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Performance of Palm Oil Clinker Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Comprising Spent Garnet as Fine Aggregate Replacement

Performance of Palm Oil Clinker Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Comprising Spent Garnet as Fine... Hindawi Advances in Civil Engineering Volume 2022, Article ID 9674096, 13 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/9674096 Research Article Performance of Palm Oil Clinker Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Comprising Spent Garnet as Fine Aggregate Replacement 1 1 1 Nur Farah Aziera Jamaludin , Khairunisa Muthusamy , Mohd Faizal Md Jaafar , 2 3 Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya , and Mohamed A. Ismail Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia Department of Civil Engineering, Miami College of Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, China Correspondence should be addressed to Khairunisa Muthusamy; khairunisa@ump.edu.my Received 17 January 2022; Revised 22 March 2022; Accepted 24 March 2022; Published 12 April 2022 Academic Editor: Alessandro Rasulo Copyright © 2022 Nur Farah Aziera Jamaludin et al. )is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. )e increase in building activity as a result of population expansion has resulted in an overexploitation of aggregate, with disastrous environmental consequences. Simultaneously, the disposal of spent garnet by the shipbuilding industry and palm oil clinker by palm oil mills harms the environment and needs a greater amount of landfill space. )erefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of spent garnet as a fine aggregate substitute on the fresh, mechanical, and durability properties of palm oil clinker concrete. Concrete mixes were created using various percentages of spent garnet as a fine aggregate substitute, including 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. )e workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, and acid resistance of the water cured concrete were all determined. It was determined that using 20% spent garnet increased the compressive strength of lightweight concrete. )e positive filler effect of spent garnet resulted in a densely packed internal structure of concrete, allowing it to have the lowest percentage of water absorption. )e same mixtures exhibited the least mass change and strength reduction when exposed to acid solution. )e results established that ecologically friendly concrete may be manufactured by including considerable volumes of waste from the shipbuilding and palm oil sectors. it is strong enough to meet the needs for various applications 1. Introduction according to the type of concrete. Zareei et al. [4] reported )e Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of “Goal 7” are that 25 billion tons of concrete consumption led to sus- aimed to make sure that everyone can have access to af- tainability issues due to the scarcity of natural resources, fordable and reliable energy by 2030. )is includes including aggregates. In comparison, sand, and gravel are expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to make the world’s most mined resources, with between 32 billion sure that everyone can get modern and sustainable energy tons and 50 billion tons taken each year [5]. Excessive services [1]. )e construction sector is one of the industries mining of river sand causes changes in the riverbed, water featured in “Agenda 2030,” as it is the least sustainable levels, and flood plains and affects the river ecosystems, industry in the world, consuming over half of all nonre- navigation systems, and salinity levels [6]. Instabilities in the newable resources [2]. Concrete is one of the most essential channel and sedimentation caused by instream mining also and commonly utilized building materials in the world cause problems on public facilities such as bridges, pipelines, nowadays [3]. It is an ideal material for construction because and utility lines [7]. According to Kuhar [8], global demand 2 Advances in Civil Engineering Table 1: Physical properties of POC. for natural aggregates used in concrete manufacturing is expected to expand at an average annual rate of 7.7% Physical properties POC through 2022, reaching 66.2 billion metric tons. )e rise in Bulk density (kg/m ) 945.66 aggregate extraction activities from the quarries destroys Water absorption (%) 10.19 greenery (which is the habitat of wildlife), changes the Moisture content (%) 1.87 natural landscape, and pollutes the environment. )e land Aggregate impact value (%) 49.39 deprivation causes pollution and affects the biodiversity, Aggregate crushing value (%) 45.54 posing ecological impact on local neighborhoods and Los Angeles abrasion value (%) 58.70 communities [9, 10]. )erefore, utilization of other types of material to function as sand and coarse aggregate in concrete could reduce the quantity of these natural resources reaped from the environment, decrease destruction to green sur- roundings, and preserve aggregate resources for future use. Spent garnet waste is a type of waste generated from the shipbuilding industry. Based on the US Geological Survey [11], 140 000 garnets were produced, and 12, 000 tons was exported to other countries, including Malaysia. Garnet is commonly used as an abrasive material for sandblasting ships in Malaysia after the Malaysian shipbuilding industry was recently revealed to be responsible for importing thousands of tons of garnets from outside the country each year [12]. Garnet is an abrasive blasting medium that is a Figure 1: Large chunk of POC. mineral found in crystal metamorphic rocks, and it has a variety of chemical components and colors [13]. Due to its hardness, this material may be recycled several times (be- tween three and five times) for abrasive purposes [14]. )e garnet that was no longer useable or practical for blasting purposes would be disposed of as “spent garnet” at landfills [12]. Spent garnet causes many environmental and health hazards because the paint in most ship hulls contains heavy metals like tributyltin (TNT) that leached underground and contaminate soil and underground water [15]. Furthermore, when these products are entered into the rivers through flooding or by run-offs, such garnet wastes cause significant environmental and health dangers such as water pollution [16]. )ey can threaten the biodiversity of natural ecological environment [12]. An approach that aims to utilize this Figure 2: Spent garnet. waste for other purposes rather than disposing it would alleviate this material ending up piled up as an environ- growing population. Malaysia generated 19,000 tons of mental polluting waste. debris per day in 2005, with a recycling rate of 5%. )e Malaysia is currently the second-largest producer of quantity increased to 38,000 tons per day in 2018 even palm oil after Indonesia, with the total output accounting for though the recycling rate rose by 17.5% [25]. With limited 36% of global demand [17]. In 2019, Malaysia produced landfill space and escalating disposal costs, there is an urgent 19.86 million tons of palm oil and exported 18.47 million need to address waste management and reduce environ- tons [18]. )e expansion in the plantation increased the mental and human impacts. Hence, integrating POC as annual production of solid waste such as oil palm shell coarse aggregate and spent garnet as partial sand replace- (OPS), palm oil clinker (POC), and palm kernel fiber ment in concrete material would reduce the natural ag- [19, 20]. )e porous rock-like material known as palm oil gregate usage and, at the same time, minimize adverse clinker (POC) is a by-product obtained during the palm oil environmental impacts. and fiber incineration cycle in a boiler at the mill. As palm oil production continues to increase, it is expected that a massive volume of clinker would be produced with little or 2. Materials and Methods no commercial value [20, 21]. )ese waste materials are usually dumped into open fields and landfills [19] and causes 2.1. Materials and Properties. In this study, the binder used water, air, and land pollution [22, 23]. Besides, continuous was OPC with ASTM C150 [24], classified as Type 1 binder waste discarding contaminates the soil and impacts the material in the concrete. )e properties of POC, which has source of groundwater supply [24]. Developing nations such been used as a lightweight coarse aggregate in this research, as Malaysia confront several challenges in managing waste are presented in Table 1. Large chunks of POC were collected sustainably, owing to the rapidly expanding cities and a from a dumping site in a local palm oil mill. POC’s large Advances in Civil Engineering 3 Table 2: Physical properties of river sand and spent garnet. Table 4: Mix proportion used (kg/m ). Physical properties River sand Spent garnet Mixes (%) Sand Sg POC OPC Water SP Bulk density (kg/m ) 1541 2006 0 625 — 345 375 158 3.75 Water absorption (%) 0.85 6.12 10 563 63 345 375 158 3.75 Moisture content (%) 0.42 1.06 20 500 125 345 375 158 3.75 Specific gravity 2.77 3.75 30 438 188 345 375 158 3.75 Fineness modulus 3.85 2.79 40 375 250 345 375 158 3.75 Table 3: Chemical composition of spent garnet. ° 105 C±5 for 24hours to remove the moisture content and sieved passing 600 µm. )e physical properties of river sand Chemical composition (%) Spent garnet and spent garnet are shown in Table 2, and the chemical Silicon dioxide (SiO ) 39.04 composition of spent garnet is tabulated in Table 3. Figures 3 Aluminium oxide (Al O ) 13.40 2 3 and 4 show the spent garnet and river sand’s scanning Iron oxide (Fe O ) 40.23 2 3 electron image, respectively. Tap water was used for pre- Magnesium oxide (MgO) 4.08 paring the specimen for concrete and curing purposes. 