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Two-Fingered Haptic Device for Robot Hand Teleoperation

Two-Fingered Haptic Device for Robot Hand Teleoperation Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Robotics Volume 2011, Article ID 419465, 8 pages doi:10.1155/2011/419465 Research Article Futoshi Kobayashi, George Ikai, Wataru Fukui, and Fumio Kojima Department of Systems Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan Correspondence should be addressed to Futoshi Kobayashi, futoshi.kobayashi@port.kobe-u.ac.jp Received 31 May 2011; Revised 23 August 2011; Accepted 27 September 2011 Academic Editor: Tetsuya Mouri Copyright © 2011 Futoshi Kobayashi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A haptic feedback system is required to assist telerehabilitation with robot hand. The system should provide the reaction force measured in the robot hand to an operator. In this paper, we have developed a force feedback device that presents a reaction force to the distal segment of the operator’s thumb, middle finger, and basipodite of the middle finger when the robot hand grasps an object. The device uses a shape memory alloy as an actuator, which affords a very compact, lightweight, and accurate device. 1. Introduction a tele-operation system is unable to give tactile and haptic information to the human operator because conventional Various humanoid robot hands have been developed so teleoperation systems lack a feedback system. It is difficult far. The Utah/MIT dexterous hand has four fingers with to complete tasks or control various operations without four joints driven by tendon cables and tactile sensors dexterous tactile and haptic information; thus human oper- over the entire surface [1, 2]. The Gifu hand has five ators make errors because there is no tactile feedback. fingers and 20 joints with 16 degrees of freedom (DOF) Therefore, many haptic devices were developed to enable [3], and the KH hand type S has five fingers and 20 the human operator to feel the force. The haptic devices joints with 15 DOF [4]. More recently manufactured, robot are classified into three types according to their mechanical hands incorporate multiaxis/force torque sensors and tactile grounding configuration [13] including the grounded type sensors with conductive ink and are relatively lightweight. [14–19], the nongrounded type [20–24], and the body- The TWENDY-ONE hand has four fingers and 16 joints with grounded type [25, 26]. Thegroundedhapticdeviceeasily 13 DOF [5]. This robot hand is equipped with the six-axis provides weight sensation or 3-Dimensional (3D) forces, but force sensors and array-type tactile sensors. Honda Motor is limited because it is fixed to a static object like a table Co., Ltd., has developed a multifingered robot hand, which or the floor. The nongrounded haptic device includes an has five fingers and 20 joints with 13 DOF [6]. Each DOF is internal ground mechanism. The internal ground acts as hydraulically actuated, and the robot hand has tactile sensors counteractive base to create linear or angular momentum, on the entire surface. AIST also developed a multifingered and therefore, the device is easily repositioned because robot hand with 4 fingers and 17 joints with 13 DOF that it is mechanically ungrounded. However, the ungrounded are actuated by an electrical servomotor [7]. The AIST robot device cannot generate a large force in multiple directions hand also employed multi-axis force/torque sensors in the or maintain continuous stimuli. The body-grounded haptic fingertips. Many other robot hands have been developed and device is a wearable. These devices are worn and mounted researched [8, 9]. We have also reported the universal robot on the humanoperator, whichisusedasacounteractive hands I [10]and II [11]. base or a point to impress a force or torque on the human operator. The wearable haptic devices provide a wide range A tele-rehabilitation system receives attention for medical care because of a shortage of rehabilitation therapists [12]. of motion and force. However, for such devices to be The tele-rehabilitation system with a robot hand allows a usable, they must be small and lightweight. When a human rehabilitation therapist to care intuitively. However, typically opens a door or picks up an object, the hand and the arm 2 Journal of Robotics Figure 1: ExoPhalanx mounted on CyberGlove. SMA Force transmission wire Manifer Clutching force Shorten Proximal phalange ring MP SMA clutch brake Middle phalange ring MP force transmission wire Lengthen Distal phalanx Cooling state Heated state DIP SMA clutch brake Figure 2: Schematic of SMA clutch brake showing cooled and DIP force transmission wire heated states. Loadcell Figure 5: Middle finger exoskeleton showing DIP and MP wires and clutch brakes. 