to measure comprehensive transportation and model to systematically analyze the time-series evolution quantify the quality of industry development. While con- of comprehensive transport efciency in China , and sidering the layout of transportation infrastructure and the proposes a DEA model and a Tobit regression model to scale of transportation, we should also focus on compre- measure the geographical comprehensive transport ef- hensive transportation efciency. ciency . In addition, some literature has also addressed Tis study aims to propose a new perspective for the the measurement of road and rail transport efciency evaluation of transport development. Tis method uses [16–18] and summarized the research on civil aviation transport efciency . Some literature has examined green microlevel indicators to defne macrolevel transport ef- ciency, taking into account transport infrastructure and travel and energy efciency in integrated transport. For volume scale, and combines a dynamic evaluation model example, the literature constructs a system model for energy based on entropy to achieve a dynamic evaluation of in- savings and emission reduction in the transport industry tegrated transport. Te specifc methods to determine it, through system dynamics and summarizes the technical including the index set and measurement model, and their paths that are most conducive to energy savings and practical application will be described in the following emission reduction , constructs a comprehensive eval- section. Te formulation of transportation policies should uation model for green transport suitable for mountainous fully consider the development of various transportation cities , and combines a superefciency relaxation-based measurement (Super-SBM) model and the Malmquist index means. Te methods proposed in this study can provide support for policy formulation. to assess the static and dynamic carbon emission efciency of the logistics industry . Te relationship between transport and the economy has been studied in a number of 2. Literature Review papers, with the literature proposing an analytical approach China’s economic development has changed from high- to examine the impact of transport and the economy on speed growth to high-quality growth, and the transport short-line railways , constructing an evaluation system industry, as the “artery” of national economic growth, also to study the adaptation of regional transport to the economy needs to “improve quality and increase efciency”. In order , and constructing a model of international rail freight in to accurately judge the quality of integrated transport de- China and Europe through system dynamics to analyze the velopment, it is necessary to measure the quality of in- feedback relationship between rail freight and economic trade . Several papers have assessed transport safety, tegrated transport development. A great deal of practical exploration has been carried out from diferent perspectives with the literature adding safety indicators as undesirable outputs of transport efciency DEA models, which can by relevant scholars with respect to the study of transport measurement. Some literature has elaborated on the con- refect more problems than conventional measurements . Te literature assesses railway and maritime transport notation of high-quality development of comprehensive transport in China, based on the outline for the construction safety production and risk management [27–29], and the of a strong transportation country, and has analyzed in evaluation system of risk factors is constructed by means of depth the connotation of high-quality development of fault tree analysis to analyze the causes of accidents in urban transportation and the requirements of the times for high- rail transport . quality development of transportation in the context of In the relevant research on the transportation evaluation China’s national conditions . A number of studies have index, the construction of a measurement system based on transport prices combined with transport volumes cir- examined the level of comprehensive transport services. Some scholars have made improvements on the Transport cumvents the evaluation of transport efciency dimensions [3–5], and the indicators chosen focus on changes in scale, Services Output Index (TSI)  proposed by American scholars to study the production index of transport services which cannot accurately refect the quality of development. in China [3–5]. In addition to measuring transport services, Te commonly used transportation efciency evaluation scholars have also modelled and analyzed the reliability  mainly adopts input and output indicators [13, 15–19], but and service quality [7, 8] of transport services. A number of the acquisition of input indicators is not complete, and there papers have measured the development of integrated re- is an obvious lag between input and output in the feld of gional transport and analyzed the extent to which various transportation. It is difcult to directly and accurately refect modes of transport have an impact on integrated transport the current state of transportation efciency by using input . A comprehensive evaluation model was further con- and output indicators to evaluate it. Because of changes and fuctuations that cannot be directly measured, descriptions structed for freight  and passengers . Tere are a relatively large number of studies measuring transport of the nature of transportation efciency