1% Sulfur trioxide (SO ) 0.38 Potassium oxide (K O) 0.32 superplasticizer from cement was used to produce workable Calcium oxide (CaO) - mix while keeping low water cement ratio. Manganese (II) oxide (MnO) 1.03 Titanium dioxide (TiO ) 1.53 2.2. Mix Design and Preparation. )e trial mix method was used to generate a total of five different palm oil clinker lightweight aggregate concrete mixes of grade 50. )e percentages of spent garnet used to replace sand in the concrete mixes were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of fine aggregate. Each mix had the same quantity of cement, POC as coarse aggregate, water, and superplasticizer. )e concrete mixture proportions used in this experiment are listed in Table 4. )e lightweight concrete aggregate mix was prepared using a mechanical mixer. Sand, POC aggregate, spent garnet, and cement were dry-mixed for three minutes before adding water and superplasticizer. )e remaining water and SP were mixed and put into the concrete mix, Figure 3: SEM spent garnet. which was then mixed for 5minutes. Concrete was cast in cubes and compacted appropriately. )e concretes were covered with a damp gunny bag and kept in the mould for 24hours before being removed. All concrete cubes were 7-, 28-, and 60-day water cured. )e compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, and acid resistance of the concrete were then determined. 2.3. Test Methods. )e slump test was performed in ac- cordance with BS EN 12350–2 [26] to establish the work- ability of the concrete mix. )e dry density of the concrete specimen was determined according to ASTM C 642 [27]. Figure 4: SEM river sand. )e compressive strength of POC concrete was evaluated using the BS EN 12390–3 [28] standard testing procedure. For the flexural strength measurement, three-point bending tests were conducted according to BS EN 12390-5 [29]. chunks (Figure 1) were initially crushed with the required size jaw crusher. )en, POC was sieved by passing 10mm Splitting tensile strength of the concrete cylinders was and retaining 5mm to get the required size for replacement carried out by referring to ASTM C496-96 [30]. )e static of coarse aggregate. Air-dried river sand was used as a fine modulus elasticity of concrete was established by conducting aggregate with particle size passing of 2.36mm and fineness testing in accordance with BS 1881: Part 121 [31]. )e modulus of 3.85. )e spent garnet (Figure 2) was collected performance of concrete in terms of water absorption and from a factory that provides integrated brownfield services acid resistance was evaluated through testing conducted for the oil and gas and petrochemical industries in West following the procedure in BS EN 1881-122 [32] and ex- Malaysia. )e waste was oven-dried at a temperature of perimental method of Sarıdemir et al. [33], respectively. 4 Advances in Civil Engineering 180 70 40 10 0 10203040 010 20 30 40 % of spent garnet (%) % of Spent Garnet (%) 7 Days Figure 5: Slump value of POC LWAC containing spent garnet. 28 Days 60 Days Figure 7: Compressive strength of POC LWAC containing spent garnet. 3 3 3 2120kg/m , and 2154kg/m to 2220kg/m when the re- placement levels of river sand by spent garnets were in- creased from 0% to 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. POC LWAC containing 40% of spent garnet exhibited the largest density value. )is occurred because the spent garnet had higher bulk density and specific gravity compared to river sand, which were 2006kg/m and 3.75, respectively. )e effect of using iron ore, which was a waste material with 010 20 30 40 different bulk density, as fine aggregate on density of con- % of Spent Garnet (%) crete has also been documented by the previous researchers [12, 35]. According to BS EN 1992-1-1 (2004) [36], light- Figure 6: Oven dry density of POC LWAC containing spent garnet. weight concrete had density not more than 2200kg/m . )erefore, all replacements were categorized as lightweight concrete excluded 40%. 3. Results and Discussions 3.1. Workability. )e effect of spent garnet as partial sand 3.3. Compressive Strength. )e compressive strength of POC LWAC with varying percentages of spent garnet as a partial replacement in palm oil clinker lightweight aggregate concrete (POC LWAC) mixes towards slump is shown in sand replacement is shown in Figure 7. Compressive strength increased steadily over time as the age increased. Figure 5. As the spent garnet content was increased, the workability of POC LWAC increased. Figure 5 reveals slump On Day 60 of curing age, the results indicated that the values of 40mm, 45mm, 54mm, 150mm, and 154mm for strength of POC LWAC containing 20% (63.4MPa) spent garnet was the highest compared to the control specimen POC LWAC, with addition of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of spent garnet, respectively. Control POC LWAC mixture (58.6MPa). )e strength decreased as the percentage of spent garnets increased, reaching 63.3MPa and 57.0MPa at was the least cohesive among the mixtures consisting of spent garnet. )e improvement in the workability of the mix 30% and 40%, respectively. )e mix with 20% of spent garnet demonstrated the highest strength value. )e presence of was due to the higher density of spent garnet (2006kg/m ) compared to river sand (1541kg/m ). )e approach of in- finer aggregates in the particle size passing 600 µm filled in the existing spaces in the concrete, thus forming more tegrating spent garnet to replace sand by weight resulted in smaller volume of this solid waste to be added to the mix, thus compact concrete structure with higher strength. )e in- crease in compressive strength of POC LWAC could partly resulting in a mixture with enhanced workability. Further- be attributed to spent garnets’ rough and angular texture, more, the smaller particle size of spent garnet improved the workability of concrete as the surface bonding between and finer particles. According to Muttashar et al. [16], the coarse and angular texture of the spent garnet materials particles increased. A similar trend was also observed by the previous researchers [12, 34, 35] in different types of concrete. increased bonding at the cement-aggregate contact, resulting in the high strength. )e study also stated that a rough and angular surface on the materials improved the grip between 3.2. Oven dry Density. Figure 6 shows that the inclusion of the particles and reduced the strength loss that led to higher spent garnet increased the density of all mixes. Density of strength of the concrete [37]. In addition, lower water ab- 3 3 POC LWAC increased from 2091kg/m , 2102kg/m , sorption of spent garnet means fewer pores on the concrete 3 Slump (mm) Density (kg/m ) Compressive Strength (MPa) Advances in Civil Engineering 5 surface and a stronger bond between cement paste and 0% aggregates [38]. )e difference in the internal structure void fashion was due to the use of suitable spent garnet content that can be seen in Figures 8 and 9. )e microstructure of void control specimen is less compact, as illustrated in Figure 8, in void contrast to the concrete with 20% spent garnet, which ap- pears well-packed and denser, as in Figure 9. Precaution needed to be taken to not use this waste excessively as the use void of spent garnet at 30% and 40% decreases the compressive strength of concrete. However, the mix produced using 30% void CSH can still be classified as high strength concrete, whereas the one produced by integrating 40% spent garnet can be used for structural application. )e relationship between compressive strength against spent garnet content and curing days is presented in Fig- ure 10. As suggested from response surface method (RSM), the quadratic model was the best fit to maximize the rela- Figure 8: POC control specimen with many voids. tionship. )e plot shows that the compressive strength improved with prolonged curing days. However, it was obvious that the compressive strength decreased with an 20% increase in the level percentage of spent garnet in POC LWAC, as shown in Figure 10(a). )e RSM plots also clearly displayed that inclusion of 20% spent garnet in POC LWAC void enhanced the strength performance as compared to plain POC LWAC and those contained 10%, 30%, and 40% spent garnet. )e analysis is fit from 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%, in which the regression analysis (from ANOVA analysis) is approaching to value R >0.80. )e strong relation proves the effectiveness of the spent garnet as 20% of replace- CSH ment towards compressive strength. Figure 10(b) depicts a graphic representation of response surface to visualize the effects. A curvature in the plot indicates the sensi- tivity of response factors. )e curvature of Curve A was more curved than that of Curve B, thus indicating that those different levels of percentages spent garnet were more sensitive than the age of curing to enhance the Figure 9: Specimen containing 20% spent garnet with lesser compressive strength. From ANOVA analysis, the re- amount of voids. gression indicated that the relationship between com- pressive strength and those variables was strong, where R value was 0.866. )e empirical relationship between 11.22 MPa, 11.46MPa, 11.21 MPa, and 11.20MPa, re- compressive strength and multiples factors (% spent spectively. Evidently, all specimens demonstrated strength garnet and curing days) is presented in the following increment as the curing period became longer, resulting equation: from better hydration process. )e test results revealed that POC LWAC containing spent garnet in 20% enhanced 2 2 CS � −0.0191A − 0.0060B + 0.0086AB + 0.291A + 0.652B + 38.902, strength compared to the control POC LWAC at all ages. (1) However, the mixture produced using 30% and 40% re- placement of spent garnet showed a decrease in flexural where CS is compressive strength, A is percentage of spent strength, whereby the pattern was similar to the com- garnet, and B is curing day. pressive strength result. SOman et al. [39] and Kim and Lee [40] also described similar observations upon the use of high amount of waste material as sand replacement in 3.4. Flexural Strength. )e results of flexural strengths of POC LWAC containing spent garnet are shown in Fig- concrete. ure 11, which illustrates strength at Day 7, Day 28, and Day )e response surface 3D plot in Figure 12 indicates the 60 of concrete age. )e flexural strengths of 4.21MPa, relationship between percentage of spent garnet and curing 8.13MPa, 8.45 MPa, 7.92 MPa, and 7.74 MPa at the age of day towards flexural strength. It was found that POC Day 7 in mixtures of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. containing higher content of spent garnet had no effect on However, at Day 28 and Day 60 of curing age, the flexural the flexural strength when compared to plain POC spec- strengths of the specimens were 10.98 MPa, 11.09 MPa, imens. )e plots in Figure 12(a) clearly illustrate that POC 11.10MPa, 10.95MPa, 10.66MPa, and 11.21MPa, incorporating 20% spent garnet attained the highest B: Curing 6 Advances in Civil Engineering Perturbation 65 B 60.00 40.00 46.75 30.00 33.50 20.00 20.25 10.00 7.00 0.00 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 Deviation from Reference Point (Coded Units) (a) (b) Figure 10: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and curing days with respect to compressive strength. 