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Hindawi Journal of Robotics Volume 2018, Article ID 6835968, 9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/6835968 Research Article Robust Feedback Control Design of Underactuated Robotic Hands with Selectively Lockable Switches for Amputees 1 2 2 2 2 Bilal M. Yousuf , Asim Mehdi, Abdul Saboor Khan, Aqib Noor, and Arslan Ali Electronics & Power Engineering, PN Engineering College, National University of Sciences and Technology, Karachi, Pakistan Electrical Department, Fast-National University of Computing and Emerging Sciences, Karachi, Pakistan Correspondence should be addressed to Bilal M. Yousuf; firstname.lastname@example.org Received 13 February 2018; Revised 12 April 2018; Accepted 13 May 2018; Published 7 June 2018 Academic Editor:L.Fortuna Copyright © 2018 Bilal M. Yousuf et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In recent years, reproduction of human mechanical hand with upgraded abilities is one of the major concerns. This paper addresses the problems of underactuated robotic hand with low cost design as it avoids electromyogram (EMG) sensors. eTh main goal is to balance the hand in the way, like grabbing, speed, and power, and provide a more robust and cost effective solution. All fingers have some mechanical consistency for picking up objects in a better way. A Flex sensor is attached to all fingers and it is interfaced with a computer using Arduino UNO microcontroller. eTh sensor aids the arm in three different directions: at first it senses whether an object is grasped or not. In the second step, it determines the coefficient of friction between the objects. Finally it grasps the object and stops. One of the primary issues of prosthetic hand is to have the capacity to satisfy every detail of torque, speed, and latency. In this research, we have developed a model of robotic hand with some modifications. eTh adaptability of grasping is compared with thedegreeoffreedom(DOF)alongwiththequantityoffingers. We arecontrollingourhands viasensors basedsignalcontrolling system. eTh idea is to design a robotic hand, which has low cost, is easy to use, and is light in weight, which helps the amputees to use it with ease in their daily lives. eTh efficacy of the proposed control is verified and validated using simulations. 1. Introduction a few challenges in certain condition. eTh outline of an automated prosthetic hand is an extremely dynamic el fi d of The field of robotics has always been an inspiration for research. researchers, duetoitsstabilityproblem .Therobotic arm Over the years, it was simple two degrees of freedom with has many applications in the efi ld of automation in industries, the limiting capacity of grasping and pulling mentioned in medical elds, fi etc. Figure 1. Nowadays, the researchers were working on improv- The main problem which has influenced the advancement ing the degree of freedom for the multifingered framework. of this efi ld is the stability and accuracy. Many researchers The robotic hand is equipped with different sensors, which came across with different solutions for this problem. eTh gives a feedback signal to the controller. eTh controller will main problems which are under consideration in this paper control the speed and angle of the motor for better transient are the high cost, complex structure, control frameworks, and response [4, 5]. The hand needs a complicated controller, their synchronization. eTh quantity of the physical amputees which stabilized the performance of the system. eTh proper has been expanded due to the accidents in traffic, workshop usage of electrically powered prosthetic hand designs has mishaps, and sickness. Our end goal is to enhance the quality been started from the twentieth century. eTh research found of life for numerous amputees and tend to utilize their energy its ways for the electromyogram sensors to control the hand in their daily life [1, 2]. The hand is a unique part of the body . In recent days, the proposed design of robotic hand that can perform different control undertakings with vfi e is becoming more simple, flexible, and generous without nfi gers andwithmorethan20DOF.Despitethefactthat compromising the postures. Recently a researcher, Dollar agenuinehumanhandismorecapable compared to some et al. in , presented a new solution through elastomer other manufactured control instruments, it still experiences material, which gained so much attention due to its low cost. 2 Journal of Robotics (3) Open palm grip: open palm grip gives a compelling method for conveying bowls or plates securely. Our projects palm is a bit larger than the natural human hand, which proves its uniqueness and allows a person to easily handle large things by carrying them on its palm . (4) Pinch grip:withthe pinchgrip, thethumbandindex