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Hindawi International Journal of Forestry Research Volume 2023, Article ID 5380034, 16 pages https://doi.org/10.1155/2023/5380034 Research Article Woody Species Composition, Structure, and Regeneration Status of Gosh-Beret Dry Evergreen Forest Patch, South Gondar Zone, Northeast Ethiopia Getinet Masresha Kassa , Addis Getnet Deribie , and Getnet Chekole Walle University of Gondar, Department of Biology, P.O. Box. 196, Gondar, Ethiopia Correspondence should be addressed to Getinet Masresha Kassa; email@example.com Received 28 December 2022; Revised 6 April 2023; Accepted 7 April 2023; Published 28 April 2023 Academic Editor: Anna Zro´bek-Sokolnik Copyright © 2023 Getinet Masresha Kassa et al. Tis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Owing to its variable topographic features, Ethiopia is endowed with rich biological resources. However, nowadays, these vital resources, mainly forests, are declining alarmingly, largely, due to agricultural expansion and energy consumption. Tis study was conducted at Gosh-Beret forest with the objective of investigating the status of forest species. Fifty-one main plots, spaced at a 100 m interval, were laid on north-south oriented transects. Within the main plots, fve subplots, at each corner and center, were set to collect data for juveniles. In each plot, individuals of each woody species were identifed and recorded. Percent cover abundance of each woody species per plot was genuinely estimated, which was later converted into the modifed Braun–Blanquet scale. For each mature woody species, diameters at breast height (DBH ≥ 2 cm) were measured. Hierarchical cluster analysis was performed to identify community types. Te Shannon–Wiener diversity index and Sorensen’s similarity coefcient were used to compare the species diversity and composition among communities, respectively. Te structure and regeneration status of the forest species were analyzed using structural parameters and size-class ratios, respectively. A total of 52 woody species distributed in 35 families were recorded. Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Asteraceae were the most dominant families with 4 species each. Te overall species diversity of the forest was 2.6, and fve community types were generated from cluster analysis. In the study forest, frequency and density of species decrease with increasing frequency and density classes. Likewise, density of individuals in each 2 −1 class decreases as DBH classes increase. Te total basal area of the forest was 19.81 m ha , and the forest was at fair regeneration status with species having small IVI values and few/no seedlings. Terefore, immediate conservation measures are required to save species with small IVI values and few/no seedlings. contain 6025 diferent species of higher plants, of which 1. Introduction about 10% are endemic. Ethiopia is characterized by a range of variable topographical Te vegetation of Ethiopia is, thus, segregated into features; a huge latitudinal spread and an immense altitu- diferent plant communities that show spatial and temporal variations across landscapes resulting from diferences in dinal range resulted in great variation in climate and soils . Tis variety led to the emergence of habitats that are environmental gradients. Terefore, the evaluation of var- suitable for the evolution and survival of various plant iation of environmental variables is essential to understand species . Tis makes Ethiopia as one of the few countries the factors governing the distribution of species . Vari- in Africa where virtually major types of natural vegetation ations in the patterns of plant communities with variations are represented, ranging from thorny bushes and tropical in environmental variables were demonstrated in . Such forests to mountain grasslands. According to , the veg- information is relevant to undertake appropriate conser- etation of the country is very heterogeneous and estimated to vation measures. Besides, examination of patterns of 2 International Journal of Forestry Research vegetation structures could provide valuable information extending from 2325 to 2560 m.a.s.l., with a geographical about their regeneration status that could help devise position ranging from 11054′10″ to 11 54′25″ N latitude ° ° conservation strategies . Te vegetation structure is 38 09′01″ and 38 09′23″ E longitude. maintained by the process of regeneration. Plants regenerate Meteorological data obtained from the National Mete- via soil seed banks, seedling banks, and vegetative parts . orological Services Agency (from 2010 to 2019) showed that Many plant species possess combinations of these that widen the mean annual maximum and minimum temperatures ° ° the ecological range and degree of persistence under fuc- were 25.6 C and 6.8 C, respectively, and