2 2 14.0 FS � −0.0002A − 0.0024B + 0.0003AB − 0.013A + 0.215B + 7.126, 12.0 (2) 10.0 where FS is flexural strength, A is percentage of spent garnet, 8.0 and B is curing day. 6.0 4.0 3.5. Splitting Tensile Strength. Figure 13 illustrates the effect of substituting spent garnet for sand on the splitting tensile 2.0 strength of POC LWAC. )e splitting tensile strength of 0.0 POC LWAC mixes containing 20% spent garnet waste was 0 10203040 greater than that of the control sample at all curing ages. )is % of Spent Garnet (%) might be because the optimal proportion of finer garnet particles resulted in improved bonding between aggregates 7 Days and cement paste. Utilizing spent garnet more than 20% 28 Days resulted in a weaker concrete with a lower splitting tensile 60 Days strength. )e decreased fine aggregate ratio was ascribed to Figure 11: Flexural strength of POC LWAC containing spent the deterioration of interface between the spent garnet garnet. particles and binder paste. Huseien et al. [12] previously observed a decline in concrete strength because of excessive waste material use. flexural strength as compared to that plain POC. By using Figure 14 evaluates the relationship between spent ANOVA analysis, the regression indicated that the effect of garnet content and curing days against splitting tensile different level percentage of spent garnet and curing days strength. )e quadratic model was designed by RSM to towards flexural strength was significant. )e quadratic obtain the best fit for splitting tensile strength relation model was selected, and the value of R2 obtained from the with the percentage of spent garnet and curing days, as analysis was 0.9939. Overall, the analysis is fitting from 0, presented in Figure 14(a). )e results described that the 10, 20, 30, and 40% as the regression analysis (from splitting tensile strength for POC was influenced by the inclusion of spent garnet in POC mixes. Based on the ANOVA analysis) is approaching value>0.80. )us, the robust relation demonstrates the efficacy of the spent regression analysis (from ANOVA analysis), which is garnet at 20% replacement towards flexural strength of approaching (value R > 0.80), it can be deduced that the concrete. It is interesting to note that Figure 12(b) dem- analysis is fit from 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of spent garnet as onstrates that Curve B was much curved than Curve A, thus fine aggregate replacement. )e 3D surface response indicating that prolonging the curing day was more sen- showed that when the content of spent garnet increased, sitive than the content of spent garnet to enhance the the splitting tensile strength of POC specimens decreased. flexural strength. From the quadratic regression, the re- In contrast, when the curing days increased, the splitting lation equation between spent garnet content and curing tensile strength increased with decreasing spent garnet day on flexural strength of spent garnet based POC is content. )e quadratic regression analysis revealed that R shown in the following equation: obtained was 0.9861, which means that about 98.61% of its A: %SG Flexural Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength Compressive Strength B: Curing Advances in Civil Engineering 7 Perturbation 11.9 11.9 10.85 9.8 10.85 8.75 9.8 7.7 8.75 60.00 40.00 46.75 30.00 33.50 20.00 20.25 10.00 7.7 7.00 0.00 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 (a) (b) Figure 12: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and curing days with respect to flexural strength. 5.0 3.6. Modulus of Elasticity. )e results of modulus of 4.5 elasticity at age of 7, 28, and 60-day curing are shown in 4.0 Figure 15. It can be observed that the variation in the 3.5 amount of spent garnet used influenced the stiffness of the 3.0 POC LWAC. )e combination of 20% spent garnet as fine 2.5 aggregate increased the modulus of elasticity by 32%, 59%, 2.0 and 7.02%, respectively, compared to control mixture at 1.5 all ages. )e positive contribution of 20% spent garnet 1.0 inclusion to form denser internal structure resulted in the 0.5 formation of lower deflection of concrete upon subjected 0.0 to loading. According to Neville [38], an increase in the 0 10203040 modulus of elasticity of concrete signified an increase in % of spent garnet (%) the stiffness of the concrete element, which may result in less deflection in the structural element. Similar patterns 7 Days 28 Days were seen in the compressive strength result obtained in 60 Days this study. )e elastic modulus of concrete was usually directly proportional to its compressive strength (high Figure 13: Splitting tensile strength of POC LWAC containing strength constitutes high elastic modulus) [41]. Upon spent garnet. inclusion of 30 and 40% of spent garnet in the mix, concrete became less stiff and exhibited lower modulus elasticity value. spent garnet content and curing days contributed to the )e effect of numerical factors between spent garnet variation in splitting tensile strength of POC. Instead, the content and curing days towards modulus of elasticity adequacy of the model was also tested by examining the (MOE) of POC and POC contained spent garnet was found perturbation trends, as depicted in Figure 14(b). )e steep by RSM analysis and presented in Figure 16. In this RSM slope in the perturbation plots shown in Curve A for the analysis, the 3D surface response plots displayed that the content of spent garnet indicated that the inclusion of inclusion of spent garnet in POC mixes significantly affected different percentages of spent garnet in POC enhanced the MOE, as shown in Figure 16(a). POC with 20% spent garnet strength properties. )e relation equation between resulted in higher MOE as compared to those of POC mixes. splitting tensile strength with respect to that spent garnet )e 3D surface response plots also demonstrated that when content and curing days is shown in the following the duration of curing prolonged, MOE also increased. It equation: was observed that the spent garnet content and curing days had a strong relationship with the MOE (R was 0.8486). It 2 2 TS � −0.0006A − 0.0003B + 0.0002AB + 0.04A + 0.02B + 2.29, can be stated that the different percentages of spent garnet in POC mix were more dominant in prescribing the MOE of (3) concrete. )e perturbation plots were drawn to estimate the where TS is splitting tensile strength, A is percentage of spent influence of individual effect of those variables to the MOE garnet, and B is curing day. of POC and are presented in Figure 16(b). It demonstrates A: %SG Splitting Tensile Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength Flexural Strength B: Curing 8 Advances in Civil Engineering Perturbation 4.4 4.4 3.9 3.4 3.925 2.9 3.45 2.4 60.00 40.00 2.975 46.75 30.00 33.50 20.00 20.25 10.00 7.00 0.00 2.5 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 (a) (b) Figure 14: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and curing days with respect to splitting tensile strength. 25 3.7. Water Absorption. )e effect of spent garnet as a partial fine aggregate replacement on the water absorption of POC LWAC is shown in Figure 18. According to the 28-day results, water absorption was 2.8%, 2.7%, 2.0%, 2.5%, and 2.6% for 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% replacement of spent garnet in POC concrete, respectively. All POC LWAC specimens were categorized as good quality concrete as the water absorption was less than 4%. According to Neville [38], concrete with water absorption of less than 10% is classified as good quality concrete. )e integration of 20% spent garnet, which resulted in the lowest water absorption 0 10203040 value than other replacements, could be associated with the % of Spent Garnet (%) spent garnet fine particles acting as filler, thus forming a more compact structure. Figure 19 proves that concrete with 7 Days 0% spent garnet had more void and less density, resulting in 28 Days the highest water absorption compared with mix formed 60 Days using 20% of spent garnet replacement, as shown in Fig- Figure 15: Modulus of elasticity of POC LWAC containing spent ure 20. According to Zhang et al. [37], the decrease in water garnet. absorption was mostly due to the inner structure gradually densifying. However, excessive use of spent garnet at 30% and 40% caused rise in water absorption value. When too much of spent garnet was used, the packing level of ag- that Curve A (spent garnet content) showed more curvy gregate may be inadequate, resulting in voids inside the nature as compared to Curve B (curing days). )erefore, concrete specimens. )ese unfilled voids allowed water to Curve A shows that response was sensitive, indicating that infiltrate and fill the voids. )erefore, a 20% replacement of increment in MOE of POC decreased the content of spent sand with spent garnet was regarded as optimum and garnet in POC mixes. )e empirical relationship between created the best specimen of all. Figure 21 show that water compressive strength and multiples factors (% spent garnet absorption has no clear relationship with compressive and curing days) is expressed in Equation (4). It is observed strength. that there is a potential relationship between the com- pressive strength and its modulus of elasticity with an ad- justment around R � 0.54 as shown in Figure 17. 