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Hindawi International Journal of Forestry Research Volume 2020, Article ID 8837590, 9 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2020/8837590 Research Article The Impact of Nickel Mining on Soil Properties and Growth of Two Fast-Growing Tropical Trees Species 1 2 3 3 Ricksy Prematuri, Maman Turjaman, Takumi Sato, and Keitaro Tawaraya Research Centre for Bioresources and Biotechnology, IPB University, Bogor 16680, Indonesia Forestry Research and Development Agency (FORDA), &e Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Bogor 16680, Indonesia Faculty of Agriculture, Yamagata University, Tsuruoka 997-8555, Japan Correspondence should be addressed to Keitaro Tawaraya; firstname.lastname@example.org Received 11 July 2020; Revised 20 October 2020; Accepted 24 October 2020; Published 5 November 2020 Academic Editor: Monika Markovic´ Copyright © 2020 Ricksy Prematuri et al. ,is is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Opencast nickel mining is common in natural forests of Indonesia. However, rehabilitation of postmining degraded land is diﬃcult. We investigated the eﬀect of opencast nickel mining on soil chemical properties and the growth of two fast-growing tropical tree species, Falcataria moluccana and Albizia saman. Soil was collected from post-nickel mining land and a nearby natural forest. Soil pH, available phosphorus (P) concentration, total carbon (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) concentration, C/N ratio, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and exchangeable K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, and Ni concentrations were determined. Falcataria moluccana and A. saman were then grown in the collected soils for 15 weeks in a greenhouse. Shoot height and shoot and root dry weights of the seedlings were measured. ,e post--nickel mining soils TN, TC, available P, CEC, and exchangeable Ca and Na concentrations decreased by 98%, 93%, 11%, 62%, 85%, and 74%, respectively, in comparison with the natural forest soils. ,e pH of postmining soil was higher than natural forest soil. Shoot dry weight of F. moluccana seedlings grown in postmining soil was signiﬁcantly (P< 0.05) lower than that of seedlings grown in natural forest soil. However, there was no diﬀerence in shoot dry weight between A. saman seedlings grown in natural forest soil and postmining soil, as well as root dry weights of both species. ,e results indicate that opencast nickel mining decreased soil fertility, which subsequently inhibited the growth of F. moluccana and A. saman seedlings. To reduce damage caused by nickel mining, land reha- 1. Introduction bilitation activities are required. Rehabilitation land after Nickel is one of the most important mining products in the mining activity to a previous forested land condition can world. In Indonesia, nickel is produced from opencast guarantee the services of these areas for economic and eco- mines. Opencast nickel mining is an intensive process that system purposes . Land should become a productive forested has a signiﬁcant impact on tropical rainforests, aﬀecting area for the sustainability of social authorization ; however, both indigenous vegetation and soil fertility. Mining activity this is not easy. Revegetation of forests needs time and takes belongs to the land exploitation with consequent loss of decades . Forests are the ecosystems that consist of com- ecological function and services . It results in wide en- munity, interacting as a system between living organisms and vironmental degradation of the mined area and tends to the nonliving components of the environment. ,ey have destroy terrestrial ecosystems. Furthermore, it results in the undergone successional changes, in many ways, which take loss of structure and function of soil due to the removal of years or decades . Returning disturbed land to become a the top layer of soil, with subsequent reductions in biodi- forested area is required to guarantee the continuation of versity and socioeconomic impacts . economic and ecosystem services to the environment. 2 International Journal of Forestry Research subsequently, its eﬀect on the growth of two fast-growing Nickel mining mostly belongs to the geological of ser- pentinite regions. ,ese are found contaminated with a tropical tree species, F. moluccana and A. saman, under greenhouse conditions. tremendous amount of trace metals which include Cr, Ni, and associated metals (Mg, Pb, Co, Zn, etc.) with other elements . Nickel mining also causes drastic changes to 2. Materials and Methods the physical and chemical characteristics of the land . 