0.16 0.14 move simultaneously allowing for a wide working space and 0.12 range of motion. A human also demands a greater force when a solid object like a glass is grasped. Therefore, the 0.1 body-grounded haptic device is a preferred in applications involving grasping objects while maintaining feeling using 0.08 tele-operation because it provides a wide workspace and 0.06 considerable force in many directions. In this paper, we have developed a two-fingered body- 0.04 grounded haptic device called ExoPhalanx. The ExoPhalanx 0.02 provides force to the distal segment of the human operator’s thumb and middle finger, and the basipodite of the middle finger. Here, the ExoPhalanx presents only one-directional 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 force to the human operator because the haptic device Duty ratio becomes small and lightweight in order to mount on Figure 3: Clutching force by clutch brake against duty ratio. the human hand. The performance of the haptic device was measured using a two-finger grasping tele-operation experiment with the Universal Robot Hand II and the haptic Thumb manifer device ExoPhalanx. The remainder of the paper is arranged as follows. The haptic device is introduced in Section 2. The robot hand tele-operation system with the developed haptic device is described in Section 3. The preliminary experiment showing Proximal phalange ring the basic performance of the SMA clutch brake of the ExoPhalanx and the results of the grasping experiment with two fingers are presented in Section 4. Finally, the Distal phalanx CM SMA clutch brake conclusions of this study are presented in Section 5. CM force transmission wire 2. Haptic Device The developed haptic device ExoPhalanx is shown in Figure 4: Thumb exoskeleton with CM SMA clutch brake. Figure 1. The ExoPhalanx is used as a passive force feedback Force (N) Journal of Robotics 3 Robot hand subsystem Universal Hand control PC robot hand II Direction Analog and speed voltage Motor DC motor D/A converter driver Multiaxis Analog voltage Analog voltage force/torque A/D converter sensor Pulse Encoder Counter board Array-type tactile sensor Ether board FPGA FPGA Pressure data Analog voltage LAN FPGA Motion capture subsystem Force feedback subsystem M Motion capture PC C Cy yberGlo berGlov ve e Force feedback PC ExoPhalanx Degital I/O board Load cell Ether board Ether board SMA clutch brake Posture data SMA Pulse driver Current Figure 6: Robot hand teleoperation system with haptic device mounted on CyberGlove. device. This device is wearable and mounted above the under the transforming temperature, it is lengthened to motion capture data glove CyberGlove using a tightening the original size. The SMA is flexible and the diameter is belt. Here, the body-grounded haptic device can create 150 μm. Here,the SMAisusedasaclutch brakeasshown the illusion of directed forces by adequate positioning in Figure 2. The heated SMA tightens a force transmission and distributing of grounding forces [27]. The ExoPhalanx wire causing frictional force in the wire. The frictional force consists of a thumb exoskeleton, a middle finger exoskeleton, is presentedasaforcetothe humanoperator. TheSMA and a manifer exoskeleton. The thumb exoskeleton consists is heated using electricity because the SMA has electrical of a distal phalanx and a proximal phalange ring. The middle resistance of ∼300 Ω/m. The cooling state of the SMA is finger exoskeleton consists of a distal phalanx, a middle based on the natural cooling process. The driver circuit is simplified for the SMA clutch brake phalange ring, and a proximal phalange ring. The proximal phalange ring of the thumb exoskeleton and the middle by using the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) as the heating method. The PWM applies a square wave voltage with the finger exoskeleton are belted on the proximal phalanx of the duty ratio D. The heat quantity per unit time is as follows, operator’s finger. The manifer exoskeleton is belted on the operator’s palm and forearm. This design takes advantage 1 τ of the fact that fingertip mechanoreceptors are significantly dQ IV dt = dt = D · IV,(1) more sensitive than those of the proximal phalanx, the dt T 0 0 forearm and the palm [28]. where Q, I,and V are the heat quantity, the applied current, 2.1. SMA Clutch Brake. An SMA clutch brake is installed and the applied voltage, respectively. In (1), T represents the in the ExoPhalanx, which is made into a string-like SMA. cycle time of the square wave, τ is the time of the applied When the string-like SMA is heated over the transforming voltage in one wave, and the duty ratio, D, is defined as D = temperature, it is shortened. Alternatively, when it is cooled τ/T. ··· ··· ··· 4 Journal of Robotics The wire traces the tendon of the operator’s thumb and passes the proximal phalange ring. A CM SMA clutch brake is placed on the thumb manifer. The wire slides normally and bends with IP, MP, CM joints of human thumb, unless it is engaged in which case the wire stops and restrains bending of the thumb. DIP 2.3. Middle Finger Exoskeleton. The middle finger exoskele- ton is composed of the distal phalanx, a middle phalanx PIP IP ring, and a proximal phalange ring as shown in Figure 5.The middle finger exoskeleton consists of two force transmission wires, which were used for restricting the bend in the DIP MP1 MP joint of the human middle finger and for the MP joint or the MP2 DIP force transmission wire and MP force transmission wire, respectively. One end of the DIP force transmission wire is fixed to the distal phalanx part and the other is free. Similarly, one end of the MP force transmission wire is fixed to the proximal phalange ring and the other is free end. The