3.8. Acid Resistance. As illustrated in Figure 22, the usage of 2 2 spent garnet affects the durability of POC LWAC that has MOE � −0.0108A + 0.0020B − 0.0014AB + 0.398A (4) been immersed in a 10% hydrochloric acid solution for 28 + 0.049B + 10.568, and 60days, respectively. Generally, as the immersion du- ration increased, all concrete specimens undergo higher mass loss and strength. Figure 23POC LWAC containing up where MOE is modulus of elasticity, A is percentage of spent to 30% of spent garnet exhibit lower mass loss and strength garnet, and B is curing day. A: %SG Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) Splitting Tnensile Strength Splitting Tnensile Strength B: Curing Advances in Civil Engineering 9 Perturbation 20.25 20.25 16.5 12.75 16.5 A B 12.75 60.00 40.00 30.00 46.75 33.50 20.00 20.25 10.00 9 7.00 0.00 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 (a) (b) Figure 16: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and curing days with respect to modulus of elasticity (MOE). 55.0 void 0% 54.0 void 53.0 void y = 0.359x + 46.485 52.0 R = 0.541 void void 51.0 50.0 49.0 void 48.0 void 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 void Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) Figure 17: Fitted line plots of regression analysis for the rela- Figure 19: Appearance of many voids in the POC LWAC speci- tionship between compressive strength and modulus of elasticity mens containing 0% spent garnet. on 28-day curing. 20% void void void void void 010 20 30 40 % of Spent Garnet (%) Figure 20: Appearance of lesser void in the POC LWAC specimens Figure 18: Water absorption of POC LWAC containing spent containing 20% spent garnet. garnet. acid, the mass loss and strength reduction of 20% spent reduction as compared to plain concrete. )e mix produced garnet are 0.57% and 10.8%, respectively, compared to the using 20% spent garnet demonstrates the least mass loss and control specimen, 1% and 19.3%, respectively. )e ability of strength reduction across the various immersion durations POC LWAC sample with 20% of spent garnet replacement compared to other specimens. After 60days of hydrochloric to withstand the acidic attack is related to the filler effect A: %SG Water Absorption (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) MOE MOE 10 Advances in Civil Engineering 54.0 0% 53.0 void void 52.0 51.0 -0.058x y = 59.737e CSH 50.0 R = 0.2449 49.0 void 48.0 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 Water Absorption (%) Figure 21: Fitted line plots of regression analysis for the rela- void tionship between compressive strength and water absorption. void 1.2 Figure 24: Microstructure of POC LWAC containing 0% spent 0.8 garnet after exposure to hydrochloric solution at 28days. 0.6 20% 0.4 void 0.2 0 10203040 % of Spent Garnet (%) CSH void 28 Days 60 Days Figure 22: Mass loss of POC LWAC due to acid attack. Figure 25: Microstructure of POC LWAC containing 20% spent garnet after exposure to hydrochloric solution at 28days. specimen. )e scanning electron microscope image of the samples after acid resistance test shows control specimen (Figure 24) with the surface texture that has been exposed to leaching and the presence of large voids in contrast to mix 010 20 30 40 with 20% spent garnet (Figure 25) with lesser voids. Zivica % of Spent Garnet and Bajza [43] stated that the acidic resistance of cement- based materials is significantly dependent on pore size 28 Days distribution. )e resistance of the concrete was increased 60 Days when its content of finer pores decreased. Extreme use of Figure 23: Strength reduction of POC LWAC due to acid attack. spent garnet of 40% significantly reduces the durability of concrete to acid attack. Due to the hydrochloric acid attack, the concrete matrix weakened, and the specimen’s weight provided by the spent garnet, which contributed to the decreased due to the loss of cement paste. Calcium hy- densification concrete by reducing the voids. )is condition droxide is soluble in water and tends to get leached out from makes the durability of POC LWAC with 20% of spent the concrete surface upon exposure to acidic environment. garnet in acidic environment is higher compared to control Conclusively, inclusion of 20% spent garnet improved the Compressive Strength (MPa) Mass Loss (%) Strength reduction (%) B: Compressive Strength B: Flexural Strength Advances in Civil Engineering 11 Perturbation 18.25 15.25 12.5 6.75 10.5 5.75 63.39 40.00 30.00 59.70 20.00 56.01 52.32 10.00 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 48.63 0.00 Deviation from Reference Point (Coded Units) (a) (b) Figure 26: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and strength reduction with respect to strength reduction (acid resistance). Perturbation 557.5 182.5 72.5 -170 67.5 11.46 4.37 10.53 3.90 3.44 9.60 2.97 8.67 2.50 7.74 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 Deviation from Reference Point (Coded Units) (a) (b) Figure 27: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between compressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strength. internal microstructure of the concrete by filling internal 20% spent garnet provided positive effect. Inclusion of 20% spaces and resistance to acid attack. spent garnet in POC LWAC exhibited an increase in )e verification was performed to confirm the effect of strength and good resistance when exposed to acid solution. spent garnet in POC LWAC to acid resistance, as shown in )e quadratic model was the best fit for the analysis, and the 2 2 Figure 26. )e RSM plots indicated the relationship between value of R obtained was found to be 0.961. R obtained spent garnet content and compressive strength towards showed strong correlation for the model. )is means that strength reduction when the POC LWAC specimens were about 96.10% variation in the strength reduction could be immersed in acid solution at Day 28 and Day 60. )e 3D explained by the spent garnet content in POC concrete. surface plots in Figure 26(a) illustrate that the spent garnet and compressive strength of plain POC specimens and a 4. Relationship between Compressive, Flexural, series of spent garnet-based POC specimens significantly and Splitting Tensile Strength affected the strength reduction. It can be noted that when the spent garnet content was increased, the compressive Figure 27 illustrates the relationship between compressive, strength of POC LWAC decreased consequently, influencing flexural, and splitting tensile strength of the POC LWAC the reduction in strength. Figure 26(b) shows the pertur- containing spent garnet. As suggested from the response bation plots to compare the individual effect (% spent garnet surface method (RSM), the cubic model was the best fit to and compressive strength) on the strength reduction (acid maximize the relationship. )e results described that the resistance). It shows that, with the curvature in the levels of compressive strength for POC LWAC was influenced by percentage spent garnet, Curve A seemed to be much curved flexural strength. It can be observed from the regression than Curve B, indicating that Curve A was more sensitive to model that a strong relation was existing in between com- the strength reduction. )erefore, POC LWAC containing pressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strength having R A: Tensile Strength A: %SG Strength Reduction (Acid) Compressive Strength Reduction (Acid) Compressive 12 Advances in Civil Engineering greater than 90%. Figure 27(b) shows the perturbation plots Acknowledgments to compare the individual effect (flexural strength and )e authors would like to thank University Malaysia Pahang splitting tensile strength) on the compressive strength. It (UMP) for funding the research (Research Grant shows that the curvature in levels of flexural strength Curve RDU190342 and RDU213306). B seemed to be much more curved than Curve A, indicating that Curve B was more sensitive to the compressive strength. References 5. Conclusion [1] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern )e following conclusions can be drawn from this energy for all,” UN DESA, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 17-18, 2015. investigation: [2] A. 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R. M. Sam et al., “Per- tensile strength. )e prediction model can be used as formance of spent garnet as a sand replacement in high- reference model for future testing on spent garnet in strength concrete exposed to high temperature,” Journal of POC concrete. [42]. Structural Fire Engineering, vol. 10, no. 4, pp. 468–481, 2019. [14] H. L. Muttashar, M. W. Hussin, J. M. Mohd Azreen Mohd Arriffin, N. Hasanah, and A. U. Shettima, “Mechanical Data Availability properties of self-compacting geopolymer concrete contain- ing spent garnet as replacement for fine aggregate,” J. Teknol., )e data used to support the findings of this study are in- vol. 3, pp. 23–29, 2017. cluded within the article. [15] K. R. Usman, M. R. Hainin, M. K. I. M. Satar et al., “A comparative assessment of the physical and microstructural Conflicts of Interest properties of waste garnet generated from automated and manual blasting process,” Case Studies in Construction Ma- )e authors state that they have no known conflicting fi- terials, vol. 14, Article ID e00474, 2021. nancial or personal interests that might seem to have [16] H. L. Muttashar, M. A. M. Ariffin, M. N. Hussein, influenced the work presented in this study. M. W. Hussin, and S. Bin Ishaq, “Self-compacting geopolymer Advances in Civil Engineering 13 concrete with spend garnet as sand replacement,” Journal of [36] Bs En 1992-1-1, “Euro code 2: design of concrete structures - Part 1-1,” General rules and rules for buildings, vol. 1, 2004. Building Engineering, vol. 15, pp. 85–94, 2018. [17] D. Workman, “World ’ s top exports palm oil exports by [37] W. Zhang, X. Gu, J. Qiu, J. Liu, Y. Zhao, and X. 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Performance of Palm Oil Clinker Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Comprising Spent Garnet as Fine Aggregate Replacement