the mean annual tuating environmental conditions . Physical and biotic rainfall was 1546 mm. Te study area obtained high rainfall factors (competition, herbivory, and disease) as well as between June and October and low rainfall from March to disturbance regimes infuence regeneration processes, and May. Generally, the study area has a unimodal rainfall thereby, determine the abundance of species. pattern, which gradually increases in the periods between Tough forest resources are vital for all lives on earth, it February and June, reaches at the highest peak in July and faces several challenges that lead them to diminish rapidly August, and then falls down from September to January and alarmingly to several folds [9, 10]. Te causes for forest (Figure 2). loss are many and interconnected. Associated with geo- According to the Guna Begie-Midir District Agricultural metric population growth, energy requirement and demand Ofce (2019), the study area is generally characterized by for agricultural lands increased dramatically that attributed mountainous topography with a cool to moderate climate, to the major decline of forests. About 94% of the country’s locally known as Dega (70%). Te forest area is featured by fuel demand relies on biomass alone , of which trees and the slope facing, largely, north to south side with the fat shrubs contribute the largest proportion. According to , summit, and it is crossed by a big river, Hamus Wonze, the natural forests of the country have been cleared within which drains into the Ribb Dam. the last 30 to 50 years as the demand for energy (for charcoal Like other parts of the country, large parts of the district and frewood), food, and fodder has increased. were covered by continuous vegetation until recently. Likewise, Gosh-Beret forest, dry evergreen Afromontane However, vegetation has been destroyed by anthropogenic forest patch, found in the matrix of agricultural lands and activities such as agricultural expansion. Te depletion of settlements, is facing pressure from agricultural land ex- vegetation is very rapid, leaving the area with remnant of pansion and fuel wood collection. Tus, the status of this small patches of forests and shrub lands encircled by large natural forest is dawdling through time as a consequence of tracts of cultivated lands. Gosh-Beret is one of the dry ev- the increase of local people pressure for the satisfaction of ergreen montane forest patches characterized by diferent their daily life. Studying the status of forests is crucial to trees and shrubs interspersed with climbers and herbs with clearly visualize the anthropogenic activities as well as en- few wildlife inhabiting the forest (such as apes, monkeys, vironmental factors afecting the vegetation of the area. Te bushbuck, klipspringer, antelopes, common fox, hyenas, lack of such basic information is one of the serious problems rabbit, porcupine, and various kinds of birds). Despite de- that afect conservation of forests . To take appropriate struction of the vegetation around the study area, Gosh- conservation measures, basic scientifc information re- Beret Forest is still, relatively, maintained for long time due garding the status of the forest is, thus, required. Terefore, to the protection of the forest by the government. Currently, the objectives of this study were to (a) assess woody plant Gosh-Beret forest covers about 435 hectares of land. species composition, (b) identify plant community types, (c) Te inhabitants of the study area are from Amhara analyze the patterns of the vegetation structure, and (d) ethnic groups and speak Amharic language. Te majority of evaluate the regeneration status of the forest. the people are orthodox Christians (99.6%), and the major land use types in the area are farmland (45.3%), pasture (14%), forest with other vegetation types (16%), rural set- 2. Methods tlement (7.4%), degraded land (2.5%), and other landforms 2.1. Description of the Study Area. Te study was conducted (14%). Human population growth resulted in a shortage of at Gosh-Beret dry evergreen Afromontane forest patch in farm and grazing lands. Te economy of local people is Guna Begie-Midir district, South Gondar zone, Amhara predominantly based on subsistence agriculture. Te local people are involved in the collection of forest products (fuel region, Northeast Ethiopia. Kimir-Dingay, the capital of the district, is found 695 km north of Addis Ababa, the capital of wood and construction material) for domestic consumption and income generation. Tey partly depend on medicinal Ethiopia (Figure 1). Te district is boarded by Meketewa in the north, Ebinat in the northwest, East Estie in the south, plants, most of which are harvested from the wild, to fulfll their healthcare needs. Lay Gayint in the east, and Farta district in the west. Guna Begie-Midir