2.1. Soil Sampling. Soil samples were collected from the top Mining activities can cause the release of toxic metals to the layer at PT Vale Indonesia, a nickel mining site in Sorowako, environment; damage to heritage; pollution; and acid mine East Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia (Figure 1). PT Vale drainage. In serpentinite soils regions, this condition results Indonesia, previously named PT International Nickel Indo- unfavorable for most plants and habitat development that nesia (INCO), was founded in 1968. ,e company, currently, house certain plant biodiversity and communities with many has mining concessions belonging to Wallace’s line of almost endemic species . 120.00 hectares, most of which are still in the form of natural One rehabilitation strategy for degraded tropical lands is forests. ,e samples were collected from 3 natural forest sites to plant fast-growing tropical trees. Such plantations may ° ° ° ° (2 34′06″S, 121 20′52″E; 2 34′20″S, 121 25′03″E; and help to reduce the negative impacts of degraded lands and ° ° 2 34′20″S, 121 25′03″E) and 3 post-nickel mining sites may contribute to the long-term livelihood of forest com- ° ° ° ° (2 34′26″S, 121 21′37″E; 2 35′19″S, 121 22′30″E; and munities following mining. It is important to select fast- ° ° 2 31′36″S, 121 29′47″E) to characterize soil properties. Litter, growing tropical trees species for increasing the success rate roots, and stones were scraped away from the surface before of rehabilitation. Falcataria moluccana, also known as batay, soil samples were taken. ,e samples were collected using a is one of the most important fast-growing multipurpose tree hand scope and mixed thoroughly before being placed in a species in Indonesia. It is intended for industrial forest clean and seal plastic bag. Five soil samples were collected plantations because F. moluccana plants are included in fast- from each site at a depth of 0–25 cm. A small subsample was growing species and have high ability to grow on a diﬀerent taken and ground for chemical analysis. ,e remaining soil type of soil condition, favorable silvicultural characteristics, was kept for the plant growth experiment. and marketable quality of wood for forestry industries . ,is species can be used for pulp and paper, fuelwood, shade trees, and as a nitrogen supplier to soil . Moreover, 2.2. Analysis of Soil Properties. ,e soil was air-dried and Falcataria moluccana plays an important role in both passed through a<2 mm sieve. Soil pH was analyzed through commercial and traditional farming systems that are com- two ways: using H O and using KCl. Available phosphorus monly called as huma in Indonesia. ,e plant has been (P)  was extracted with 0.001 M sulfuric acid and ana- adopted and cultivated by the village people, such as inte- lyzed using the ammonium molybdate method. Total carbon gration into the development of traditional agroforestry in (TC) and total nitrogen (TN) were analyzed using a C:N huma . Albizia saman (Fabaceae), with the preferred analyzer (Sumigraph NC-220F, Tokyo) . Exchangeable common name as rain tree, is originally from Northern potassium (K), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), and calcium South America and has become naturalized in the tropics, (Ca) were extracted with 1 M (pH 7) ammonium acetate grows in a wide range of climatic conditions, best in the analyzed using an atomic absorption spectrophotometer lowlands from sea level to 300 m with rainfall 600–3000 mm, (Hitachi model Z-5000 series Polarized Zeeman, Tokyo) and is mainly used on agroforestry system for silvopasture . To determine cation exchange capacity (CEC), excess and crop shade . Albizia saman is an important species, a NH was removed, and an extraction was performed with multipurpose tree with potentialities as an alternative feed 100 g L-1 KCl. ,e supernatant was analyzed using the semi- for animals . It also produces variation in breast di- micro Schollenberger ¨ method . ameter, attractive wood color, and physical properties of wood, such as green density and volume shrinkage . Albizia saman has a massive root system with an equally 2.3. Growth of Two Fast-Growing Tropical Tree Species. large canopy. Most roots of A. saman expand horizontally, Two fast-growing tropical tree species, F. moluccana and but many ﬁbrous roots expand vertically . Both species A. saman, were selected for this study. Seeds of both tree belong to the nitrogen-ﬁxing trees commonly used for the species were purchased from a local company, Central Java, revegetation of postmining land and for national programs Indonesia. ,e seeds were soaked in water at 80 C for 2 min. of revegetation in Indonesia. ,e species of nitrogen-ﬁxing ,ey were then pregerminated in plastic containers using trees are able to form symbioses with