DIP and MP force transmission wires follows the tendons of the human middle finger. The DIP force transmission wire passes the DIP SMA clutch brake on the CM1 CM2 proximal phalange ring and under the MP SMA clutch brake. The MP force transmission wire passes into the MP SMA clutch brake on the manifer. The DIP wire slides with DIP Figure 7: Universal robot hand I. and PIP joint rotation. The MP wire slides with bend-stretch rotation of the MP joint. When the DIP SMA clutch brake is Multiaxis force/torque sensor driven, the operator DIP-PIP joint bending is locked. When the MP SMA clutch brake clutches the MP wire, the operator MP joint bending is locked. A loadcell mounted on the distal phalanx exoskeleton measures fingertip force of the operator’s middle finger. The operator bends their middle finger and pushes the loadcell, which measures the force on the middle fingertip. 3. Robot Hand Teleoperation System with Urethane Haptic Device gel Pressure sensitive Figure 6 shows the robot hand tele-operation system with rubber the developed ExoPhalanx device. The tele-operation system Electrode consists of the robot hand subsystem with the universal robot pattern sheet hand II, the motion capture subsystem with the CyberGlove Array-type tactile sensor which is a well-knows motion capture data glove, and the force feedback subsystem with the developed ExoPhalanx Figure 8: Tactile sensor and multi-axis force/torque sensor. device. In the robot hand tele-operation system, the universal robot hand II is controlled according to the motion of the The size and weight of the SMA clutch brake are 1 mm operator’s hand measured in the motion capture subsystem. and 11 g, respectively. Figure 3 shows the clutching force Then, the ExoPhalanx gives a reaction force to the operator of the clutch brake measured using the force gage FGP- in the force feedback subsystem. 0.2 (Nidec-SHIMPO Corporation) at various duty ratios. According to the graph, the clutching force is almost in 3.1. The Robot Hand Subsystem with Universal Robot Hand proportional relation with the duty ratio. II. This subsystem controls the motion of the universal robot hand by the PID control and acquires the force and 2.2. Thumb Exoskeleton. The thumb exoskeleton is com- the tactile measurements. The universal robot hand II has posed of a distal phalanx, a proximal phalange ring, and five movable fingers and a palm as shown in Figure 7.The a thumb manifer as shown in Figure 4.ACM force thumb is 195 mm long and the other fingers are 230 mm long transmission wire was used in the exoskeleton. One end of with four joints. Each joint is driven using a miniaturized this wire is fixed to the distal phalanx and the other is free. DC motor with a rotary encoder and reduction gears Journal of Robotics 5 Figure 11: Two finger grasping experiment. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 except the DIP joints because the DIP joints and the PIP Time (s) joints of the universal robot hand synchronize like a human Figure 9: DIP joint angle against time. finger. 1 1 3.3. Force Feedback Subsystem with ExoPhalanx. Ahuman operator wears the ExoPhalanx, which is mounted on the CyberGlove. The ExoPhalanx works in order to restrain 0.5 0.5 the human fingers according to the contact force measured by the multi-axis force/torque sensors and the array-type tactile sensors in the universal robot hand. Here, the multi- 0 0 axis force/torque sensor measures the contact force on the fingertips, and the tactile sensor measures the contact force on the palmar surface of the proximal phalange. If the thumb −0.5 −0.5 and/or the middle fingertip of the robot hand contacts the object, then the ExoPhalanx control PC drives the CM and/or the DIP SMA clutch brake. Similarly, if the proximal −1 −1 phalange of the middle robot finger contacts the object, then 010 20 30 40 50 60 the ExoPhalanx control PC drives the MP SMA clutch brake. Time (s) Consequently, the human operator cannot bend his thumb and/or the middle finger. Fingertip force Duty ratio 4. Experiments Figure 10: Force and duty ratio against time. The performance of the ExoPhalanx is verified through two experiments. The first is the clutch brake experiment (manufactured by Harmonic Drive Systems. co.) built into used to confirm the performance of the SMA clutch brake. each link. In addition, two fingertip joints, joints 3 and The second is the two finger grasping experiment used 4, drive at equal ratios as a human finger, so each finger to evaluate the haptic feedback performance. Here, the has three degrees of freedom. Each finger has multi-axis duty ratio for controlling the SMA clutch brake is fixed in force/torque sensors (manufactured by BL AUTOTEC, Ltd.) these experiments because it is difficult to control the force in the distal link of the finger and array-type tactile sensors presented to the operator by changing the duty ratio. on the palmar surface of the fingers as shown in Figure 8. Here, the multi-axis force/torque sensor is used in detection of the distal phalange link contact object and the array-type 4.1. Clutch Brake Experiment. To confirm the haptic perfor- tactile sensor is used in detection of the proximal phalange mance of the SMA clutch brake, a preliminary experiment is link contact object. executed. In this experiment, we confirm whether the SMA clutch brake can restrain the human operator from bending his/her finger. 