district is a new district established in 2017 by taking 17 kebeles (smallest administrative unit) from Farta district. Te geographical position of the district ranges 2.2. Vegetation Sampling. Te reconnaissance survey was ° ° ° ° from 11 52′0″ to 11 57′5″ N latitude and 38 8′0″ to 38 11′0″ carried out in October 2019 in order to get general in- E longitude, with the altitude ranging from 1200 to formation about the physiognomy of vegetation and de- th 4120 m.a.s.l. Mount Guna, the 4 highest peak in the termine sample size, plot size, sampling techniques, and alignments of transect lines. Floristic and environmental country, is located in this district. Te study area (forest) consists of chains of rugged mountains, with the altitude data collections were performed from March to April 2020. International Journal of Forestry Research 3 Map of the study area Map of Ethiopia Map of Amhara Zones South Gondar Zone Woyibla Guna Begimider kebleles Atkona Woyibla Megendi Amjaye Ayde 0 0.5 1 2 3 4 km 38°8′0″E 38°9′0″E 38°10′0″E 38°11′0″E Gosh Bert Natural Forest Woyibla Kebele Figure 1: Map of the study area. Debretabor (2535 m) 15.9 C 1546 mm 2010-2019 50 100 40 80 25.5 30 60 20 40 6.8 10 20 0 0 JF M A M J J A S O N D Figure 2: Climadiagram (data source: Amhara Meteorological Service Agency, 2020). 11°52′0″N 11°53′0″N 11°54′0″N 11°55′0″N 11°56′0″N 11°57′0″N mm 4 International Journal of Forestry Research A systematic random sampling technique was used to collect H � − P ln P , (1) vegetation data. Following , eight parallel line transects, i i i�1 spaced at 100 m intervals, were laid across the forests in a north-south direction using a Suunto compass. A total of ′ where H � Shannon Diversity Index, s � the number of 51 sample plots, with a size of 20 m × 20 m, were laid on the species, P � the proportion of individuals, and ln � natural line transects at every 100 m interval. To collect data on logarithm to base n seedling and saplings, fve subplots of 2 m × 2 m, one at each Evenness was calculated using the formula: corner and one at the center of the main plot, were laid, as ′ ′ J � H /H max � ( P lnP /lns), where J � evenness, i�1 i i used in . ′ ′ H max � H maximum � lns, and s is the number of In each plot, all woody species were counted and species  recorded by their local or scientifc names or by codes Floristic similarities among diferent plant communi- depending on the familiarity of the species. Woody plant ties and other similar Ethiopian forests were calculated by species which were difcult to identify in the feld were employing Sørensen’s similarity index [20, 23] using the collected, coded, pressed, and dried properly using plant formula Ss � (2a)/(2a + b + c), where Ss � Sørensen’s simi- presses and brought to the University of Gondar Herbarium larity coefcient, a � the number of species common to where taxonomic identifcation was performed. Any woody both samples, b � the number of species found only in plants having circumferences ≥6.3 cm were measured at sample 1, and c � the number of species found only in 1.3 m above the ground so as to calculate diameter at breast sample 2. height (DBH) following [16–18], and later, the circumfer- ence was converted into DBH using the formula DBH � C/π, 2.3.3. Vegetation Structure. Te frequency, density, di- where C is circumference and π is pi. Individual plants with ameter at breast height, basal area, and Importance Value DBH <2 cm were counted as juveniles, and those with height Index were used to analyze the vegetation structure of woody up to 1.5 m were counted as seedlings, whereas those be- species. tween 1.5 m and 3 m height were counted as saplings, as used Frequency (F) was computed as follows: (number in . In each subplot, density of size classes (seedlings, of plots in which a species occur/total plots laid) × 100, saplings, and adults) was calculated in order to determine where the value of each species was, then, sorted in in- the regeneration status of forest species. Te ground cover, creasing order and grouped into fve frequency classes (in in percent, for each woody species in each plot, was esti- %): (1) 0–20, (2) 21–40, (3) 41–60, (4) 61–80, and (5) 81–100. mated genuinely and was later converted into cover- Te percentage distribution of individuals of species in each abundance values using the modifed 1–9 Braun–Blan- class was used to assess the distributional patterns of species quette scale [20, 21]. Environmental gradients of each plot in the forest patch. were measured as follows: the altitude and the position were Density (D) was calculated as follows: (number measured by using Garmin GPs 60, the aspect was measured of above ground stems of a species/sample area in using a compass, and the slope was measured using Suunto hectare) × 100, where D is expressed as the percentage for clinometers. each species