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Copyright © 2022 Nur Farah Aziera Jamaludin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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Abstract

Hindawi Advances in Civil Engineering Volume 2022, Article ID 9674096, 13 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/9674096 Research Article Performance of Palm Oil Clinker Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Comprising Spent Garnet as Fine Aggregate Replacement 1 1 1 Nur Farah Aziera Jamaludin , Khairunisa Muthusamy , Mohd Faizal Md Jaafar , 2 3 Ramadhansyah Putra Jaya , and Mohamed A. Ismail Faculty of Civil Engineering Technology, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia Department of Civil Engineering, College of Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Pahang, Lebuhraya Tun Razak, 26300, Gambang, Pahang, Malaysia Department of Civil Engineering, Miami College of Henan University, Kaifeng, Henan, China Correspondence should be addressed to Khairunisa Muthusamy; khairunisa@ump.edu.my Received 17 January 2022; Revised 22 March 2022; Accepted 24 March 2022; Published 12 April 2022 Academic Editor: Alessandro Rasulo Copyright © 2022 Nur Farah Aziera Jamaludin et al. )is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. )e increase in building activity as a result of population expansion has resulted in an overexploitation of aggregate, with disastrous environmental consequences. Simultaneously, the disposal of spent garnet by the shipbuilding industry and palm oil clinker by palm oil mills harms the environment and needs a greater amount of landfill space. )erefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the influence of spent garnet as a fine aggregate substitute on the fresh, mechanical, and durability properties of palm oil clinker concrete. Concrete mixes were created using various percentages of spent garnet as a fine aggregate substitute, including 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. )e workability, compressive strength, flexural strength, splitting tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, and acid resistance of the water cured concrete were all determined. It was determined that using 20% spent garnet increased the compressive strength of lightweight concrete. )e positive filler effect of spent garnet resulted in a densely packed internal structure of concrete, allowing it to have the lowest percentage of water absorption. )e same mixtures exhibited the least mass change and strength reduction when exposed to acid solution. )e results established that ecologically friendly concrete may be manufactured by including considerable volumes of waste from the shipbuilding and palm oil sectors. it is strong enough to meet the needs for various applications 1. Introduction according to the type of concrete. Zareei et al. [4] reported )e Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) of “Goal 7” are that 25 billion tons of concrete consumption led to sus- aimed to make sure that everyone can have access to af- tainability issues due to the scarcity of natural resources, fordable and reliable energy by 2030. )is includes including aggregates. In comparison, sand, and gravel are expanding infrastructure and upgrading technology to make the world’s most mined resources, with between 32 billion sure that everyone can get modern and sustainable energy tons and 50 billion tons taken each year [5]. Excessive services [1]. )e construction sector is one of the industries mining of river sand causes changes in the riverbed, water featured in “Agenda 2030,” as it is the least sustainable levels, and flood plains and affects the river ecosystems, industry in the world, consuming over half of all nonre- navigation systems, and salinity levels [6]. Instabilities in the newable resources [2]. Concrete is one of the most essential channel and sedimentation caused by instream mining also and commonly utilized building materials in the world cause problems on public facilities such as bridges, pipelines, nowadays [3]. It is an ideal material for construction because and utility lines [7]. According to Kuhar [8], global demand 2 Advances in Civil Engineering Table 1: Physical properties of POC. for natural aggregates used in concrete manufacturing is expected to expand at an average annual rate of 7.7% Physical properties POC through 2022, reaching 66.2 billion metric tons. )e rise in Bulk density (kg/m ) 945.66 aggregate extraction activities from the quarries destroys Water absorption (%) 10.19 greenery (which is the habitat of wildlife), changes the Moisture content (%) 1.87 natural landscape, and pollutes the environment. )e land Aggregate impact value (%) 49.39 deprivation causes pollution and affects the biodiversity, Aggregate crushing value (%) 45.54 posing ecological impact on local neighborhoods and Los Angeles abrasion value (%) 58.70 communities [9, 10]. )erefore, utilization of other types of material to function as sand and coarse aggregate in concrete could reduce the quantity of these natural resources reaped from the environment, decrease destruction to green sur- roundings, and preserve aggregate resources for future use. Spent garnet waste is a type of waste generated from the shipbuilding industry. Based on the US Geological Survey [11], 140 000 garnets were produced, and 12, 000 tons was exported to other countries, including Malaysia. Garnet is commonly used as an abrasive material for sandblasting ships in Malaysia after the Malaysian shipbuilding industry was recently revealed to be responsible for importing thousands of tons of garnets from outside the country each year [12]. Garnet is an abrasive blasting medium that is a Figure 1: Large chunk of POC. mineral found in crystal metamorphic rocks, and it has a variety of chemical components and colors [13]. Due to its hardness, this material may be recycled several times (be- tween three and five times) for abrasive purposes [14]. )e garnet that was no longer useable or practical for blasting purposes would be disposed of as “spent garnet” at landfills [12]. Spent garnet causes many environmental and health hazards because the paint in most ship hulls contains heavy metals like tributyltin (TNT) that leached underground and contaminate soil and underground water [15]. Furthermore, when these products are entered into the rivers through flooding or by run-offs, such garnet wastes cause significant environmental and health dangers such as water pollution [16]. )ey can threaten the biodiversity of natural ecological environment [12]. An approach that aims to utilize this Figure 2: Spent garnet. waste for other purposes rather than disposing it would alleviate this material ending up piled up as an environ- growing population. Malaysia generated 19,000 tons of mental polluting waste. debris per day in 2005, with a recycling rate of 5%. )e Malaysia is currently the second-largest producer of quantity increased to 38,000 tons per day in 2018 even palm oil after Indonesia, with the total output accounting for though the recycling rate rose by 17.5% [25]. With limited 36% of global demand [17]. In 2019, Malaysia produced landfill space and escalating disposal costs, there is an urgent 19.86 million tons of palm oil and exported 18.47 million need to address waste management and reduce environ- tons [18]. )e expansion in the plantation increased the mental and human impacts. Hence, integrating POC as annual production of solid waste such as oil palm shell coarse aggregate and spent garnet as partial sand replace- (OPS), palm oil clinker (POC), and palm kernel fiber ment in concrete material would reduce the natural ag- [19, 20]. )e porous rock-like material known as palm oil gregate usage and, at the same time, minimize adverse clinker (POC) is a by-product obtained during the palm oil environmental impacts. and fiber incineration cycle in a boiler at the mill. As palm oil production continues to increase, it is expected that a massive volume of clinker would be produced with little or 2. Materials and Methods no commercial value [20, 21]. )ese waste materials are usually dumped into open fields and landfills [19] and causes 2.1. Materials and Properties. In this study, the binder used water, air, and land pollution [22, 23]. Besides, continuous was OPC with ASTM C150 [24], classified as Type 1 binder waste discarding contaminates the soil and impacts the material in the concrete. )e properties of POC, which has source of groundwater supply [24]. Developing nations such been used as a lightweight coarse aggregate in this research, as Malaysia confront several challenges in managing waste are presented in Table 1. Large chunks of POC were collected sustainably, owing to the rapidly expanding cities and a from a dumping site in a local palm oil mill. POC’s large Advances in Civil Engineering 3 Table 2: Physical properties of river sand and spent garnet. Table 4: Mix proportion used (kg/m ). Physical properties River sand Spent garnet Mixes (%) Sand Sg POC OPC Water SP Bulk density (kg/m ) 1541 2006 0 625 — 345 375 158 3.75 Water absorption (%) 0.85 6.12 10 563 63 345 375 158 3.75 Moisture content (%) 0.42 1.06 20 500 125 345 375 158 3.75 Specific gravity 2.77 3.75 30 438 188 345 375 158 3.75 Fineness modulus 3.85 2.79 40 375 250 345 375 158 3.75 Table 3: Chemical composition of spent garnet. ° 105 C±5 for 24hours to remove the moisture content and sieved passing 600 µm. )e physical properties of river sand Chemical composition (%) Spent garnet and spent garnet are shown in Table 2, and the chemical Silicon dioxide (SiO ) 39.04 composition of spent garnet is tabulated in Table 3. Figures 3 Aluminium oxide (Al O ) 13.40 2 3 and 4 show the spent garnet and river sand’s scanning Iron oxide (Fe O ) 40.23 2 3 electron image, respectively. Tap water was used for pre- Magnesium oxide (MgO) 4.08 paring the specimen for concrete and curing purposes. 