n fi ger meet up to give an adaptable, helpful approach to get and move an extensive variety of little objects, including auto keys, coins, tops, and pens. (a) (5) Power grip: it allows a person to shake someone’s hand or to throw a ball while playing. It also helps while working with garden utensils or sometimes eating a piece of fruit . (6) Relax hand position: when someone is not actively usingthehand,therelaxedhandpositionhelpstogive our project a natural and gap appearance. (7) Key grip: when someone desires to keep making a grip on small thing likes plate card, etc. Simulations are provided to show the ecffi acy of the proposed idea of using the ex-sensor and validate the performance of the control algorithm The rest of the paper is structured in this following man- ner. Section 2 discusses the literature review. Section 3 shows (b) the problem formulation. Section 4 contains the hardware Figure 1: Grasping model of robot . design of robotic hand. Section 5 contains the results that are shown based on simulation. Finally, Section 6 discusses the concluding remarks with future advancement. Roboticliteraturealwaysdiscussed themajor problems, which occur in the system over the time period. This may 2. Literature Review cause a certain fear for amputees. er Th efore, they are avoiding using a prosthetic hand. As per survey the fact which comes in Over the years, a number of researchers have proposed vari- our mind is that they need a low cost, light weight, and easily ous modeling and control schemes for robotic hand starting repairable device. With these objectives in consideration, from simple robotic platform to complex robotic hand. In the we focus on the development of the prototype in order to course of recent decades, a survey on automated hands has improve the following critical aspects of a biomedical device been led into the development of robotic hand, which roughly . lookslikethehumanhand. In this paper, the approach permits the most extreme Arobotic hand canbeviewedasahumanhand, if all the definite properties and attributes are satisfied. These design of control with an immense plan which required com- plex control calculations. It is an under demand system, properties incorporate momentum, size, and the execution which require less actuators. This approach improves the con- of operations, unwavering quality together with the common perspective. An anthropomorphic hand comprises n fi gers trol calculations by reformulated hand capacity and quality according to the client. eTh level of flexibility of the human andathumb.Thearrangementofeachofthefour nfi gers hand is routinely characterized. eTh primary objective of is one next to the other opposite to the palm surface. In theprosthetichandistomimic thehuman handin all , the author presented a robotic hand with complete four viewpoints. As compared to this work, many researchers n fi gers and a thumb. eTh palm is the medium which joins the n fi gers together with its corresponding positions. Another presented unique ideas about the robotic hand using EMG sensors to enhance their quality of living. But this paper is work of importance is the robotic hand motion which is totally based on ex sensors, which can achieve seven different shown in Figure 2 outlined by iRobot. Each n fi ger controlled proximal and distal connections, which associated a finger types of movements; the list of these movements is given below: to the base till the fingertip . To prompt adaptability and solidness, overwhelming obligation and flexible joints were (1) Hook grip:secureandadaptablehookgripcan hold utilized which gave an enhanced grip around the items. The everything from folder cases to purses for substantial grip control is the utilizing link ligaments that provide solid shopping material. grasping. (2) Mouse grip: someone is working in the office or Chang in  presented the model, which manages to browsing the Internet. outline an automated hand that imitates a human hand. It Journal of Robotics 3 3. Problem Formulation This section discusses the study of underactuated system and about prosthetic hand. The main problem is to design a low cost robotic hand. To come to a unique solution, we need to understand about what kind of sensors is required and their level of compatibility with the controllers. 3.1. Underactuated Design Hand Structure. The proposed design of the robotics hand is fully functional, same like human hands. eTh paper discusses the design of underactu- ated vfi e-finger robots, with most complicated flexible joint incorporated by a single actuator and linking with a single sensor. Underactuated system is more reliable in terms of grasping items of different sizes and shapes robustly. The work can be described in two phases: (i) Everyfingerislinkedwithanobjectand theother one is in free space where the distal link makes contact to fully encompass the object . Figure 2: iHY hand design . (ii) Every sensor sends an input signal to the control to operate the speed of the motor accordingly. To achievethe desirepurpose,itneedsone single actuator which lies between the finger and the palm. eTh actuator can add force for grasping an object harder. eTh underactuated hand is found in different irregular shapes. 