so as to assess the vegetation structure. It was, then, sorted in increasing order and grouped into seven 2.3. Data Analysis density classes (in %): (1) ≤5, (2) 5.01–20, (3) 20.01–35, (4) 2.3.1. Community Classifcation. Hierarchal cluster analysis 35.01–50, (5) 50.01–65, (6) 65.01–80, and (7) >80 was carried out based on the abundance of 48 species and 51 Diameter at breast height (DBH) was calculated sample plots using R statistical software to group the veg- from the circumference of each adult woody species etation into plant community types. Te similarity ratio was using the formula: D � C/π, where D � diameter at used to determine the resemblance function, and Ward’s breast height, C � circumference, and π � constant with method was used to minimize the total within group mean value 3.14. square or residual squares . Te community types which DBH was, then, classifed into six DBH classes (in cm): were identifed from the cluster analysis was further refned (1) ≤5, (2) 5.1–10, (3) 10.1–15, (4) 15.1–20, (5) 20.1–30, and in a synoptic table, and species occurrences were summa- (6) >40. Te percentage number of individuals in each DBH rized as synoptic cover-abundance values. Dominant species class was calculated to assess the structural patterns of the (where the community named) of each community type was forest patch. identifed based on their higher synoptic values. Te basal area (BA) was calculated from the value of DBH using the formula: 2.3.2. Species Diversity and Similarity among Community πd (2) basal area(BA) � , Types. Species diversity of the communities was computed by the Shannon–Wiener Diversity Index (H′) using the R statistical program: International Journal of Forestry Research 5 where d denotes the diameter at breast height in meters and Te Importance Value Index (IVI) was generated from π is a constant � 3.14. the sum of relative frequency (RF), relative density (RD), and relative abundance (RDO) : IVI � RD + RF + RDO relative density of a species (RD) � (number of all individuals of a species/total number of all individuals of the sample) × 100 relative frequency of a species (RF) � (the number of plots where a species occur/total occurrence for all species of the sample) × 100 relative dominance of a species (RDO) � (basal area of a species/total basal area of the sample) × 100. (3) 2.4. Regeneration Status. Regeneration status of trees and Species in Asteraceae, for instance, are morphologically shrubs was analyzed using density ratios between age classes endowed with parachute-like structures. Tese are adapted (seedlings, saplings, and adults). Regeneration status of the for air dispersal and are capable of being blown high up, forest was stated (labeled) based on the density ratio classes especially during strong winds . Increased chances of recommended by  as “good” if presence of seedling- successful establishment of the diaspores after arrival in > sapling > adult trees, “fair” if presence of seedling- various areas (refugia) could have allowed the species and > sapling < adult trees, and “poor” if a species survives only genera of these dominant families to establish successful in the sapling stage, but not as seedlings. populations. Tis is often possible through physiological and/or genetic adaptation such as increased power of ger- mination as well as ability to withstand the vagaries of 3. Results and Discussion extreme climatic conditions and biotic competition for 3.1. Species Accumulation Curve. During vegetation sam- scarce resources, especially during the initial colonization of pling, the number of species accumulates with the increasing virgin habitats . area sampled. However, the number of newly added species Of the total plant species identifed, 38.5% were trees, decreases as the sampling efort continues. Such a trend of 46.1% were shrubs, and the remaining 15.4% were liana species accumulation could be represented graphically using species. High numbers of shrubby species were also men- a species accumulation curve. A curve labeled of (or in other tioned by some previous studies [26, 27]. Lower number of cases a curve approximately reaching an asymptote) in- tree species (high number of shrubby species) in the forest dicated that no new species would be added if the sampling could indicate that the forest is either protected recently or efort is further continued . Tis could prove that still under high pressure of anthropogenic factors. representative samples have been taken from the study area. Endemic species accounted for 5.8% of the total species Te species accumulation curve in Figure 3 is labeled of, recorded (Table 3). Te endemic species proportion is lower indicating that further sampling efort will not bring change than the proportion reported in the Flora of Ethiopia and in the species number, which proved that representative