1% Sulfur trioxide (SO ) 0.38 Potassium oxide (K O) 0.32 superplasticizer from cement was used to produce workable Calcium oxide (CaO) - mix while keeping low water cement ratio. Manganese (II) oxide (MnO) 1.03 Titanium dioxide (TiO ) 1.53 2.2. Mix Design and Preparation. )e trial mix method was used to generate a total of five different palm oil clinker lightweight aggregate concrete mixes of grade 50. )e percentages of spent garnet used to replace sand in the concrete mixes were 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% by weight of fine aggregate. Each mix had the same quantity of cement, POC as coarse aggregate, water, and superplasticizer. )e concrete mixture proportions used in this experiment are listed in Table 4. )e lightweight concrete aggregate mix was prepared using a mechanical mixer. Sand, POC aggregate, spent garnet, and cement were dry-mixed for three minutes before adding water and superplasticizer. )e remaining water and SP were mixed and put into the concrete mix, Figure 3: SEM spent garnet. which was then mixed for 5minutes. Concrete was cast in cubes and compacted appropriately. )e concretes were covered with a damp gunny bag and kept in the mould for 24hours before being removed. All concrete cubes were 7-, 28-, and 60-day water cured. )e compressive strength, splitting tensile strength, flexural strength, modulus of elasticity, water absorption, and acid resistance of the concrete were then determined. 2.3. Test Methods. )e slump test was performed in ac- cordance with BS EN 12350–2 [26] to establish the work- ability of the concrete mix. )e dry density of the concrete specimen was determined according to ASTM C 642 [27]. Figure 4: SEM river sand. )e compressive strength of POC concrete was evaluated using the BS EN 12390–3 [28] standard testing procedure. For the flexural strength measurement, three-point bending tests were conducted according to BS EN 12390-5 [29]. chunks (Figure 1) were initially crushed with the required size jaw crusher. )en, POC was sieved by passing 10mm Splitting tensile strength of the concrete cylinders was and retaining 5mm to get the required size for replacement carried out by referring to ASTM C496-96 [30]. )e static of coarse aggregate. Air-dried river sand was used as a fine modulus elasticity of concrete was established by conducting aggregate with particle size passing of 2.36mm and fineness testing in accordance with BS 1881: Part 121 [31]. )e modulus of 3.85. )e spent garnet (Figure 2) was collected performance of concrete in terms of water absorption and from a factory that provides integrated brownfield services acid resistance was evaluated through testing conducted for the oil and gas and petrochemical industries in West following the procedure in BS EN 1881-122 [32] and ex- Malaysia. )e waste was oven-dried at a temperature of perimental method of Sarıdemir et al. [33], respectively. 4 Advances in Civil Engineering 180 70 40 10 0 10203040 010 20 30 40 % of spent garnet (%) % of Spent Garnet (%) 7 Days Figure 5: Slump value of POC LWAC containing spent garnet. 28 Days 60 Days Figure 7: Compressive strength of POC LWAC containing spent garnet. 3 3 3 2120kg/m , and 2154kg/m to 2220kg/m when the re- placement levels of river sand by spent garnets were in- creased from 0% to 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%, respectively. POC LWAC containing 40% of spent garnet exhibited the largest density value. )is occurred because the spent garnet had higher bulk density and specific gravity compared to river sand, which were 2006kg/m and 3.75, respectively. )e effect of using iron ore, which was a waste material with 010 20 30 40 different bulk density, as fine aggregate on density of con- % of Spent Garnet (%) crete has also been documented by the previous researchers [12, 35]. According to BS EN 1992-1-1 (2004) [36], light- Figure 6: Oven dry density of POC LWAC containing spent garnet. weight concrete had density not more than 2200kg/m . )erefore, all replacements were categorized as lightweight concrete excluded 40%. 3. Results and Discussions 3.1. Workability. )e effect of spent garnet as partial sand 3.3. Compressive Strength. )e compressive strength of POC LWAC with varying percentages of spent garnet as a partial replacement in palm oil clinker lightweight aggregate concrete (POC LWAC) mixes towards slump is shown in sand replacement is shown in Figure 7. Compressive strength increased steadily over time as the age increased. Figure 5. As the spent garnet content was increased, the workability of POC LWAC increased. Figure 5 reveals slump On Day 60 of curing age, the results indicated that the values of 40mm, 45mm, 54mm, 150mm, and 154mm for strength of POC LWAC containing 20% (63.4MPa) spent garnet was the highest compared to the control specimen POC LWAC, with addition of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% of spent garnet, respectively. Control POC LWAC mixture (58.6MPa). )e strength decreased as the percentage of spent garnets increased, reaching 63.3MPa and 57.0MPa at was the least cohesive among the mixtures consisting of spent garnet. )e improvement in the workability of the mix 30% and 40%, respectively. )e mix with 20% of spent garnet demonstrated the highest strength value. )e presence of was due to the higher density of spent garnet (2006kg/m ) compared to river sand (1541kg/m ). )e approach of in- finer aggregates in the particle size passing 600 µm filled in the existing spaces in the concrete, thus forming more tegrating spent garnet to replace sand by weight resulted in smaller volume of this solid waste to be added to the mix, thus compact concrete structure with higher strength. )e in- crease in compressive strength of POC LWAC could partly resulting in a mixture with enhanced workability. Further- be attributed to spent garnets’ rough and angular texture, more, the smaller particle size of spent garnet improved the workability of concrete as the surface bonding between and finer particles. According to Muttashar et al. [16], the coarse and angular texture of the spent garnet materials particles increased. A similar trend was also observed by the previous researchers [12, 34, 35] in different types of concrete. increased bonding at the cement-aggregate contact, resulting in the high strength. )e study also stated that a rough and angular surface on the materials improved the grip between 3.2. Oven dry Density. Figure 6 shows that the inclusion of the particles and reduced the strength loss that led to higher spent garnet increased the density of all mixes. Density of strength of the concrete [37]. In addition, lower water ab- 3 3 POC LWAC increased from 2091kg/m , 2102kg/m , sorption of spent garnet means fewer pores on the concrete 3 Slump (mm) Density (kg/m ) Compressive Strength (MPa) Advances in Civil Engineering 5 surface and a stronger bond between cement paste and 0% aggregates [38]. )e difference in the internal structure void fashion was due to the use of suitable spent garnet content that can be seen in Figures 8 and 9. )e microstructure of void control specimen is less compact, as illustrated in Figure 8, in void contrast to the concrete with 20% spent garnet, which ap- pears well-packed and denser, as in Figure 9. Precaution needed to be taken to not use this waste excessively as the use void of spent garnet at 30% and 40% decreases the compressive strength of concrete. However, the mix produced using 30% void CSH can still be classified as high strength concrete, whereas the one produced by integrating 40% spent garnet can be used for structural application. )e relationship between compressive strength against spent garnet content and curing days is presented in Fig- ure 10. As suggested from response surface method (RSM), the quadratic model was the best fit to maximize the rela- Figure 8: POC control specimen with many voids. tionship. )e plot shows that the compressive strength improved with prolonged curing days. However, it was obvious that the compressive strength decreased with an 20% increase in the level percentage of spent garnet in POC LWAC, as shown in Figure 10(a). )e RSM plots also clearly displayed that inclusion of 20% spent garnet in POC LWAC void enhanced the strength performance as compared to plain POC LWAC and those contained 10%, 30%, and 40% spent garnet. )e analysis is fit from 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40%, in which the regression analysis (from ANOVA analysis) is approaching to value R >0.80. )e strong relation proves the effectiveness of the spent garnet as 20% of replace- CSH ment towards compressive strength. Figure 10(b) depicts a graphic representation of response surface to visualize the effects. A curvature in the plot indicates the sensi- tivity of response factors. )e curvature of Curve A was more curved than that of Curve B, thus indicating that those different levels of percentages spent garnet were more sensitive than the age of curing to enhance the Figure 9: Specimen containing 20% spent garnet with lesser compressive strength. From ANOVA analysis, the re- amount of voids. gression indicated that the relationship between com- pressive strength and those variables was