are not direct and accurate enough. Indicators for infrastructure and devel- efciency. For example, the literature proposes a “freight transport energy productivity” indicator to quantify the opment scale use rough absolute value data without Journal of Advanced Transportation 3 considering regional geography and population. Te eval- and quality of development of integrated transport. An uation of transport safety mainly focuses on the assessment integrated transport system is a complex system consisting of fve modes of transport road, railroad, water, civil avia- of safety risks of personnel, equipment, management, and environment [25–28], which mostly relies on artifcially tion, and pipeline, as well as the corresponding facilities, developed “severity levels,” resulting in relatively subjective scale, efciency, safety, and other infuencing factors. Te evaluation results and relatively few ofcial statistics pub- development of comprehensive transportation is a dynamic lished on transport. Terefore, this paper does not include process, and the core factors, such as economic and social transportation safety evaluation indicators when con- issues, transportation technology and demand characteris- structing the measurement system. Based on the above tics, are constantly changing. Terefore, the evaluation discussion and aiming at the essential characteristics of high- system should comprehensively and objectively refect the quality development of comprehensive transportation, this current state of comprehensive transportation development paper focuses on improving transportation efciency while as well as the associated scientifc trends and goals so that it taking into account the capacity and level of transportation can lead future development. Te high-quality development of integrated transportation is essentially intended to achieve services, that is, taking the infrastructure utilization ef- ciency index as the core. Ten, considering the infrastructure the efcient operation of various modes of transportation distribution and regional per capita transportation scale while ensuring safety. China’s latest transport development index, it constructs an evaluation index and value calculation plan states that “the goal of high-quality integrated transport model for the high-quality development level of compre- development is to provide a better network of facilities, more hensive transportation and analyses the insufcient devel- efcient transport services, more advanced technology and opment of comprehensive transportation in China. equipment, in addition to more reliable safety and security, more sustainable development models, and more complete governance capabilities,” and that “high-quality develop- 3. Materials and Methods ment emphasizes quality and efciency changes along with In order to scientifcally and accurately determine the quality scale growth.” We believe that this has certain reference signifcance. of comprehensive transportation development in a country or region, relevant factors afecting transportation devel- To achieve a measure of the level of quality development in integrated transport, it is necessary to frst consider the opment must frst be identifed. Subsequently, it is necessary to accurately select the indicators, including quantitative composition of the integrated transport sector. Compre- hensive transportation is composed of various modes of indicators, to characterize these factors. Ten, identify a comprehensive, universal, and applicable method to assess transportation, such as road, railroad, waterway, and civil aviation. Each mode of transportation has its own charac- the potential of a particular feld. Professional procedures and scientifc methods must be used in this process, and teristics and contributes diferently to the development of some of the methods in the papers [29–31] provide in- integrated transportation. Terefore, it is necessary to screen the evaluation indicators of each transport mode separately spiration. Subsequently, these methods will be applied to comprehensive transportation evaluation practice in China. to ensure the comprehensiveness of the evaluation of in- tegrated transport at the level of transport modes. It contains two parts: Second, it is necessary to determine the dimensions of (a) One part is to analyze the factors afecting the level of indicators that afect the quality development of integrated development and quality of development of in- transport, specifcally in terms of infrastructure, capacity tegrated transportation by controlling the essence of scale, transport efciency, safety assessment, and other integrated transportation and construct a set of dimensions. evaluation indicators for high-quality development, all details of which are shown in Section 3.1. (a) Infrastructure is a prerequisite for the development of transport behavior, and it determines the upper (b) Te other part is to quote the dynamic compre- limit of the level of transport development. Te hensive evaluation method, combining the entropy development of regional transport infrastructure value method with the two-way incentive model, determines the scale and quality of transport de- introducing the incentive factor on the basis of static velopment, while geographical conditions should comprehensive evaluation, constructing the in- also be taken into account. In evaluating the de- centive control model, and combining the time di- velopment of regional integrated transport