nodulating nitrogen- zeolite as a germination medium. After radicle growth, ﬁxing bacteria. Rehabilitation of postmining land takes place individual plants were selected for sowing based on uni- across a wide variety of climatic and edaphic conditions . formity. Trees were grown in polyethylene pots (height: For example, soil chemical properties of post-nickel mining 7.5 cm, diameter: 5 cm) containing 200 g of soil. Each pot sites can be strongly inﬂuenced by the presence of vegetation contained soil from a diﬀerent soil sample, resulting in 30 or tree species. Before implementing rehabilitation in de- pots, 15 with natural forest soil, and 15 with postmining soil. graded mining lands, it is necessary to select tropical tree Two tree seedlings were transplanted for each soil sample, seedlings that are adapted to postmining soil. resulting in a total of 60 pots. Pots were positioned in a ,e objective of this study was to determine the impact greenhouse in a randomized block design. ,e greenhouse of opencast nickel mining on soil chemical properties and, was located in the Forest Microbiology Laboratory, Research International Journal of Forestry Research 3 Figure 1: ,e location of soil sample collection at PT Vale Indonesia, Sorowako, East Luwu, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. and Development Agency (FORDA), the Ministry of in post–nickel mine soil than natural forest soil. ,ere were Environment and Forestry, Bogor, West Java, Indonesia no diﬀerences in Mg, K, Fe, and Ni between natural forest ° ° (6 36″S, 106 45″E). ,e temperature varied between 25 soil and post-nickel mine soil. and 37 C, relative humidity was 80%–90%, and the Opencast nickel mining activities have an impact on soil photoperiod was approximately 12 h. ,e plants were fertility. In opencast mining, rock or minerals are extracted grown for 15 weeks, and watering by deionized water was from an open pit or burrow. Topsoil and vegetation are applied to maintain a moisture content similar to ﬁeld seriously damaged during opencast nickel mining, thus capacity. decreasing soil fertility. Nickel ultramaﬁc soils are com- monly known as serpentines in the botanical and ecological literature . ,e serpentinized and ultramaﬁc soil/rock are 2.4. Harvest. Shoot height, measured 1 cm from the soil distinguished by high levels concentration of heavy metals surface in the pot, was determined every 2-3 weeks. After 15 and unbalanced Ca/Mg ratio  and poor plant nutrient weeks, the shoots were harvested and oven-dried at 70 C for content such as N, P, and K . Nitrogen and phosphorous 72 h before dry weight was recorded. are the most important nutrients for soil productivity and plant development. It signiﬁcantly enhances plant growth and productivity, chlorophyll and carotene contents, and 2.5. Statistical Analysis. Data on laboratory tests of soil promotes root morphology . Most studies have dem- chemical properties and plant growth were analyzed using onstrated the inﬂuence of nitrogen enrichment on plant a statistical test, Student’s t-test at 95% conﬁdence interval communities. Soils are known to have heterogeneous (P< 0.05) in Minitab (Minitab Inc., USA). When the F physical, chemical, and biological properties. Soil hetero- value was signiﬁcant, the least signiﬁcant diﬀerence (LSD) geneity is closely related to nitrogen enrichment to deter- was calculated to compare treatment means. mine plant growth and nutrient status . ,e availability of N in the soil directly inﬂuences a wide range of ecological 3. Results and Discussion processes, both above and below ground, at the physio- 3.1. Impact of Nickel Mining on Soil Chemical Properties. logical, community, environment, ecosystem services, and We found that the chemical properties of post–nickel mine global levels . In our study, we found that post-nickel soil diﬀered signiﬁcantly from nearby natural forest soil mine soil had 98% less TN than a nearby natural forest soil. (Table 1). Total N, TC, available P, CEC, exchangeable Ca, ,is indicates a greater decline in TN compared with gold and Na were lower in post–nickel mine soil than natural mine tailings in Indonesia (91.3%) , an opencast bauxite forest soil. Conversely, soil pH and C/N ratio were higher mine in Bintan Island, Indonesia (75% reduction) , and 4 International Journal of Forestry Research Table 1: Chemical properties of soils from natural forest and post-nickel mining land. Diﬀerent letters within row indicate signiﬁcant diﬀerence (P< 0.05) by t-test. Mean± standard error are shown (n � 15). Chemical properties Natural forest Postmining land Change (%) pH (H O) 5.02± 0.10 b 6.31± 0.05 a +1.29 (26) pH (KCl) 4.66± 0.10 b 6.31± 0.07 a +1.65 (35) Total carbon (g/kg) 40.20± 0.25 a 2.90± 