strong, where R value was 0.866. )e empirical relationship between 11.22 MPa, 11.46MPa, 11.21 MPa, and 11.20MPa, re- compressive strength and multiples factors (% spent spectively. Evidently, all specimens demonstrated strength garnet and curing days) is presented in the following increment as the curing period became longer, resulting equation: from better hydration process. )e test results revealed that POC LWAC containing spent garnet in 20% enhanced 2 2 CS � −0.0191A − 0.0060B + 0.0086AB + 0.291A + 0.652B + 38.902, strength compared to the control POC LWAC at all ages. (1) However, the mixture produced using 30% and 40% re- placement of spent garnet showed a decrease in flexural where CS is compressive strength, A is percentage of spent strength, whereby the pattern was similar to the com- garnet, and B is curing day. pressive strength result. SOman et al. [39] and Kim and Lee [40] also described similar observations upon the use of high amount of waste material as sand replacement in 3.4. Flexural Strength. )e results of flexural strengths of POC LWAC containing spent garnet are shown in Fig- concrete. ure 11, which illustrates strength at Day 7, Day 28, and Day )e response surface 3D plot in Figure 12 indicates the 60 of concrete age. )e flexural strengths of 4.21MPa, relationship between percentage of spent garnet and curing 8.13MPa, 8.45 MPa, 7.92 MPa, and 7.74 MPa at the age of day towards flexural strength. It was found that POC Day 7 in mixtures of 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40%. containing higher content of spent garnet had no effect on However, at Day 28 and Day 60 of curing age, the flexural the flexural strength when compared to plain POC spec- strengths of the specimens were 10.98 MPa, 11.09 MPa, imens. )e plots in Figure 12(a) clearly illustrate that POC 11.10MPa, 10.95MPa, 10.66MPa, and 11.21MPa, incorporating 20% spent garnet attained the highest B: Curing 6 Advances in Civil Engineering Perturbation 65 B 60.00 40.00 46.75 30.00 33.50 20.00 20.25 10.00 7.00 0.00 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 Deviation from Reference Point (Coded Units) (a) (b) Figure 10: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and curing days with respect to compressive strength. 2 2 14.0 FS � −0.0002A − 0.0024B + 0.0003AB − 0.013A + 0.215B + 7.126, 12.0 (2) 10.0 where FS is flexural strength, A is percentage of spent garnet, 8.0 and B is curing day. 6.0 4.0 3.5. Splitting Tensile Strength. Figure 13 illustrates the effect of substituting spent garnet for sand on the splitting tensile 2.0 strength of POC LWAC. )e splitting tensile strength of 0.0 POC LWAC mixes containing 20% spent garnet waste was 0 10203040 greater than that of the control sample at all curing ages. )is % of Spent Garnet (%) might be because the optimal proportion of finer garnet particles resulted in improved bonding between aggregates 7 Days and cement paste. Utilizing spent garnet more than 20% 28 Days resulted in a weaker concrete with a lower splitting tensile 60 Days strength. )e decreased fine aggregate ratio was ascribed to Figure 11: Flexural strength of POC LWAC containing spent the deterioration of interface between the spent garnet garnet. particles and binder paste. Huseien et al. [12] previously observed a decline in concrete strength because of excessive waste material use. flexural strength as compared to that plain POC. By using Figure 14 evaluates the relationship between spent ANOVA analysis, the regression indicated that the effect of garnet content and curing days against splitting tensile different level percentage of spent garnet and curing days strength. )e quadratic model was designed by RSM to towards flexural strength was significant. )e quadratic obtain the best fit for splitting tensile strength relation model was selected, and the value of R2 obtained from the with the percentage of spent garnet and curing days, as analysis was 0.9939. Overall, the analysis is fitting from 0, presented in Figure 14(a). )e results described that the 10, 20, 30, and 40% as the regression analysis (from splitting tensile strength for POC was influenced by the inclusion of spent garnet in POC mixes. Based on the ANOVA analysis) is approaching value>0.80. )us, the robust relation demonstrates the efficacy of the spent regression analysis (from ANOVA analysis), which is garnet at 20% replacement towards flexural strength of approaching (value R > 0.80), it can be deduced that the concrete. It is interesting to note that Figure 12(b) dem- analysis is fit from 0, 10, 20, 30, and 40% of spent garnet as onstrates that Curve B was much curved than Curve A, thus fine aggregate replacement. )e 3D surface response indicating that prolonging the curing day was more sen- showed that when the content of spent garnet increased, sitive than the content of spent garnet to enhance the the splitting tensile strength of POC specimens decreased. flexural strength. From the quadratic regression, the re- In contrast, when the curing days increased, the splitting lation equation between spent garnet content and curing tensile strength increased with decreasing spent garnet day on flexural strength of spent garnet based POC is content. )e quadratic regression analysis revealed that R shown in the following equation: obtained was 0.9861, which means that about 98.61% of its A: %SG Flexural Strength (MPa) Compressive Strength Compressive Strength B: Curing Advances in Civil Engineering 7 Perturbation 11.9 11.9 10.85 9.8 10.85 8.75 9.8 7.7 8.75 60.00 40.00 46.75 30.00 33.50 20.00 20.25 10.00 7.7 7.00 0.00 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 (a) (b) Figure 12: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and curing days with respect to flexural strength. 5.0 3.6. Modulus of Elasticity. )e results of modulus of 4.5 elasticity at age of 7, 28, and 60-day curing are shown in 4.0 Figure 15. It can be observed that the variation in the 3.5 amount of spent garnet used influenced the stiffness of the 3.0 POC LWAC. )e combination of 20% spent garnet as fine 2.5 aggregate increased the modulus of elasticity by 32%, 59%, 2.0 and 7.02%, respectively, compared to control mixture at 1.5 all ages. )e positive contribution of 20% spent garnet 1.0 inclusion to form denser internal structure resulted in the 0.5 formation of lower deflection of concrete upon subjected 0.0 to loading. According to Neville [38], an increase in the 0 10203040 modulus of elasticity of concrete signified an increase in % of spent garnet (%) the stiffness of the concrete element, which may result in less deflection in the structural element. Similar patterns 7 Days 28 Days were seen in the compressive strength result obtained in 60 Days this study. )e elastic modulus of concrete was usually directly proportional to its compressive strength (high Figure 13: Splitting tensile strength of POC LWAC containing strength constitutes high elastic modulus) [41]. Upon spent garnet. inclusion of 30 and 40% of spent garnet in the mix, concrete became less stiff and exhibited lower modulus elasticity value. spent garnet content and curing days contributed to the )e effect of numerical factors between spent garnet variation in splitting tensile strength of POC. Instead, the content and curing days towards modulus of elasticity adequacy of the model was also tested by examining the (MOE) of POC and POC contained spent garnet was found perturbation trends, as depicted in Figure 14(b). )e steep by RSM analysis and presented in Figure 16. In this RSM slope in the perturbation plots shown in Curve A for the analysis, the 3D surface response plots displayed that the content of spent garnet indicated that the inclusion of inclusion of spent garnet in POC mixes significantly affected different percentages of spent garnet in POC enhanced the MOE, as shown in Figure 16(a). POC with 20% spent garnet strength properties. )e relation equation between resulted in higher MOE as compared to those of POC mixes. splitting tensile strength with respect to that spent garnet )e 3D surface response plots also demonstrated that when content and curing days is shown in the following the duration of curing prolonged, MOE also increased. It equation: was observed that the spent garnet content and curing days had a strong relationship with the MOE (R was 0.8486). It 2 2 TS � −0.0006A − 0.0003B + 0.0002AB + 0.04A + 0.02B + 2.29, can be stated that the different percentages of spent garnet in POC mix were more dominant in prescribing the MOE of (3) concrete. )e perturbation plots were drawn to estimate the where TS is splitting tensile strength, A is percentage of spent influence of individual effect of those variables to the MOE garnet, and B is curing day. of POC and are presented in Figure 16(b). It demonstrates A: %SG Splitting Tensile Strength (MPa) Flexural Strength Flexural Strength B: Curing 8 Advances in Civil Engineering Perturbation 4.4 4.4 3.9 3.4 3.925 2.9 3.45 2.4 60.00 40.00 2.975 46.75 30.00 33.50 20.00 20.25 10.00 7.00 0.00 2.5 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 (a) (b) Figure 14: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and curing days with respect to splitting tensile strength. 