3.2. Motion Capture SubSystem with CyberGlove. This sub- system measures the posture of the operator by using the The human operator wears the CyberGlove and the CyberGlove. The measured operator’s posture is sent to the ExoPhalanx and bends the DIP and PIP joints of their middle robot hand subsystem through the network. The CyberGlove finger. The CyberGlove captures the operator’s postures. has three flexion sensors per finger, four abduction sensors, In this experiment, the operator bends the DIP joint over a palm-arch sensor, and sensors to measure wrist flexion and 20 , theoretically resulting in the ExoPhalanx stopping the abduction. Here, this subsystem utilizes the sensor values corresponding force transmission wire. If the operator feels Force (kgf ) Angle (deg) Duty ratio 6 Journal of Robotics 80 80 60 60 40 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Time (s) Time (s) Robot IP angle Operator IP angle Robot DIP angle Operator DIP angle (a) IP joint angle (a) DIP Joint Angle 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 Time (s) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Time (s) Robot MP angle Operator MP angle Robot MP angle (b) MP joint angle Operator MP angle (b) MP joint angle Figure 13: Joint angles of middle finger for robot and operator. (1) The operator stretches all fingers. (2) The ball is set in front of the universal robot hand II. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 (3) The operator remotely manipulates the robot hand Time (s) with the thumb and middle finger to grasp the ball Robot CM angle with the fingertips of the robot hand. Operator CM angle (4) The operator continues bending their fingers until a (c) CM joint angle reaction force on their fingertip from the ExoPhalanx is felt. Figure 12: Joint angles of thumb for robot and operator. (5) If the operator feels sufficient force, they release the ball. sufficient force at the specified joints, then the operator This experiment is implemented twice with the experiments stretches the middle finger. The change of the DIP joint angle and force presented to the human operator are shown in being soft and strong grasping. Figures 12 and 13 show the results of the two-finger Figures 9 and 10,respectively. Figure 10 includes the change grasping experiment. The IP, MP, and CM joint angles of of the duty ratio in the experiment. From the clutch brake the thumb for the robot hand and the operator are shown experiment, the operator recognizes that their DIP joint is in Figures 12(a), 12(b),and 12(c), respectively. The DIP locked by the ExoPhalanx and stretches their middle finger. and MP joint angles of the middle finger for the robot and However, if the operator bends the DIP joint over 20 , the operator are shown in Figures 13(a) and 13(b),respectively. SMA clutch brake stops the DIP force transmission wire From these figures, the robot hand grasps the ball with the because the force transmission wire loosens. CM joint at 37 of the robot thumb and the DIP joint at 20 of the robot middle finger. Although the robot hand 4.2. Two-Finger Grasping Experiment. A two-finger grasping grasps the ball, the operator’s CM joint of the thumb and experiment is used to evaluate the haptic feedback perfor- DIP joint of the middle finger are over the joint angles of mance by the ExoPhalanx as shown in Figure 11. The grasped the robot hand. This is because the force transmission wire object is a polystyrene ball of 150 mm in diameter similar to loosens similarly to the clutch brake experiment. Figures 14 the size of a baseball. and 15 show the force measured in the robot hand and the The duty ratio is constant for driving the SMA clutch operator’s hand, respectively. Here, the force of the operator’s brake. The operator then manipulates the universal robot hand is measured by the loadcell equipped in ExoPhalanx. hand II using the following protocol: In Figures 14 and 15, the maximum forces of the robot hand Angle (deg) Angle (deg) Angle (deg) Angle (deg) Angle (deg) Journal of Robotics 7 0.1 5.2. Future Works. The future work involves improvement of the SMA clutch brake so that it is proportionally controlled and reduces the backlash between each link of the exoskeletons. Moreover, we will develop a control method of −0.1 the fingertip force presented to the operator and present the force according to the measured force in the universal robot −0.2 hand II by the ExoPhalanx. Finally, it is proposed that the −0.3 ExoPhalanx system will be extended to five fingers. −0.4 References −0.5 [1] J. M. Hollerbach and S. C. Jacobsen, “Anthropomorphic Soft grasping Hard grasping robots and human interactions,” in Proceedings of the 1st −0.6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 International Symposium on Humanoid Robots, pp. 83–91, Time (s) 1996. [2] D. Johnston, P. Zhang, J. Hollerbach, and S. Jacobsen, “Full Robot thumb force tactile sensing suite for dextrous robot hands and use in Robot middle finger force contact force control,” in Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, pp. 661–666, 1996. Figure 14: Force measured in robot hand. [3] T. Mouri, H. Kawasaki, K. Yoshikawa, J. Takai, and S. Ito, “Anthropomorphic robot hand: gifu hand III,” in Proceedings of the International Conference on Control, Automation and −0.2 Systems, pp. 1288–1293, 2002. −0.4 [4] T. Mouri, H. Kawasaki, and K. 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Two-Fingered Haptic Device for Robot Hand Teleoperation