in- mension to realize the dynamic evaluation of frastructure, it is necessary to take into account the regional comprehensive transportation develop- regional geographical area, which is subdivided into ment, all the details are shown in Section 3.2. road network density, railway network density, port berths, and airport service area coverage (100 km radius). Te larger the index value, the better the 3.1. Analysis and Description of Factors Infuencing the transportation development in the region. Comprehensive Transportation. To evaluate the level of (b) Te scale of transportation can intuitively refect the high-quality development of integrated transport, we must volume of comprehensive transport development, frst grasp the essence of high-quality development of in- but using the volume indicator cannot refect the tegrated transport and analyze the factors afecting the level 4 Journal of Advanced Transportation aviation, among which pipeline transportation is not con- quality of regional comprehensive transport devel- opment. Te number of residents as a population in sidered for the time being due to its special characteristics, as shown in Table 1. the region is also one of the important factors af- fecting the absolute value of trafc, so it is necessary to introduce the population factor in the scale di- 3.2. Entropy-Bidirectional Excitation Model. Te purpose of mension of trafc. When evaluating the develop- the multiindex comprehensive evaluation is to combine ment of a regional comprehensive transportation the information of multiple indicators that refect the volume scale, population factors should also be diferent attributes of the research object to obtain considered. Tis dimension is subdivided into four a comprehensive index, which refects the overall devel- modes of transport for per capita passenger and opment of the evaluated object . Zhang  in- cargo trafc indicators. Te greater the per capita troduced the “implicit incentive” factor into the original volume, the better the transportation development “explicit incentive” model and constructed a dynamic, in the region. comprehensive evaluation method based on the dual in- (c) Transportation efciency is defned as obtaining centive model. Te expanded method can better describe maximum proft with minimum cost in the process and refect the dynamic development of the evaluated of transportation, and the improvement of efciency object in a period of time. Tis paper draws on the two-way helps optimize resource allocation, achieve lower incentive comprehensive evaluation method based on transportation costs, and improve the quality of entropy weight [31–33] and applies it to the study of high- development. In the evaluation of the development quality development measurement of the comprehensive of regional comprehensive transportation volume, transportation industry. Te entropy weighting method the passenger and cargo turnover of unit trans- enables an objective weighting of indicators based on the portation facilities is used to characterize the pas- information entropy of the indicator data. Te two-way senger and cargo turnover of highways and incentive model is an incentive control model that enables waterways. Due to the particularity of their man- comprehensive evaluation by introducing advantageous agement modes, railways, and civil aviation are and disadvantageous excitation factors and better refects characterized by passenger and cargo turnover, unit the development of the evaluated subject than a linear mileage turnover, and unit take-of and landing. Te weighting model. higher the unit turnover, the better the development Te calculation process of the model is divided into four of transportation efciency in the region. steps: (1) Normalization of the evaluation data. Te purpose of this step is to make the indicator data dimensionless. (2) (d) Te security dimension relies on artifcially de- Calculation of weighting scores by entropy. Te weighting veloped “severity levels” for evaluation, resulting in score is determined by calculating the entropy value of each relatively subjective evaluation results. Moreover, indicator. (3) Initial assessment. Te dimensionless index there are few indicators of transportation safety in values are linearly weighted to obtain an initial evaluation the ofcially published statistics, so this paper does value. (4) Two-way incentive comprehensive evaluation not include transportation safety evaluation in- model. Te initial evaluation value is used as an input to dicators when constructing the measurement calculate the advantageous and disadvantageous excitation system. factors and to achieve a comprehensive evaluation of the Te measurement of the quality of comprehensive study population. Te specifc calculation process is as transport development is considered from several aspects of follows. infrastructure construction, capacity scale, and transport Step 1: Normalization of the evaluation data. efciency. We focus not only on the absolute volume but also taking into account regional geographic and demographic First, the index data are standardized, and the indicator factors. In the construction of the evaluation system, due to value x is preprocessed to obtain x with the fol- ij ij the diferences between regions, the absolute quantity in- lowing equation: dicators cannot reliably refect the high-quality development of a comprehensive transportation industry among diferent x − m ij j x � , (j � 1, 2, · · · , m), (1) regions, so