data Eretria (10%), Gedo (10.64%) , and Kumuli dry ever- were collected from the study forest. green Afromontane (7%) . Tis might be due to the smaller size of the forest and the less topographic hetero- geneity of the study area. 3.2. Floristic Composition. A total of 52 woody species representing 35 families were identifed (Table 1). Compared to other forests (except Wanzaye and Yemrehane 3.2.1. Overall Species Diversity and Equitability of the Forest Kirstos Church), Gosh-Beret forest has lower species rich- Species. Te overall species diversity (H′) and evenness of ness (Table 2). Te reasons for variations in species richness the study forest were found to be 2.6 and 0.66, respectively. in the study area might be due to excessive anthropogenic Shannon–Weiner diversity is high when it is above 3.0, it is medium when it is between 2.0 and 3.0, and it is low when it disturbances and disparity in conditions for regeneration. Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, and Asteraceae were species- is smaller than 2.0 . Tus, the overall species diversity of rich families (4 species each), followed by Lamiaceae (3 the forest is medium. Te species evenness value ranges species) and Rosaceae, Oleaceae, Sapindaceae, Loganiaceae, between 0 and 1. When it is 0, the area is dominated by single Capparidaceae, and Rutaceae (2 species each), whereas the species, and when it is 1, species are evenly distributed in the remaining families had 1 species each. Te dominance of area [20, 35]. Te result indicated that the species in the Fabaceae and Asteraceae agreed with the report in the Flora study forest are little over 50% evenly distributed, i.e., had of Ethiopia and Eretria. In addition, the dominance of medium evenness. Tus, the study forest has medium di- Fabaceae is mentioned in other similar previous studies versity and evenness. In addition, compared to other dry evergreen Afro- [18, 28]. Tis indicated that the dominance of these families might be due to the adaptation potential to wider agro- montane forests (Table 4), the diversity and evenness of the forest were low. Tis might be due to local anthropogenic ecologies in various climates with efcient pollination and dispersal mechanisms. disturbance of the forest for diferent purposes (fre wood, 6 International Journal of Forestry Research 0 10 20 30 40 50 Sites Figure 3: Species area curve. Table 1: List of woody plants in Gosh-Beret forest with their frequency & density. No Species scientifc names Family namess Habit 1 Acacia abyssinica Hochst. ex. Benth Fabaceae Tree 2 Acanthus sennii Chiov Acanthaceae Shrub 3 Acokanthera schimperi (ADC) Schweinf Apocynaceae Shrub 4 Albizia schimperiana Oliv. Fabaceae Tree 5 Allophylus abyssinicus (Hochst) Radlk Sapindaceae Tree 6 Bersama abyssinica Fresen. Melianthaceae Shrub 7 Brucea antidysenterica J.F. Simaroubaceae Shrub 8 Buddleja polystachya Fresen Loganiaceae Tree 9 Calpurnia aurea (AiT) Benth Fabaceae Shrub 10 Capparis tomentosa (AiT) Beth Capparidaceae Climber 11 Carissa spinarum L. Apocynaceae Shrub 12 Clausena anisata (Wild) Benth. Rutaceae Shrub 13 Clematis simensis (Roxb.) Kurtz Ranunculaceae Climber 14 Clerodendrum myricoides (Hochst) Vatke. Lamiaceae Shrub 15 Clutia lanceolata Forrsk Euphorbiaceae Shrub 16 Cordia africana Lamp. Boraginaceae Tree 17 Croton macrostachyus Hochst. ex. Del. Euphorbiaceae Tree 18 Discopodium penninervium Hochst. Solanaceae Shrub 19 Dodonaea angustifolia L.F Sapindaceae Shrub 20 Dombeya torrida (J.FGamel) P.Bamps Sterculiaceae Tree 21 Dovyalis abyssinica (A.Rich) Warb. Flacourtiaceae Shrub 22 Dregea rubicunda Schum. Asclepiadaceae Climber 23 Echinops longisetus A.Rich. Asteraceae Shrub 24 Ekebergia capensis Spam Meliaceae Tree 25 Entada abyssinica Steud. ex A.Rich Fabaceae Climber 26 Euphorbia candelabrumTremaux. ex, Kotschy Euphorbiaceae Tree 27 Ficus sur Forssk. Moraceae Tree 28 Grewia ferruginea Hocsht. ex. A. Rich Tiliaceae Tree 29 Hibiscus macranthus Hochl. ex. A. Rich. Malvaceae Climber 30 Jasminum abyssinicum L. Oleaceae Climber 31 Juniperus procera Hochst.ex.Engl. Cupressaceae Tree 32 Laggera tomentosa (Sch. Bip.ex. A. Rich) Olivu. &Hiern Asteraceae Shrub 33 Maytenus arbutifolia A.Rich. Celastraceae Shrub 34 Myrica salicifolia Hochst. ex. A.Rich. Myricaceae Tree 35 Myrsine africana L. Myrsinaceae Shrub 36 Nuxia congesta R.Br.ex.Fresen. Loganiaceae Tree 37 Olea europaea subsp. cuspidata L. (Wall.ex.J.Don) Cif. Oleaceae Tree 38 Otostegia integrifolia Benth Lamiaceae Shrub 39 Osyris quadripartita Decn. Santalaceae Shrub exact International Journal of Forestry Research 7 Table 1: Continued. No Species scientifc names Family namess Habit 40 Phytolacca dodecandra L.Herit Phytolaccaceae Climber 41 Premna schimperi Engl. Lamiaceae Shrub 42 Prunus africana Hook.f. Rosaceae Tree 43 Rhus glutinosa A.Rich subsp. glutinosa Anacardiaceae Shrub 44 Ricinus