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Publisher
Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Copyright
Copyright © 2011 Futoshi Kobayashi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
ISSN
1687-9600
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1687-9619
DOI
10.1155/2011/419465
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Abstract

Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal of Robotics Volume 2011, Article ID 419465, 8 pages doi:10.1155/2011/419465 Research Article Futoshi Kobayashi, George Ikai, Wataru Fukui, and Fumio Kojima Department of Systems Science, Kobe University, 1-1 Rokkodai-cho, Nada-ku, Kobe 657-8501, Japan Correspondence should be addressed to Futoshi Kobayashi, futoshi.kobayashi@port.kobe-u.ac.jp Received 31 May 2011; Revised 23 August 2011; Accepted 27 September 2011 Academic Editor: Tetsuya Mouri Copyright © 2011 Futoshi Kobayashi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. A haptic feedback system is required to assist telerehabilitation with robot hand. The system should provide the reaction force measured in the robot hand to an operator. In this paper, we have developed a force feedback device that presents a reaction force to the distal segment of the operator’s thumb, middle finger, and basipodite of the middle finger when the robot hand grasps an object. The device uses a shape memory alloy as an actuator, which affords a very compact, lightweight, and accurate device. 1. Introduction a tele-operation system is unable to give tactile and haptic information to the human operator because conventional Various humanoid robot hands have been developed so teleoperation systems lack a feedback system. It is difficult far. The Utah/MIT dexterous hand has four fingers with to complete tasks or control various operations without four joints driven by tendon cables and tactile sensors dexterous tactile and haptic information; thus human oper- over the entire surface [1, 2]. The Gifu hand has five ators make errors because there is no tactile feedback. fingers and 20 joints with 16 degrees of freedom (DOF) Therefore, many haptic devices were developed to enable [3], and the KH hand type S has five fingers and 20 the human operator to feel the force. The haptic devices joints with 15 DOF [4]. More recently manufactured, robot are classified into three types according to their mechanical hands incorporate multiaxis/force torque sensors and tactile grounding configuration [13] including the grounded type sensors with conductive ink and are relatively lightweight. [14–19], the nongrounded type [20–24], and the body- The TWENDY-ONE hand has four fingers and 16 joints with grounded type [25, 26]. Thegroundedhapticdeviceeasily 13 DOF [5]. This robot hand is equipped with the six-axis provides weight sensation or 3-Dimensional (3D) forces, but force sensors and array-type tactile sensors. Honda Motor is limited because it is fixed to a static object like a table Co., Ltd., has developed a multifingered robot hand, which or the floor. The nongrounded haptic device includes an has five fingers and 20 joints with 13 DOF [6]. Each DOF is internal ground mechanism. The internal ground acts as hydraulically actuated, and the robot hand has tactile sensors counteractive base to create linear or angular momentum, on the entire surface. AIST also developed a multifingered and therefore, the device is easily repositioned because robot hand with 4 fingers and 17 joints with 13 DOF that it is mechanically ungrounded. However, the ungrounded are actuated by an electrical servomotor [7]. The AIST robot device cannot generate a large force in multiple directions hand also employed multi-axis force/torque sensors in the or maintain continuous stimuli. The body-grounded haptic fingertips. Many other robot hands have been developed and device is a wearable. These devices are worn and mounted researched [8, 9]. We have also reported the universal robot on the humanoperator, whichisusedasacounteractive hands I [10]and II [11]. base or a point to impress a force or torque on the human operator. The wearable haptic devices provide a wide range A tele-rehabilitation system receives attention for medical care because of a shortage of rehabilitation therapists [12]. of motion and force. However, for such devices to be The tele-rehabilitation system with a robot hand allows a usable, they must be small and lightweight. When a human rehabilitation therapist to care intuitively. However, typically opens a door or picks up an object, the hand and the arm 2 Journal of Robotics Figure 1: ExoPhalanx mounted on CyberGlove. SMA Force transmission wire Manifer Clutching force Shorten Proximal phalange ring MP SMA clutch brake Middle phalange ring MP force transmission wire Lengthen Distal phalanx Cooling state Heated state DIP SMA clutch brake Figure 2: Schematic of SMA clutch brake showing cooled and DIP force transmission wire heated states. Loadcell Figure 5: Middle finger exoskeleton showing DIP and MP wires and clutch brakes. 