the area of regional administrative divisions and ij M − m j j the number of residents as a population are combined with the absolute quantity indicators of infrastructure and de- where M � max x , m � min x , and x is the j ij j ij ij velopment scale dimensions, respectively, to obtain the normalized value of the positive indicator. A non- relative evaluation indicators and build the index system. negative translation of the normalized results is then Based on this understanding, this study constructs performed. a system to measure the level of high-quality development of Step 2: Calculation of weighting scores by entropy. a comprehensive transportation industry, which is mainly based on transportation efciency and supplemented by Assuming that there are n years to be evaluated and m infrastructure and capacity scale. Te system includes four evaluation indicators, the matrix is constructed as follows: modes of transportation: road, railroad, waterway, and civil Journal of Advanced Transportation 5 Table 1: Measurement index system of comprehensive transportation development level. Target level Tier 1 indicators Tier 2 indicators Note Density of the road network Ratio of total road length to total area of the region Density of the railroad network Ratio of total railroad length to total area of the region Infrastructure Te number of loading and unloading vessels that the port can Number of berths in a port accommodate Airport service area coverage Ratio of airport service area to national land area Per capita road passenger trafc Ratio of road passenger trafc to resident population Per capita road freight volume Ratio of road freight trafc to resident population Per capita rail passenger trafc Ratio of railroad passenger trafc to resident population Per capita rail freight volume Ratio of rail freight trafc to resident population Scale of development Per capita waterway passenger trafc Ratio of waterway passenger trafc to resident population Per capita waterway freight volume Ratio of waterborne cargo trafc to resident population Comprehensive Per capita civil aviation passenger throughput Ratio of passenger throughput at civil airports to resident population transportation Ratio of cargo and mail throughput of civil airports to resident Per capita air cargo and mail throughput population Highway passenger transportation facility utilization Ratio of road passenger turnover to passenger capacity efciency Highway freight facility utilization efciency Ratio of road freight turnover to load capacity Railroad passenger facility utilization efciency Ratio of railroad passenger turnover to operating mileage Transportation Rail freight facility utilization efciency Ratio of railroad freight turnover to miles operated efciency Waterway passenger transport facility utilization Ratio of waterway passenger turnover to ship passenger capacity efciency Waterway freight facility utilization efciency Ratio of waterway freight turnover to ship’s capacity Civil aviation passenger facility utilization efciency Ratio of civil aviation passenger throughput to landings and take-ofs Civil aviation freight facility utilization efciency Ratio of civil air freight and mail throughput to landings and take-ofs 6 Journal of Advanced Transportation ′ ′ ′ Step 3: Initial assessment. · · · x x x 11 12 1m ⎡ ⎢ ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ Based on the weights of the indicators calculated by the ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ′ ′ ′ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ · · · ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ x x x ⎥ ′ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 21 22 2m ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ entropy weighting method, the initial comprehensive ⎢ ⎥ X � ⎢ ⎥, (2) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⋮⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⎥ evaluation values of all evaluated regions at time t are ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ T ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦ ′ calculated. ′ ′ · · · x x x nm n1 n2 y t � α X . (5) j T j ij where x is the indicator value. Te data of 20 in- ij dicators from 2000 to 2019 are used to fnd the weights, Step 4: Two-way incentive, comprehensive evaluation i.e., n � 20 and m � 20. method. Based on the normalization matrix X , the information Te evaluation matrix is constructed using the initial entropy E of each indicator is calculated, and the evaluation values formula is as follows: y t y t y t 1 1 1 2 1 T ⎢ ⎥ ⎡ ⎢ · · · ⎤ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ − 1 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ E � P ln P , ⎢ y t y t y t ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ 2 1 2 2 2 T ⎥ j ij ij ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ln(n) Y � ⎢ ⎥. (6) ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ i�1 ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⋮⋮ ⋱ ⋮ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ (3) ⎣ ⎦ ij y t y t · · · y t n 1 n 2 n T P � , (i � 1, 2, · · · , n, j � 1, 2, · · · , m). ij n z ij i�1 max Te average maximum gain η , average minimum min gain η , and average gain η are calculated, and the Te information entropy E obtained from equation (3) formulae are as follows: is used to calculate the weight α of each indicator, and the formula is as follows: 1 − E α � , (j � 1, 2, · · · , m). (4) 1 − E j�1 T− 1 ⎧ ⎪ ⎪ max ⎝ ⎠ ⎪ ⎛ ⎞ η � max