communis L. Euphorbiaceae Shrub 45 Ritchiea albersii Gilg. Capparidaceae Shrub 46 Rosa abyssinica Lindley Rosaceae Shrub 47 Rumex nervosus Vahl. Polygonaceae Shrub 48 Salix subserrata (Willd) R.H. Archer and Jordaan Salicaceae Tree 49 Solanecio gigas Vatke Asteraceae Shrub 50 Teclea nobilis Delile. Rutaceae Tree 51 Urera hypselodendron (Hoschst.) ex.A. Rich. Urticaceae Climber 52 Vernonia myriantha Hook Asteraceae Shrub Table 2: Species richness comparisons of the study forest with other DAFs of Ethiopia. Forests Number of species Authors Amoro 57  Alemsaga 88  Yegof 76  Kumuli 133  Tara Gedam forest 114  Yemrehane Kirstos Church 39  Gosh-Beret 52 Present study Wanzaye 49  Zegie 113  Table 3: Endemic species in Gosh-Beret forest and their IUCN status. Scientifc names Family Habit IUCN category Acanthus sennii Acanthaceae Shrub Near threatened Solanecio gigas Asteraceae Shrub Least concerned Rhus glutinosa Anacardiaceae Shrub Not evaluated Table 4: Species diversity (H), richness (S), and evenness (E) comparison of the study forest with other DAFs of Ethiopia. No. Forests S H′ J Sources 1 Tara-Gedam 113 2.98 0.65  2 Kumuli 133 2.97 0.6  3 Yemrehane Kirstos church 39 2.88 0.79  4 Wanzaye 49 3.15 0.81  5 Gosh-Beret 52 2.6 0.66 Present study 6 Yegof 76 2.26 0.57  7 Zegie 113 3.72 0.84  8 Ylat 60 2.94 0.84  9 Dangila 73 3.5 0.82  farming tools, income, food, construction, and medicine) as and improper species interaction  that would imply the observed during data collection. Low species diversity and need to conserve the forest to restore its foristic diversity as evenness values reveal ecosystem instability, unhealthiness, well as to reduce human pressure. 8 International Journal of Forestry Research on sloppy and inaccessible sites where human and grazer 3.3. Plant Community Types. Cluster analysis of foristic data generated fve diferent community types (Figure 4). infuences are reduced, which agreed with the work in  who stated that sloppy nature of sites, which are not easily accessible to disturbance through selective cutting and 3.3.1. Maytenus arbutifolia-Bersama abyssinica Community. grazing, maintains better species composition and richness. Tis community type was distributed between the altitudinal ranges of 2325 and 2413 m.a.s.l. It was represented by 14 plots and 30 associated species (Table 5). Most of the plots of 3.3.4. Vernonia myriantha-Laggera tomentosa Community. the community were situated in the north-west direction. Species in this community were distributed in altitudes Teclea nobilis and Albizia schimperiana were the dominant ranging from 2395 to 2515 m.a.s.l. It was represented by the tree species. Calpurnia aurea, Vernonia myriantha, and smallest number of plots (6) and 30 associated species Solanecio gigas were the dominant species in the shrubby (Table 5). Te majority of the plots were oriented to layer, whereas Entada abyssinica was the dominant liana southeast directions. Relative to other community types, this (Table 6). community was the most diverse (2.98), with relatively Since sample plots were close to the surrounding village, equitable representation of each species (0.87). Tis com- munity is, thus, expected to be stable and healthier. Tis they were exposed to human impacts such as collecting frewood, grazing, and charcoal production. Most of the might be due to reduced human and livestock pressure as plots were found in inaccessible and sloppy areas. Te plots, thus, were under the infuence of human encroach- ment that might relatively result in lower species diversity dominant tree species were Albizia schimperiana, Croton (2.51), species evenness (0.74), and species richness (30) of macrostachyus, Teclea nobilis, and Olea europaea subsp. the community type. cuspidata. Jasminum abyssinicum and Phytolacca dodeca- ndra were common climbers (lianas). Tis community was dominated by shrubby species such as Calpurnia aurea, 3.3.2. Euphorbia candelabrum-Acokanthera schimperi Maytenus arbutifolia, Clausena anisata, and Dodonaea Community. Species in this community were spread be- angustifolia (Table 6). Selective cutting of tree species for tween 2386 and 2535 m.a.s.l. altitudinal ranges. Eleven plots diferent purposes and ongoing ecological succession of the represented the community with 34 associated species component species might be the reason for the dominance of (Table 5). Most plots were situated in the northwest di- shrubby species. rection. Teclea nobilis and Albizia schimperiana were the dominant tree species, whereas Calpurnia aurea, Carissa 3.3.5. Juniperus procera-Acanthus sennii Community. spinarum, Vernonia myriantha, and Dovyalis abyssinicum were common in the shrub layer. Dregea rubicunda, Entada Species in this community were distributed in higher alti- tudes ranging from 2490 to 2560 m.a.s.l. Five plots with 23 abyssinica, and