0.16 0.14 move simultaneously allowing for a wide working space and 0.12 range of motion. A human also demands a greater force when a solid object like a glass is grasped. Therefore, the 0.1 body-grounded haptic device is a preferred in applications involving grasping objects while maintaining feeling using 0.08 tele-operation because it provides a wide workspace and 0.06 considerable force in many directions. In this paper, we have developed a two-fingered body- 0.04 grounded haptic device called ExoPhalanx. The ExoPhalanx 0.02 provides force to the distal segment of the human operator’s thumb and middle finger, and the basipodite of the middle finger. Here, the ExoPhalanx presents only one-directional 0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 force to the human operator because the haptic device Duty ratio becomes small and lightweight in order to mount on Figure 3: Clutching force by clutch brake against duty ratio. the human hand. The performance of the haptic device was measured using a two-finger grasping tele-operation experiment with the Universal Robot Hand II and the haptic Thumb manifer device ExoPhalanx. The remainder of the paper is arranged as follows. The haptic device is introduced in Section 2. The robot hand tele-operation system with the developed haptic device is described in Section 3. The preliminary experiment showing Proximal phalange ring the basic performance of the SMA clutch brake of the ExoPhalanx and the results of the grasping experiment with two fingers are presented in Section 4. Finally, the Distal phalanx CM SMA clutch brake conclusions of this study are presented in Section 5. CM force transmission wire 2. Haptic Device The developed haptic device ExoPhalanx is shown in Figure 4: Thumb exoskeleton with CM SMA clutch brake. Figure 1. The ExoPhalanx is used as a passive force feedback Force (N) Journal of Robotics 3 Robot hand subsystem Universal Hand control PC robot hand II Direction Analog and speed voltage Motor DC motor D/A converter driver Multiaxis Analog voltage Analog voltage force/torque A/D converter sensor Pulse Encoder Counter board Array-type tactile sensor Ether board FPGA FPGA Pressure data Analog voltage LAN FPGA Motion capture subsystem Force feedback subsystem M Motion capture PC C Cy yberGlo berGlov ve e Force feedback PC ExoPhalanx Degital I/O board Load cell Ether board Ether board SMA clutch brake Posture data SMA Pulse driver Current Figure 6: Robot hand teleoperation system with haptic device mounted on CyberGlove. device. This device is wearable and mounted above the under the transforming temperature, it is lengthened to motion capture data glove CyberGlove using a tightening the original size. The SMA is flexible and the diameter is belt. Here, the body-grounded haptic device can create 150 μm. Here,the SMAisusedasaclutch brakeasshown the illusion of directed forces by adequate positioning in Figure 2. The heated SMA tightens a force transmission and distributing of grounding forces [27]. The ExoPhalanx wire causing frictional force in the wire. The frictional force consists of a thumb exoskeleton, a middle finger exoskeleton, is presentedasaforcetothe humanoperator. TheSMA and a manifer exoskeleton. The thumb exoskeleton consists is heated using electricity because the SMA has electrical of a distal phalanx and a proximal phalange ring. The middle resistance of ∼300 Ω/m. The cooling state of the SMA is finger exoskeleton consists of a distal phalanx, a middle based on the natural cooling process. The driver circuit is simplified for the SMA clutch brake phalange ring, and a proximal phalange ring. The proximal phalange ring of the thumb exoskeleton and the middle by using the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) as the heating method. The PWM applies a square wave voltage with the finger exoskeleton are belted on the proximal phalanx of the duty ratio D. The heat quantity per unit time is as follows, operator’s finger. The manifer exoskeleton is belted on the operator’s palm and forearm. This design takes advantage 1 τ of the fact that fingertip mechanoreceptors are significantly dQ IV dt = dt = D · IV,(1) more sensitive than those of the proximal phalanx, the dt T 0 0 forearm and the palm [28]. where Q, I,and V are the heat quantity, the applied current, 2.1. SMA Clutch Brake. An SMA clutch brake is installed and the applied voltage, respectively. In (1), T represents the in the ExoPhalanx, which is made into a string-like SMA. cycle time of the square wave, τ is the time of the applied When the string-like SMA is heated over the transforming voltage in one wave, and the duty ratio, D, is defined as D = temperature, it is shortened. Alternatively, when it is cooled τ/T. ··· ··· ··· 4 Journal of Robotics The wire traces the tendon of the operator’s thumb and passes the proximal phalange ring. A CM SMA clutch brake is placed on the thumb manifer. The wire slides normally and bends with IP, MP, CM joints of human thumb, unless it is engaged in which case the wire stops and restrains bending of the thumb. DIP 2.3. Middle Finger Exoskeleton. The middle finger exoskele- ton is composed of the distal