3.2. Prosthetic Hand. The prosthetic hand is an artificial devicewhichisusedtomakeanapproximation totheappear- ance and function of a natural human hand . Moderniza- tion in technology makes it possible to develop a prosthetic hand. eTh hand has the tendency of grasping objects, holding pens, and also moving like a natural hand. The process used in this research to make a prosthetic low cost robotic hand for amputees is present in Figure 4. In this paper, the design of the robotic hand includes the ex-sensors to control the hand movements as shown in Figure 5. The involvement of ex-sensors makes it cost effec- tive andeasytouse.Flexsensors areattachedtothe analog pins of the Arduino UNO microcontroller, which processes and generates an output corresponding voltage. This signal Figure 3: Hand gesture robot . is later used signicfi antly to actuate the servo motors which respond to produce motion in the nge fi rs. The block structure of the entire system plays an impor- tant role in explaining the complete placement of components is made out of sensors and actuators. eTh automated glove in system; it defines that every ex-sensor is working individ- controller is mainly based on the sensors, which tracked ually in every finger. the development of the human hand. Five exion sensors are attached to the system; one for each n fi ger which can be 4. Problem seen in Figure 3. Finally, in [11–13], the authors presented a unique design of robotic hand; one of them discussed the This section discusses the complete methodology based on simple linear control based force feedback for the grasping. computational geometry and graph theory. A method which A force sensor is attached to one of the claws of the gripper, is used to link multiagent or objects needs a set theory for which sends a signal to the control for further processing. The quantifying the anthropomorphism of hand. eTh adopted other author presented a walking microrobot by piezoelectric scheme exploits a simple model based on graph theory materials. The last author presented the attitude control of for the simplification of the design and assumes a perfect a rigid body. This approach is based on two parallel PD communication link between the motors and the controller. controllers. eTh results are also compared with a classical PD eTh main problem is to maintain the stability of the system, controller andwithanadaptivecontroller. which insures that it grasps the objects which are used in daily 4 Journal of Robotics mathematical model based on graph theory to design such state feedback control. G (V, E), the digraph (directed graph) consists of node V= (1.....N) and edges E. In the diagraph, there are three protocols. eTh unidirectional symmetry pro- tocol is utilized in this paper. As for this paper we are using directed graph. There will be a nonnegative adjacency matrix. The adjacency matrix basically describes the flow of the instruction of communication and maps the graph into the matrix, for the mathematical formulation. eTh re is a Lapla- cian matrix Lij, which is sometime called admittance matrix, which gives us some special information like spanning tree. Spanning tree gives the details about undirected link. In this paper, only directed links are being used as the only controller sends the information to the motors, which means spanning tree should be eliminated. For this, Laplacian matrix is being 𝑁∗𝑁 utilized𝐴=[𝑎 ]𝜖R and there will be a Laplacian matrix given as follows. 𝑁∗𝑁 𝐿=[𝐿 ]𝜖R of a diagraph corresponding to matrix contain elements such that 𝐿 = ∑ 𝑎 (1) 𝑗=1 if𝑖 =𝑗 ̸ 𝐿 = 𝑔𝑜𝑢𝑡(𝐴) − 𝑗(𝐴) ,where 𝑔𝑜𝑢𝑡(𝐴) matrix shows each node connection with the fellow node and𝑗(𝐴) shows each node connection with the fellow node with the edges. Aeft r the subtraction we get the Laplacian matrix. 5. Design eTh design of the robotic hand is presented in the following manner. Figure 4: Process flowchart of prosthetic hand. 5.1. Hand Structure. The desired design incorporates four nfi gers andathumb,jointtoasettledpalm.Generaljointsare utilized in this approach, like Metacarpophalangeal (MCP) andtheCMC(Carpometacarpal)joints.Thesejointsmakeup the other 12 degrees of flexibility in this desired purpose plan. To accomplish the coveted movement with a lightweight, it needs quality pairs of thin gage stainless steel. Singular connections of each n fi ger and the thumb are made up of twisting gage sheet metal that allows the n fi ger, pulleys, and link channeltobetactfully coveredupinside. eTh palmof the hand is built in a comparative form utilizing folded sheet metal. Back to back connections are associated with 3 mm pivot shasft that go through the metal balls. 