Clematis simensis were common lianas. Hibiscus macranthus and Prunus africana were indicator associated species were included in this community (Ta- species of this community (Table 6). Relative to community ble 5). Te majority of the plots were oriented to the 1, the infuence of human activities is reduced as plots in this southeast and south directions. It has the second highest community were far from the surrounding village, resulting species evenness value (0.83) and the least species richness in a relatively higher species diversity (2.76), species even- (23). Te least species richness might be attributed to ag- ness (0.78), and species richness (34). ricultural land encroachment as plots were located around crop lands. Te dominant tree species included in the community were Euphorbia candelabrum, Acacia abyssinica, 3.3.3. Albizia schimperiana-Entada abyssinica Community. and Teclea nobilis. Carissa spinarum, Calpurnia aurea, and Species in this community were distributed in altitudes Maytenus arbutifolia were common species in the shrub ranging from 2370 to 2530 m.a.s.l. Fifteen plots, with a total layer. Entada abyssinica was the common climber in the of 45 species, were clustered in this community (Table 5). community (Table 6). Te majority of plots were laid in southwest and northwest directions. Along with the dominant species used to name 3.4. Species Composition Similarities among Communities. the community, Teclea nobilis and Euphorbia candelabrum were the common tree species in the community. Te Te overall similarity coefcient among communities ranges dominant shrub species were Carissa spinarum, Maytenus from 63 to 84% (Table 7). Sorensen’s similarity coefcient arbutifolia, and Calpurnia aurea. Entada abyssinica was the was used to detect similarities among plant communities. dominant climber (liana) species. Ficus sur and Myrsine Based on this, similarity in species composition slightly varied africana were indicator species of this community (Table 6). among communities. Relatively, the highest similarity was Tis community had 2.81 species diversity, 0.73 species observed between communities 1 and 2 (84%), which might be due to close proximity of the communities or exposure to evenness, and the highest species richness (45), which might be due to furthest distances of plots from the village, and similar environmental factors that led to similar adaptation. Te least similarity was observed between communities 1 and most of the plots were found in gentle slopes where soil erosion is low. In addition, local people believed that this 5, 2 and 5, and 3 and 5 (63%). Tis might be due to diferences part of the forest is the habitat of wild animals including in altitudinal gradients or environmental or anthropogenic hyenas. Moreover, some plots in this community were found factors, leading them to have relatively lower similarities. International Journal of Forestry Research 9 1.5 1.0 1 4 2 3 5 0.5 0.0 Sites Figure 4: Clusters generated from agglomerative hierarchical classifcation. Table 5: Clusters generated from cluster analysis. Communities Number of plots Plots 1 14 1–4, 6–9, 20–23, 37, 38 2 11 5, 14, 16, 17, 24, 31, 32, 41–43, 45 3 15 10–13, 15, 17, 25–27, 33, 34, 36, 39, 40, 46 4 6 19, 28–30, 35, 44 5 5 47, 48, 49, 50, 51 Table 6: Species with a synoptic value ≥0.5 in at least one of the clusters. Scientifc names Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5 Vernonia myriantha 3.79 2.73 0.53 5.00 0.00 Teclea nobilis 5.36 5.45 5.40 2.33 2.80 Solanecio gigas 1.21 0.09 0.13 1.00 0.00 Phytolacca dodecandra 0.43 0.36 0.27 1.67 0.20 Osyris quadripartita 0.07 0.00 0.20 0.50 0.20 Maytenus arbutifolia 6.79 3.73 3.53 3.00 2.20 Laggera tomentosa 0.86 0.27 0.60 4.00 0.80 Juniperus procera 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 4.80 Jasminum abyssinicum 0.00 0.00 0.27 2.17 0.00 Euphorbia candelabrum 0.07 5.00 1.73 0.17 4.00 Height P1 P8 P2 P37 P38 P6 P23 P22 P3 P4 P9 P7 P20 P21 P19 P35 P28 P29 P30 P44 P5 P17 P24 P31 P32 P41 P42 P14 P43 P45 P16 P10 P12 P15 P13 P11 P39 P33 P27 P36 P18 P34 P46 P40 P25 P26 P47 P48 P50 P49 P51 10 International Journal of Forestry Research Table 6: Continued. Scientifc names Cluster 1 Cluster 2 Cluster 3 Cluster 4 Cluster 5 Entada abyssinica 1.93 0.64 2.87 0.33 1.00 Dovyalis abyssinica 0.07 1.09 0.20 0.00 0.00 Dodonaea angustifolia 0.00 0.00 0.13 1.67 0.80 Croton macrostachyus 1.29 0.36 0.53 2.17 0.00 Clutia lanceolata 0.14 0.82 0.80 2.67 0.00 Clausena anisata 0.29 0.91 0.40 1.17 0.00 Carissa spinarum 1.43 5.00 6.13 5.00 7.00 Capparis tomentosa 0.43 0.18 0.07 0.67 0.00 Calpurnia aurea 5.36 5.55 4.80 6.33 5.20 Brucea antidysenterica 0.57 0.09 0.33 0.00 0.00 Bersama abyssinica 4.07 1.91 0.93 0.00 0.00 Albizia schimperiana 2.36 1.45 4.67 2.50 2.60 Acokanthera schimperi 0.36 3.55 0.73 0.00 0.20 Acanthus sennii 0.07 0.73 0.53 1.67 2.80 Ficus sur 0.00 0.00 0.52 0.00 0.00 Myrsine africana 0.00 0.00 0.5. 