phalanx, a middle phalanx PIP IP ring, and a proximal phalange ring as shown in Figure 5.The middle finger exoskeleton consists of two force transmission wires, which were used for restricting the bend in the DIP MP1 MP joint of the human middle finger and for the MP joint or the MP2 DIP force transmission wire and MP force transmission wire, respectively. One end of the DIP force transmission wire is fixed to the distal phalanx part and the other is free. Similarly, one end of the MP force transmission wire is fixed to the proximal phalange ring and the other is free end. The DIP and MP force transmission wires follows the tendons of the human middle finger. The DIP force transmission wire passes the DIP SMA clutch brake on the CM1 CM2 proximal phalange ring and under the MP SMA clutch brake. The MP force transmission wire passes into the MP SMA clutch brake on the manifer. The DIP wire slides with DIP Figure 7: Universal robot hand I. and PIP joint rotation. The MP wire slides with bend-stretch rotation of the MP joint. When the DIP SMA clutch brake is Multiaxis force/torque sensor driven, the operator DIP-PIP joint bending is locked. When the MP SMA clutch brake clutches the MP wire, the operator MP joint bending is locked. A loadcell mounted on the distal phalanx exoskeleton measures fingertip force of the operator’s middle finger. The operator bends their middle finger and pushes the loadcell, which measures the force on the middle fingertip. 3. Robot Hand Teleoperation System with Urethane Haptic Device gel Pressure sensitive Figure 6 shows the robot hand tele-operation system with rubber the developed ExoPhalanx device. The tele-operation system Electrode consists of the robot hand subsystem with the universal robot pattern sheet hand II, the motion capture subsystem with the CyberGlove Array-type tactile sensor which is a well-knows motion capture data glove, and the force feedback subsystem with the developed ExoPhalanx Figure 8: Tactile sensor and multi-axis force/torque sensor. device. In the robot hand tele-operation system, the universal robot hand II is controlled according to the motion of the The size and weight of the SMA clutch brake are 1 mm operator’s hand measured in the motion capture subsystem. and 11 g, respectively. Figure 3 shows the clutching force Then, the ExoPhalanx gives a reaction force to the operator of the clutch brake measured using the force gage FGP- in the force feedback subsystem. 0.2 (Nidec-SHIMPO Corporation) at various duty ratios. According to the graph, the clutching force is almost in 3.1. The Robot Hand Subsystem with Universal Robot Hand proportional relation with the duty ratio. II. This subsystem controls the motion of the universal robot hand by the PID control and acquires the force and 2.2. Thumb Exoskeleton. The thumb exoskeleton is com- the tactile measurements. The universal robot hand II has posed of a distal phalanx, a proximal phalange ring, and five movable fingers and a palm as shown in Figure 7.The a thumb manifer as shown in Figure 4.ACM force thumb is 195 mm long and the other fingers are 230 mm long transmission wire was used in the exoskeleton. One end of with four joints. Each joint is driven using a miniaturized this wire is fixed to the distal phalanx and the other is free. DC motor with a rotary encoder and reduction gears Journal of Robotics 5 Figure 11: Two finger grasping experiment. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 except the DIP joints because the DIP joints and the PIP Time (s) joints of the universal robot hand synchronize like a human Figure 9: DIP joint angle against time. finger. 1 1 3.3. Force Feedback Subsystem with ExoPhalanx. Ahuman operator wears the ExoPhalanx, which is mounted on the CyberGlove. The ExoPhalanx works in order to restrain 0.5 0.5 the human fingers according to the contact force measured by the multi-axis force/torque sensors and the array-type tactile sensors in the universal robot hand. Here, the multi- 0 0 axis force/torque sensor measures the contact force on the fingertips, and the tactile sensor measures the contact force on the palmar surface of the proximal phalange. If the thumb −0.5 −0.5 and/or the middle fingertip of the robot hand contacts the object, then the ExoPhalanx control PC drives the CM and/or the DIP SMA clutch brake. Similarly, if the proximal −1 −1 phalange of the middle robot finger contacts the object, then 010 20 30 40 50 60 the ExoPhalanx control PC drives the MP SMA clutch brake. Time (s) Consequently, the human operator cannot bend his thumb and/or the middle finger. Fingertip force Duty ratio 4. Experiments Figure 10: Force and duty ratio against time. The performance of the ExoPhalanx is verified through two experiments. The first is the clutch brake experiment (manufactured by Harmonic Drive Systems. co.) built into used to confirm the performance of the SMA clutch brake. each link. In addition, two fingertip joints, joints 3 and The second is the two finger grasping experiment used 4, drive at equal ratios as a human finger, so each finger to evaluate the haptic feedback performance. Here, the has three degrees of freedom. Each finger has multi-axis duty ratio for controlling the SMA clutch brake is fixed in force/torque sensors (manufactured by BL AUTOTEC, Ltd.) these experiments because it is difficult to control the force in the distal link of the finger and array-type tactile sensors presented to the operator by changing the duty ratio. on the palmar surface of the fingers as shown in Figure 8. Here, the multi-axis force/torque sensor is used in detection of the distal phalange link contact object and the array-type 4.1. Clutch Brake Experiment. To confirm the haptic perfor- tactile sensor is used in detection of the proximal phalange mance of the SMA clutch brake, a preliminary experiment is link contact object. executed. In this experiment, we confirm whether the SMA clutch brake can restrain the human operator from bending his/her finger. 