5.2. Finger Designing. In this paper, we developed a multin fi - Figure 5: Block diagram of prosthetic hand. gered robotic hand. The robotic hand has four ng fi ers with a thumb . All these flexible joints are implemented and the mechanical structure is developed. For the structure, we routine. The main contribution of this paper mainly depends need the length and its particular angle. For this we used the on the relationship of the ex-sensor and the motor. aforementioned parametric model. In this paper, a unique design that reproduces the flex- 4.1. Graph eTh ory. The basic idea of using a graph theory ibility and the extensile motion of the n fi ger is presented. is described as the limitation in communication network, An extended mechanical structure was developed through whichdoesnot alloweachrobot tocommunicate. For the use of appropriate elastomer material. While flexibility is these limitations, the proposed scheme exploits a simple implemented through cable between the controller and the 𝑎𝑑 𝑖𝑗 𝑑𝑒 𝑎𝑑 𝑑𝑒 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 𝑖𝑗 Journal of Robotics 5 6. Simulation Analysis 6.1. Momentum Analysis. This section discusses the graphical representation and the momentum analysis of the voltage of ex-sensor and the output of the controller. Let L1, L2, and L3 be the lengths of the phalanges and 𝜑 to 𝜑 be the joint 1 4 edges of the 4 finger joints. eTh stance of fingertip (point Y) along with the values at point X can be communicated as a change, where the introduction of the fingertip is given by the quaternion: 𝜙 𝜙 +𝜙 +𝜙 1 2 3 4 sin ( ) sin ( ) [ ] 2 2 [ ] Figure 6: Material classification . 𝜙 𝜙 +𝜙 +𝜙 [ ] 1 2 3 4 [ sin ( ) cos ( ) ] [ ] 2 2 𝑇= (2) [ ] 𝜙 𝜙 +𝜙 +𝜙 [ ] 1 2 3 4 cos ( ) sin ( ) [ ] [ 2 2 ] [ ] 𝜙 𝜙 +𝜙 +𝜙 1 2 3 4 motor, the joints were made of the lightest material, but also cos ( ) cos ( ) [ 2 2 ] stiff enough to produce a force range that corresponds to everyday life task. eTh area of point Y referenced from point X is given by the The proposed design is completely stiff in contrast to vector friction based mechanisms, which is aeff cted due to some external forces (these forces can create unstability). A com- cos (𝜙 )𝐿 cos (𝜙 )+𝐿 cos (𝜙 +𝜙 ) 1 1 2 2 2 3 pletely different routing system is used for the design of [ ] [ −(2(𝐿 +𝐿 )+𝐿 ) cos (𝜙 +𝜙 +𝜙 ) ] thumb. The thumb is made with two different servo pulleys, 1 2 3 2 3 4 [ ] [ ] which allows servo motors to make contact with the other [ 𝐿 sin (𝜙 )+𝐿 sin (𝜙 +𝜙 ) ] 1 2 2 2 3 [ ] fingers 𝑄 = (3) [ ] −(2(𝐿 +𝐿 )+𝐿 ) sin (𝜙 +𝜙 +𝜙 ) [ ] 1 2 3 2 3 4 Aeft r all the survey, we need to collect the desired parts of [ ] [ ] our project, which ensures the accuracy in making of robotic sin (𝜙 )(−𝐿 cos (𝜙 )) − 𝐿 cos (𝜙 +𝜙 ) [ 1 1 2 2 2 3 ] hand with low cost. The design should be easy to use for the +(2(𝐿 +𝐿 )+𝐿 ) cos (𝜙 +𝜙 +𝜙 ) [ 1 2 3 2 3 4 ] amputees. Firstly, it needs a microcomputer which handles all themotor andsensorand makesthemsynchronize.Themain 𝜙 ,𝜙 ,and 𝜙 joints are controlled by their own free actuator. 1 2 3 working of the controller is mainly based on signals, which are coming from the sensor and it is making an output to the motors. 6.2. Simulation. As per proof of the theoretical concept, these simulations have been performed in order to validate the For the making of the prosthetic robotic hand, the performance of the control scheme. eTh results are shown material which was firstly implemented was Telon. The results are not as accurate as expected and also not fulfilling our in termsofvoltagesbetween thecontrollerandsensors, also with the controller and motors. eTh se results show the requirements. For the better results, the design of the robotic hand is made up of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) behaviour of voltages according to the motion. material. ABS is a polymer which consists of 3 monomers: As shown in Figure 7, the curve is mainly based on the measured parameters, i.e., the curvature of a human hand on acrylonitrile, butadiene, and styrene. ABS types can be man- ufactured oer ff ing a wide spectrum of different properties by x-axis with the corresponding varying values of resistances means of branching or copolymerization . It can often be of ex-sensors on the y-axis. This graph is proving that the theoretical concept between the changes occurs in resistance quite straightforward to tell materials classes apart by look or feel. eTh class of material is shown in Figure 6. Metals are of the ex-sensor over the time. The mathematical equation givesusthefollowingresult: usually more reactive or metallic looking. The motor selection was also really important for this project. Duetoaccuracy, apropergripofthehandisentirely 𝑦=44𝑥 +32𝑥+15 (4) depending on the type of motor. For this research servo motor is selected, which was perfectly suitable. Typically, a servo AsshowninFigure8,the graphisplottedbetween motor is utilized to control a precise movement of somewhere the resistances of ex-sensors on x-axis and input values of around 0 and 180 degrees. the voltages on the y-axis. This shows that the resistance Flex sensors are the analog sensors which change the is inversely proportional towards the input voltage. As the electrical resistance as they bend. eTh value of the resistance resistance of the ex-sensor increases, by the effect of resistance increases as the angle of curvature decreases. The design the input voltage at microcontroller terminal decreases. The utilizes 5 ex-sensors. For this ex-sensor, it requires a micro- mathematical model for this is defined as controller which has at least 5 analog pins. es Th e pins work as analog voltage dividers. 𝑦 = 0.0071𝑥 −0.3𝑥+5.6 (5) 6 Journal of Robotics Figure 7: Curvature of human hand. Figure 9: Input and output voltage of the controller. Figure 10: V(out) versus speed of the motor. Figure 8: Resistance of flex sensor versus input voltage. of the motor in nonlinear term which can be seen from this curve. Thisplotisdenfi edbythismathematicalequation: As showninFigure 9,thiscurve isbasedonthefollowing above equation, i.e., varying input values of the voltage on 0.02𝑥 0.02𝑥 𝑦 = 5.1 ∗𝑒 −1.8 ∗𝑒 +19 (7) the x-axis and its corresponding output voltages of the micro- controller on the y-axis. This shows the linear relationship In Figures 11-12, the relationship between the tendon and between the input and output voltages of the controller. eTh thefinger motion hasbeenshown,toevaluatehowmuchthe mathematical equation of this graph will be finger forces for different grasping positions. This shows the movement of one particular nger fi at a time. 𝑦 = 0.42𝑥 − 0.8 (6) 7. Results Finally, Figure 10 shows us the curve, which is mainly based on the output voltages from the microcontroller on x- In this section, we validate the ecffi acy of the proposed axis and the theta angle of the motor on the y-axis. This proves design through extensive experimental paradigms that is the concept that increase in voltage will also increase the rpm includedinthetable.Thetableshowshow thevoltageshave Journal of Robotics 7 Figure 11: Linear displacement of fingers. Table 1: Different voltage reading for different resistances of the Flux sensor. S NO: R(K ohm) C(H) Vin (V) Vout (V) et Th a 1 15.2 0 2.65 0.295 0 2 14.88 -0.009612 2.676 0.3085 17.5 3 15.2 -0.019225 2.697 0.322 20 4 13.925 -0.03847 2.725 0.346 22.5 5 12.67 -0.0769 2.8 0.37 25 6 12.4 -0.0826 2.85 0.3955 27.5 7 12.21 -0.0884 2.913 0.42 30 8 12.055 -0.0826 3.006 0.4 32.5 9 11.9777 -01392 3.0532 0.469 42.2 10 11.8 -0.156 3.1 0.481 52 11 11.527 -0.1643 3.123 0.487 56.8 12 10.955 -0.1724 3.1468 0.493 61.7 13 10.588 -0.1805 3.1834 0.5315 71.3 14 10.01 -0.1866 3.22 0.57 81 been u fl ctuating which is measured in real time through the In order to verify our theoretical concept, different exper- sensors. Thissignalisthenfed to thecontrollerbyvarying iments are being conducted on the desired model. The main the control input parameter in real time, to produce such a arrangement of tests concentrates on approving the viability control input which tackles the disturbances created due to of the proposed lockable differential component especially. the presence of uncertainties in the environment as shown in The user can access different posture using a different switch Table 1. which is placed on the fingers. Such functionality is not only 8 Journal of Robotics Figure 14:Objectgraspingat200g. Figure 12: um Th bs displacement. Figure 15: Object grasping at 400g. Figure 13: Movement of the fingers . 8. Conclusion important for grasping (where the user is able to choose the In this paper, the design of an underactuated robotic hand preferred grasping posture). is discussed using linear control and implemented as a In Figure 13, different postures are depicted. The motion prototype. According to the calculations and simulations of each locked n fi ger is constrained through the correspond- readings during this research, it can be easily said that ing gesture which is changing according to user defined this mathematical model is now perfect. An ex-sensor is switches. eTh second set of examinations concentrates on attached to every single finger for accurate measurement of getting a handle on the extensive variety of regular day to day the movement and grasping power of the robotic hand. Using objects, so as to execute everyday living exercises. Figures 