25 3.7. Water Absorption. )e effect of spent garnet as a partial fine aggregate replacement on the water absorption of POC LWAC is shown in Figure 18. According to the 28-day results, water absorption was 2.8%, 2.7%, 2.0%, 2.5%, and 2.6% for 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% replacement of spent garnet in POC concrete, respectively. All POC LWAC specimens were categorized as good quality concrete as the water absorption was less than 4%. According to Neville [38], concrete with water absorption of less than 10% is classified as good quality concrete. )e integration of 20% spent garnet, which resulted in the lowest water absorption 0 10203040 value than other replacements, could be associated with the % of Spent Garnet (%) spent garnet fine particles acting as filler, thus forming a more compact structure. Figure 19 proves that concrete with 7 Days 0% spent garnet had more void and less density, resulting in 28 Days the highest water absorption compared with mix formed 60 Days using 20% of spent garnet replacement, as shown in Fig- Figure 15: Modulus of elasticity of POC LWAC containing spent ure 20. According to Zhang et al. [37], the decrease in water garnet. absorption was mostly due to the inner structure gradually densifying. However, excessive use of spent garnet at 30% and 40% caused rise in water absorption value. When too much of spent garnet was used, the packing level of ag- that Curve A (spent garnet content) showed more curvy gregate may be inadequate, resulting in voids inside the nature as compared to Curve B (curing days). )erefore, concrete specimens. )ese unfilled voids allowed water to Curve A shows that response was sensitive, indicating that infiltrate and fill the voids. )erefore, a 20% replacement of increment in MOE of POC decreased the content of spent sand with spent garnet was regarded as optimum and garnet in POC mixes. )e empirical relationship between created the best specimen of all. Figure 21 show that water compressive strength and multiples factors (% spent garnet absorption has no clear relationship with compressive and curing days) is expressed in Equation (4). It is observed strength. that there is a potential relationship between the com- pressive strength and its modulus of elasticity with an ad- justment around R � 0.54 as shown in Figure 17. 3.8. Acid Resistance. As illustrated in Figure 22, the usage of 2 2 spent garnet affects the durability of POC LWAC that has MOE � −0.0108A + 0.0020B − 0.0014AB + 0.398A (4) been immersed in a 10% hydrochloric acid solution for 28 + 0.049B + 10.568, and 60days, respectively. Generally, as the immersion du- ration increased, all concrete specimens undergo higher mass loss and strength. Figure 23POC LWAC containing up where MOE is modulus of elasticity, A is percentage of spent to 30% of spent garnet exhibit lower mass loss and strength garnet, and B is curing day. A: %SG Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) Splitting Tnensile Strength Splitting Tnensile Strength B: Curing Advances in Civil Engineering 9 Perturbation 20.25 20.25 16.5 12.75 16.5 A B 12.75 60.00 40.00 30.00 46.75 33.50 20.00 20.25 10.00 9 7.00 0.00 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 (a) (b) Figure 16: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and curing days with respect to modulus of elasticity (MOE). 55.0 void 0% 54.0 void 53.0 void y = 0.359x + 46.485 52.0 R = 0.541 void void 51.0 50.0 49.0 void 48.0 void 11 13 15 17 19 21 23 void Modulus of Elasticity (GPa) Figure 17: Fitted line plots of regression analysis for the rela- Figure 19: Appearance of many voids in the POC LWAC speci- tionship between compressive strength and modulus of elasticity mens containing 0% spent garnet. on 28-day curing. 20% void void void void void 010 20 30 40 % of Spent Garnet (%) Figure 20: Appearance of lesser void in the POC LWAC specimens Figure 18: Water absorption of POC LWAC containing spent containing 20% spent garnet. garnet. acid, the mass loss and strength reduction of 20% spent reduction as compared to plain concrete. )e mix produced garnet are 0.57% and 10.8%, respectively, compared to the using 20% spent garnet demonstrates the least mass loss and control specimen, 1% and 19.3%, respectively. )e ability of strength reduction across the various immersion durations POC LWAC sample with 20% of spent garnet replacement compared to other specimens. After 60days of hydrochloric to withstand the acidic attack is related to the filler effect A: %SG Water Absorption (%) Compressive Strength (MPa) MOE MOE 10 Advances in Civil Engineering 54.0 0% 53.0 void void 52.0 51.0 -0.058x y = 59.737e CSH 50.0 R = 0.2449 49.0 void 48.0 1.8 2.0 2.2 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 Water Absorption (%) Figure 21: Fitted line plots of regression analysis for the rela- void tionship between compressive strength and water absorption. void 1.2 Figure 24: Microstructure of POC LWAC containing 0% spent 0.8 garnet after exposure to hydrochloric solution at 28days. 0.6 20% 0.4 void 0.2 0 10203040 % of Spent Garnet (%) CSH void 28 Days 60 Days Figure 22: Mass loss of POC LWAC due to acid attack. Figure 25: Microstructure of POC LWAC containing 20% spent garnet after exposure to hydrochloric solution at 28days. specimen. )e scanning electron microscope image of the samples after acid resistance test shows control specimen (Figure 24) with the surface texture that has been exposed to leaching and the presence of large voids in contrast to mix 010 20 30 40 with 20% spent garnet (Figure 25) with lesser voids. Zivica % of Spent Garnet and Bajza [43] stated that the acidic resistance of cement- based materials is significantly dependent on pore size 28 Days distribution. )e resistance of the concrete was increased 60 Days when its content of finer pores decreased. Extreme use of Figure 23: Strength reduction of POC LWAC due to acid attack. spent garnet of 40% significantly reduces the durability of concrete to acid attack. Due to the hydrochloric acid attack, the concrete matrix weakened, and the specimen’s weight provided by the spent garnet, which contributed to the decreased due to the loss of cement paste. Calcium hy- densification concrete by reducing the voids. )is condition droxide is soluble in water and tends to get leached out from makes the durability of POC LWAC with 20% of spent the concrete surface upon exposure to acidic environment. garnet in acidic environment is higher compared to control Conclusively, inclusion of 20% spent garnet improved the Compressive Strength (MPa) Mass Loss (%) Strength reduction (%) B: Compressive Strength B: Flexural Strength Advances in Civil Engineering 11 Perturbation 18.25 15.25 12.5 6.75 10.5 5.75 63.39 40.00 30.00 59.70 20.00 56.01 52.32 10.00 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 48.63 0.00 Deviation from Reference Point (Coded Units) (a) (b) Figure 26: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between spent garnet content and strength reduction with respect to strength reduction (acid resistance). Perturbation 557.5 182.5 72.5 -170 67.5 11.46 4.37 10.53 3.90 3.44 9.60 2.97 8.67 2.50 7.74 -1.000 -0.500 0.000 0.500 1.000 Deviation from Reference Point (Coded Units) (a) (b) Figure 27: Response surface plots (a) and perturbation plots (b) indicating the relationship between compressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strength. internal microstructure of the concrete by filling internal 20% spent garnet provided positive effect. Inclusion of 20% spaces and resistance to acid attack. spent garnet in POC LWAC exhibited an increase in )e verification was performed to confirm the effect of strength and good resistance when exposed to acid solution. spent garnet in POC LWAC to acid resistance, as shown in )e quadratic model was the best fit for the analysis, and the 2 2 Figure 26. )e RSM plots indicated the relationship between value of R obtained was found to be 0.961. R obtained spent garnet content and compressive strength towards showed strong correlation for the model. )is means that strength reduction when the POC LWAC specimens were about 96.10% variation in the strength reduction could be immersed in acid solution at Day 28 and Day 60. )e 3D explained by the spent garnet content in POC concrete. surface plots in Figure 26(a) illustrate that the spent garnet and compressive strength of plain POC specimens and a 4. Relationship between Compressive, Flexural, series of spent garnet-based POC specimens significantly and Splitting Tensile Strength affected the strength reduction. It can be noted that when the spent garnet content was increased, the compressive Figure 27 illustrates the relationship between compressive, strength of POC LWAC decreased consequently, influencing flexural, and splitting tensile strength of the POC LWAC the reduction in strength. Figure 26(b) shows the pertur- containing spent garnet. As suggested from the response bation plots to compare the individual effect (% spent garnet surface method (RSM), the cubic model was the best fit to and compressive strength) on the strength reduction (acid maximize the relationship. )e results described that the resistance). It shows that, with the curvature in the levels of compressive strength for POC LWAC was influenced by percentage spent garnet, Curve A seemed to be much curved flexural strength. It can be observed from the regression than Curve B, indicating that Curve A was more sensitive to model that a strong relation was existing in between com- the strength reduction. )erefore, POC LWAC containing pressive, flexural, and splitting tensile strength having R A: Tensile Strength A: %SG Strength Reduction (Acid) Compressive Strength Reduction (Acid) Compressive 12 Advances in Civil Engineering greater than 90%. Figure 27(b) shows the perturbation plots Acknowledgments to compare the individual effect (flexural strength and )e authors would like to thank University Malaysia Pahang splitting tensile strength) on the compressive strength. It (UMP) for funding the research (Research Grant shows that the curvature in levels of flexural strength Curve RDU190342 and RDU213306). B seemed to be much more curved than Curve A, indicating that Curve B was more sensitive to the compressive strength. References 5. Conclusion [1] United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, “Ensure access to affordable, reliable, sustainable and modern )e following conclusions can be drawn from this energy for all,” UN DESA, vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 17-18, 2015. investigation: [2] A. 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Journal

Advances in Civil EngineeringHindawi Publishing Corporation

Published: Apr 13, 2022

References