3.2. Motion Capture SubSystem with CyberGlove. This sub- system measures the posture of the operator by using the The human operator wears the CyberGlove and the CyberGlove. The measured operator’s posture is sent to the ExoPhalanx and bends the DIP and PIP joints of their middle robot hand subsystem through the network. The CyberGlove finger. The CyberGlove captures the operator’s postures. has three flexion sensors per finger, four abduction sensors, In this experiment, the operator bends the DIP joint over a palm-arch sensor, and sensors to measure wrist flexion and 20 , theoretically resulting in the ExoPhalanx stopping the abduction. Here, this subsystem utilizes the sensor values corresponding force transmission wire. If the operator feels Force (kgf ) Angle (deg) Duty ratio 6 Journal of Robotics 80 80 60 60 40 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Time (s) Time (s) Robot IP angle Operator IP angle Robot DIP angle Operator DIP angle (a) IP joint angle (a) DIP Joint Angle 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 0 Time (s) 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Time (s) Robot MP angle Operator MP angle Robot MP angle (b) MP joint angle Operator MP angle (b) MP joint angle Figure 13: Joint angles of middle finger for robot and operator. (1) The operator stretches all fingers. (2) The ball is set in front of the universal robot hand II. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 (3) The operator remotely manipulates the robot hand Time (s) with the thumb and middle finger to grasp the ball Robot CM angle with the fingertips of the robot hand. Operator CM angle (4) The operator continues bending their fingers until a (c) CM joint angle reaction force on their fingertip from the ExoPhalanx is felt. Figure 12: Joint angles of thumb for robot and operator. (5) If the operator feels sufficient force, they release the ball. sufficient force at the specified joints, then the operator This experiment is implemented twice with the experiments stretches the middle finger. The change of the DIP joint angle and force presented to the human operator are shown in being soft and strong grasping. Figures 12 and 13 show the results of the two-finger Figures 9 and 10,respectively. Figure 10 includes the change grasping experiment. The IP, MP, and CM joint angles of of the duty ratio in the experiment. From the clutch brake the thumb for the robot hand and the operator are shown experiment, the operator recognizes that their DIP joint is in Figures 12(a), 12(b),and 12(c), respectively. The DIP locked by the ExoPhalanx and stretches their middle finger. and MP joint angles of the middle finger for the robot and However, if the operator bends the DIP joint over 20 , the operator are shown in Figures 13(a) and 13(b),respectively. SMA clutch brake stops the DIP force transmission wire From these figures, the robot hand grasps the ball with the because the force transmission wire loosens. CM joint at 37 of the robot thumb and the DIP joint at 20 of the robot middle finger. Although the robot hand 4.2. Two-Finger Grasping Experiment. A two-finger grasping grasps the ball, the operator’s CM joint of the thumb and experiment is used to evaluate the haptic feedback perfor- DIP joint of the middle finger are over the joint angles of mance by the ExoPhalanx as shown in Figure 11. The grasped the robot hand. This is because the force transmission wire object is a polystyrene ball of 150 mm in diameter similar to loosens similarly to the clutch brake experiment. Figures 14 the size of a baseball. and 15 show the force measured in the robot hand and the The duty ratio is constant for driving the SMA clutch operator’s hand, respectively. Here, the force of the operator’s brake. The operator then manipulates the universal robot hand is measured by the loadcell equipped in ExoPhalanx. hand II using the following protocol: In Figures 14 and 15, the maximum forces of the robot hand Angle (deg) Angle (deg) Angle (deg) Angle (deg) Angle (deg) Journal of Robotics 7 0.1 5.2. Future Works. The future work involves improvement of the SMA clutch brake so that it is proportionally controlled and reduces the backlash between each link of the exoskeletons. Moreover, we will develop a control method of −0.1 the fingertip force presented to the operator and present the force according to the measured force in the universal robot −0.2 hand II by the ExoPhalanx. 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Published: Dec 15, 2011

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