14- the developed linear force, an object is handled by applying 15 show a real time graph, while grabbing weight of 200g and adequate force through the controller without damaging the 400g, respectively. This gfi ure shows the gripper successfully object.Themajor advantageofthismodel canbeseenasit grasped objects. After a steady response of the system until easily allows all the fingers to move easily and independently 140 seconds, the force abruptly reaches toward zero as shown, using servo motors. A user can also change to different indicating that the gripper released the object. In Figure 15, grasping postures by changing the programming of the the weight is now being doubled as the mass, subsequent controller. eTh thumb configuration can be easily adjusted simulation result is shown. eTh result discusses that the by the user, using the lockable, stiff opposition mechanism. increase in mass decreases the gripper power, as it converges In conclusion, this robotic hand is a better device for helping to zero in 130 seconds. amputees in their daily routine activities. This research shows Journal of Robotics 9 how a prosthetic robotic hand can be developed with low cost.  Y. Chnag, “A Survey of Robotic Hand- Arm Systems,” Interna- tional Journal of Computer Applications,vol.109,no. 8,2015. Flex sensor based hand gives proper hand control in grasping picking and holding things. The efficiency of the proposed  R.Wells andJ.Schueller,“Forwardand Feedback Controlofa Flexible robotic Arm,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International robotic hands has been experimentally validated and the Conference on Control System, 1999. resultswereshown intheearliersections.Hence,forfuture research investigation, it is recommended to use the output  A. Crawford, J. Molitor, A. Perez-Gracia, and S. Chiu, “Design of a Robotic Hand and Simple EMG Input Controller with a feedback controller for estimation of the states for better Biologically-Inspired Parallel Actuation System for Prosthetic accuracyandlow cost,asweeliminate thesensorsfrom the Applications,” Journal of the Franklin Institute, Elsevier,vol.344, system. Another recommendation is to include optimizing pp. 36–57, 2007. and building more intelligent control for such a robotic hand.  G. Psihoyios and Z. Anastassi, “Robot Control Through Brain Computer Interface For Patterns Generation,” in Proceedings of Data Availability the AIP Conference Proceeding Volume, pp. 1031–1034, Halkidiki, (Greece), 2011. The data used to support the findings of this study are avail-  L. Fortuna,G.Muscato, andM.G.Xibilia,“Acomparisonbe- able from the corresponding author upon request. tween HMLP and HRBF for attitude control,” IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems,vol.12, no.2,pp. 318– Conflicts of Interest 328, 2001.  R.Kumar,U.Mehta,andP. Chand, “A LowCostLinearForce eTh authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest. Feedback Control System for a Two-fingered Parallel Configu- ration Gripper,” Procedia Computer Science,vol.105,pp.264– Acknowledgments 269, 2017. eTh authors are grateful for the help and support provided by thefacultyandmanagementofNationalUniversityof Sciences and Technology-PNEC and FAST-National Univer- sity of Computer and Emerging Sciences (NUCES), Karachi Campus. References  Y. Saito, T. Higashihara, K. Ohnishi, and A. Umemura, “Re- search on intelligent motorized prosthetic hand by functional analysis of human hand at near future,” in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE International Symposium on Robot and Human Interactive, RO-MAN 2009, pp. 786–791, jpn, October 2009.  S. S. Wankhede and R. Dharaskar, “Controlling Mouse Cursor Using Eye Movement,” in Proceedings of the International Jour- nal of Application or Innovation in Engineering and Management (IJAIEM), pp. 2319–4847, 2009.  M. H. M. Zaini, “Surgical and non-surgical prosthetic hands control: A review,” in Proceedings of the 2011 IEEE Symposium on Industrial Electronics and Applications, ISIEA 2011,pp. 634– 637, September 2011.  H.-P. Huang and C.-Y. Chen, “Development of a myoelectric discrimination system for a multi-degree prosthetic hand,” in Proceedings of the 1999 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, ICRA99, pp. 2392–2397, May 1999.  R. R. Ma, L. U. Odhner, and A. M. Dollar, “3D Modular, Open- Source 3D Printed Underactuated Hand,” in Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pp. 2737–2743, Karlsruhe, Germany, May 2013.  R. Kumar, S. D. Sharma, S. Despande et al., “Acrylonitrile Buta- diene Styrene (ABS) plastic-based low cost tissue equivalent phantom for verification dosimetry in IMRT,” Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics,vol.11,no.1,pp. 24–32, 2010.  K. Scott and A. 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