0.05 b −37.30 (93) Total nitrogen (g/kg) 2.60± 0.02 a 0.057± 0.01 b −2.54 (98) C/N (ratio) 15.84± 0.29 b 65.12± 8.72 a +49.28 (311) Available P (mg P O /kg) 12.30± 0.02 a 11.00± 0.02 b −1.30 (11) 2 5 -1 CEC (cmol kg ) 8.23± 0.67 a 3.15± 0.71 b −5.08 (62) Ca (mg/kg) 5.85± 0.93 a 0.86± 0.29 b −4.99 (85) Mg (mg/kg) 7.32± 0.81 a 6.27± 1.18 a −1.05 (14) K (mg/kg) 10.84± 6.23 a 5.25± 5.25 a −5.59 (52) Na (mg/kg) 0.81± 0.19 a 0.21± 0.08 b −0.6 (74) Fe (mg/kg) 2.12± 0.09 a 38.30± 18.73 a +36.18 (1707) Ni (mg/kg) 3.30± 0.33 a 3.17± 0.45 a −0.13 (4) an opencast coal mine in India (53% reduction in TN)  2.90± 0.05 g/kg and 40.20± 0.25 g/kg, respectively. ,is and USA (53%–80% reduction) . decline in TC is greater than that of oil palm plantations, in Phosphorus is another essential plant macronutrient. In which TC can decline by 42% . the present study, the available P of post-nickel mine soil was Soil pH was higher in post-mine soil compared with 11.00± 0.02 mg P O /kg, which was lower than that in natural forest soil, by 26% for the H O method and by 35% 2 5 2 natural forest soil (12.30± 0.02 mg P O /kg). Soil phos- for the KCl method. ,is happens because of the loss of 2 5 phorus is the element considered important in determining vegetation cover on the top layer of soil on postmining land. the biodiversity and biomass of natural ecosystems . Most postmining land is categorized as dry land which Production of many ecosystems especially in subtropical and contains metals such as Mg, Na, K, and Ca which are very tropical regions is strongly considered to be P rather than N high in soil pH of 9.0 . In their natural forest envi- limited . Recent literature indicates that in tropical ronment, however, soil chemicals such as Mg, Na, Ca, K, and forests, a large fraction of P is found as organic and microbial other chemical characteristics produced from the decom- P in the soil; plant adaptations to absorb organic P, including position process of organic soil material will be absorbed by the phosphatase enzymes. Plants also cope with low P the plants. It results in the conservation and eﬃciency of the availability in the soil through enhancements in P use-ef- nutrient with a closed ecological nutrient cycle [35, 36]. ,e ﬁciency resulting from increased retention time of P in higher pH of postmining soil could support mining reha- biomass and decreased tissue P concentration . bilitation activities. Soil pH is inﬂuenced by various soil ,e impact of surface mine activity involves drastic biological, chemical, and physical properties that aﬀect the disturbances to the ecosystem and soil properties including growth of plants and biomass yield . For example, many the reduction of soil organic material (SOM) and organic N and C mineralization processes occur at a pH between 6.5 carbon . Soil organic matter is lost as a result of the initial and 8. ,e application of dolomite may be considered to stripping of the soil from the site. Further losses occur while increase soil pH even further. It can also increase many other the soil is stored in stockpiles during replacement to the soil nutrients, including Mg . reclaimed site. ,is has serious implications because SOM Soil cation exchange capacity (CEC) is a major soil plays an important role such as in soil fertility and water chemical property. It reﬂects the surface properties of soil holding capacity. Soil is the primary store of terrestrial colloids, and the retention and supply proportions of soil carbon . Topsoil management plays an important role fertilizer. Cation exchange capacity is a key indicator for that rehabilitation of postmining land leads to prevention of evaluating soil fertility, plant growth, and pollutants parti- carbon losses. Soils’ surfaces after reclamation of post-coal tion and transport in soils. It is also an important parameter mines in Wyoming are sequestering C at a rapid rate. For that inﬂuences the adsorption of heavy metals and organic example, soil organic C content at one reclaimed mine site pollutants in soils . We found that CEC in the present −1 near Hanna, WY, USA, increased from 10.9 g C kg in 1983 study was 62% lower in post-nickel mining, in comparison −1 to 20.5 g C kg in 2002 . Carbon is an important soil with natural forest soil. ,e decrease in CEC is greater parameter; it improves soil physical and chemical properties compared to post-bauxite mining  and is lower com- and overall soil quality. Soil carbon exists in various forms pared to gold tailings , in which CEC can decrease by that are functionally diﬀerent and have contrasting residence 30% and 76%, respectively. Some of the important micro- times. Removal of topsoil from mining sites and subsequent nutrients that are essential for plant growth are Ni and Fe. replacement and mixing with underlying soil considerably ,e micronutrient is available in the soil due to the con- tinuous weathering of minerals mixed with primary min- reduces the concentration of soil organic C. In the current study, we found that TC was 93% lower in post-nickel mine erals. Nickel contributes to the nitrogen ﬁxation in legume plants and is the component of the urease enzyme which soil compared to natural forest soil, with concentrations of International Journal of Forestry Research 5 brings about hydrolysis of urea , while Fe is a major 8 a a micronutrient for almost all living organisms which plays a 7 b important role in metabolic processes such as photosyn- thesis, DNA synthesis, and respiration. Furthermore, many 6 a metabolic pathways are stimulated by Fe, and it is a pros- 5 a thetic group constituent of many enzymes . In high-level concentration, however, Fe is toxic. It can act catalytically through the Fenton reaction to generate hydroxyl radicals, which can destroy proteins, lipids, and DNA. Consequently, plants must respond to Fe stress because of both Fe deﬁ- ciency and Fe overload . In the current study, we found that Fe was 1707% tending to higher in post-nickel mine soil compared to natural forest soil, with concentrations of 38.30± 18.73 mg/kg and 2.12± 0.09 mg/kg, respectively. 24 6 8 10 13 15 Weeks aer planting Natural forest soil 3.2. Growth of Fast-Growing Tropical Tree Species. ,e shoot Postmining soil height of F. moluccana seedlings grown in both the natural forest soil and post-nickel mine soil increased from 2 to 15 Figure 2: Mean shoot height of Falcataria moluccana grown in soil from post-nickel mining land and natural forest for 15 weeks under weeks after planting (Figure 2). In comparison with natural greenhouse condition. Diﬀerent letters indicate signiﬁcant diﬀer- forest soil, shoot height at 10, 13, and 15 weeks after planting ences (P � 0.05). Error bars indicate standard error (n � 15). was signiﬁcantly lower in post-nickel mine soil. No signif- icant diﬀerence in shoot height was shown between natural forest and post-nickel mine soil at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks after planting. ,e shoot dry weight of F. moluccana grown in Leguminous trees form a symbiosis with nodulating post-nickel mine soil was signiﬁcantly (P< 0.05) lower than N-ﬁxing bacteria . Several leguminous trees, including that of natural forest soil (Figure 3). Root dry weight of Caesalpinia sappan L., Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq.) F. moluccana grown in natural forest soil was generally Griseb., Gliricidia sepium (Jacq.) Walp., Delonix regia higher in comparison with post-nickel mine soil without (Hook.) Raf., and Cassia siamea Lamk., have been used in statistical signiﬁcance. ,e shoot height of A. saman seed- the rehabilitation of a former tin mining area in Bangka lings of natural forest and post-nickel mine soil increased Island, Indonesia . from 2 to 15 weeks after planting (Figure 4). Shoot height 15 ,e use of organic amendments and microbial inocu- weeks after planting was signiﬁcantly lower in the post- lants could increase soil fertility and help plant growth in nickel mine soil than that in the natural forest soil. Shoot dry post-nickel mine soil. For example, chicken manure, cow weight in natural forest soil was generally higher than that in manure, mulch, municipal green waste, and litter compost post-nickel mine soil (Figure 5), while root dry weight in might increase the success of rehabilitation. ,e application post-nickel mine soil was generally higher than that in of chicken manure to post-coal mining land in Indonesia, natural forest soil without statistically signiﬁcance. which had very low soil nutrient concentrations, increased ,e rehabilitation of land after nickel mining is a the growth of Samanea saman . ,e treatment of mu- mandatory activity for all mining companies in Indonesia. nicipal green waste had growth rates comparable to un- One rehabilitation approach is to plant fast-growing tropical treated plants for mine site rehabilitation. ,e use of leguminous trees that have a high level of adaptation and municipal green waste on degraded opencast coal land in survival on post-nickel mining land and improve the fertility South East Wales, the United Kingdom, had signiﬁcantly of the soil. Our results, as show in Figure 5, suggest that greater survival rates, compared with trees planted without A. saman is more tolerant to growth on post-nickel mining green waste . Other studies have shown that the addition land than F. moluccana. Albizia saman is a fast-growing of compost not only increases soil fertility and plant biomass tropical leguminous tree that is highly adapted to various but also reduces the concentration of trace elements in plant types of soil with a wide pH range and poor drainage . species grown in metal-contaminated mine soils . Planting leguminous trees that can grow on post-nickel Oyebamiji et al.  reported the distribution of heavy metal mining land can improve the ability of the soil to retain such as, Pb, Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and Fe in active mining soils in water. Large pores in the surface layer of natural forest soils southwestern Nigeria. Incorporation of compost provides (due to the activity of microbes and roots) allow inﬁltration beneﬁts for remediating trace elements (Cu, Pb, Zn, and As) of rainwater into the soil. In post-nickel mining land with in polluted soil . ,e dissolution of organic matter can low nitrogen concentration, the leguminous trees as ni- increase the solubility of Al, Fe, and Pb within the reclaimed trogen-ﬁxing species could be used for revegetation. Several soils . ,e application of microbial inoculants, such as studies on revegetation of postmining land in Africa have arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), could improve the shown that leguminous tree species have a high survival rate growth and survival of trees on post-nickel mining land. . ,e successful use of leguminous trees for postmining Plants are part of the ecosystem with many and diverse land reclamation has also been demonstrated in Brazil. microorganisms in the soil. It has been established that some Shoot height (cm) 6 International Journal of Forestry Research 0.15 0.08 0.1 0.06 0.04 0.05 0.02 Natural forest soil Postmining soil 0 Natural forest soil Postmining soil (a) (b) Figure 3: Mean shoot (a) and root (b) dry weight of Falcataria moluccana 15 weeks after planting in soil from post-nickel mining land and natural forest. Diﬀerent letters indicate signiﬁcant diﬀerences (P � 0.05). Error bars indicate standard error (n � 15). 2 4 6 8 10 13 15 Weeks aer planting Natural forest soil Postmining soil Figure 4: Mean shoot height of Albizia saman grown in soil from post-nickel mining land and natural forest for 15 weeks under greenhouse condition. Diﬀerent letters indicate signiﬁcant diﬀerences (P � 0.05). Error bars indicate standard error (n � 15). of these microbes, such as mycorrhizal fungi or nitrogen- increase nutrient contents of post-coal mining soil but also ﬁxing bacteria, play important roles in plant development by increases Fe absorption, which is mostly accumulated in the improving mineral nutrition . Several investigations root system. have shown good results; the application of AMF increased Fast-growing tropical leguminous trees that belong to the growth and survival of P. falcataria and A. saman in the N-ﬁxing species may contribute to improving soil quality post-coal mining land in Indonesia . Additionally, the on degraded soil of post-nickel mining land. Some results use of coconut powder inoculated with AMF increased the indicate that legumes plant may increase the resistances of survival of Anadenanthera colubrina seedlings in post- soil physicochemical and biological properties to the eco- mining soil in Brazil . ,e application of AMF and system disturbance . Legumes ﬁx the atmospheric ni- leguminous trees might be used to increase the success of trogen, release in the soil high-quality organic matter, and revegetation programs in post-nickel mining land. In our facilitate soil nutrients’ circulation and water retention . study, Fe content in postmining soil was seventeen times It could be investigated in future studies, in which fast- higher than that in natural forest soil. Agus et al.  re- growing tropical leguminous trees of F. moluccana or ported that revegetation with fast-growing legume species of Albizia saman have a better impact to increase soil quality on Pongamia pinnata and AMF application can not only post-nickel mining land. Shoot dry weight (g/plant) Shoot height (cm) Root dry weight (g/plant) International Journal of Forestry Research 7 0.3 0.25 0.15 0.2 0.1 0.15 0.1 0.05 0.05 Natural forest soil Postmining soil Natural forest soil Postmining soil (a) (b) Figure 5: Mean shoot (a) and root (b) dry weight of Albizia saman 15 weeks after planting in soil from post-nickel mining land and natural forest. Diﬀerent letters indicate signiﬁcant diﬀerences (P � 0.05). Error bars indicate standard error (n � 15). 4. Conclusions References  M. Mentis, “Environmental rehabilitation of damaged land,” Opencast nickel mining impacted soil fertility. Total N, TC, Forest Ecosystems, vol. 7, no. 19, pp. 1–16, 2020. available P, and exchangeable Ca and Na concentrations of  R. J. Lad and J. S. 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