0.00 0.00 Te bold values indicate plants with maximum synoptic values in each community type (cluster) by which the community name is given. Table 7: Sorensen’s similarity coefcient among communities. Communities 1 2 3 4 5 1 1 2 0.84 1 3 0.81 0.81 1 4 0.68 0.71 0.81 1 5 0.63 0.63 0.63 0.78 1 −1 3.5. Vegetation Structure , Tara Gedam (3,001 stems ha ), Abebaye (2,850 stems −1 −1 ha ) , and Zengena (2,202 stems ha )  dry ever- 3.5.1. Frequency. Te most frequent species was Maytenus green Afromontane forests but higher than that of −1 arbutifolia (98%), followed by Calpurnia aurea (96.1%), Hugumburda (1,218 stems ha )  and Wof Washa (698.8 −1 Teclea nobilis (92.3%), Carissa spinarum (88.2%), and stems ha )  in Ethiopia. Variations in density distri- Albizia schimperiana (88.2%) (Table 8). Te frequent oc- butions can be attributed to diferences in topographic currence indicates the successful reproduction and adap- gradients and habitat preferences of diferent tree and shrub tation of a species to the area . Dispersion of species was species forming the forest as well as the diferences in de- classifed into 5 frequency classes (Figure 5). Te trend grees of anthropogenic infuences . showed a higher number of species (66.7%) in frequency Species that contributed the highest number of in- −1 −1 class 1, followed by a continuous decrease in the number of dividuals ha was Carissa spinarum (809.72 ha ), followed −1 species up to frequency class 4 from which the species by Calpurnia aurea (570.58 ha ), Teclea nobilis −1 −1 number started to increase till frequency class 5. (519.48 ha ), and Maytenus arbutifolia (515.24 ha ) (Ta- −1 Frequency indicates the homogeneity and heterogeneity ble 8), respectively. Te highest number of individuals ha of a given vegetation in which the high number of species in could mean that the species is under good reproduction and higher frequency classes and the low number of species in recruitment despite the presence of trampling, grazing, and lower frequency classes show similar species composition other anthropogenic disturbances. Te density distribution (higher homogeneity), while the large number of species in of species in the density classes showed more or less zig-zag lower frequency classes and the small number of species in patterns (Figure 6). A similar result was also reported by the higher frequency classes indicate higher heterogeneity authors of  who pointed out that such a pattern showed (Lambrecht, 1989). Tus, from the result, it can be said that selective cutting of species for diferent purposes. the vegetation of the study forest is more or less hetero- geneous. Similar results were reported by previous studies [17, 38]. Heterogeneity of vegetation might be attributed to 3.5.3. Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) Distribution. A total −1 habitat preferences among species, species characteristic for of 1586.75 individuals ha of woody plant species (DBH adaptation, degree of disturbance, and availability of suitable ≥2 cm) were recorded from the forest. Te DBH distribution conditions for regeneration . was classifed into 6 DBH classes. Most of the individuals were distributed in the lowest DBH classes, showing 3.5.2. Density. Te total density of mature woody species a continuous decrease towards higher DBH classes. Such (DBH ≥2 cm) of the study forest was 1586.75 individuals a distribution of individuals represents an inverted J-shape −1 −1 ha , which is lower than that of Yegof (1,768.13 stems ha ) curve (Figure 7). A similar pattern was reported by previous International Journal of Forestry Research 11 Table 8: Density (D), relative density (RD), basal area (BA), relative BA, frequency (F), relative frequency (RF), and IVI for mature woody plant species. Scientifc names D RD BA RDO F RF IVI Albizia schimperiana 387.96 9.25 8.99 45.41 88.2 7.23 61.89 Carissa spinarum 809.72 19.30 1.6 8.1 88.2 7.23 34.63 Calpurnia aurea 570.58 13.60 1.07 5.39 96.07 7.88 26.87 Teclea nobilis 519.49 12.38 0.94 4.72 92.15 7.56 24.66 Euphorbia candelabrum 229.56 5.47 2.23 11.26 49.01 4.02 20.75 Maytenus arbutifolia 515.24 12.28 0.02 0.08 98.03 8.04 20.40 Croton macrostachyus 218.56 5.21 1.79 9.06 52.94 4.34 18.61 Entada abyssinica 225.76 5.38 0.13 0.68 54.9 4.5 10.56 Vernonia myriantha 187.17 4.46 0.12 0.61 66.66 5.47 10.54 Juniperus procera 28.96 0.69 1.04 5.23 9.8 0.8 6.72 Bersama abyssinica 43.11 1.03 0.06 0.29 43.13 3.54 4.86 Acanthus senni 97.01 2.31 0.01 0.06 25.49 2.09 4.46 Phytolacca dodecandra 21.54 0.51 0.12 0.62 37.25 3.05 4.18 Olea europaea subsp.cuspidata 17.16 0.41 0.32 1.59 21.56 1.77 3.77 Clausena anisata 21.63 0.52 0.02 0.09 33.33 2.73 3.34 Acokanthera schimperi 21.07 0.50 0.03 0.13 31.37 2.57 3.20 Laggera tomentosa 13.7 0.33 0 0 27.45 2.25 2.58 Otostegia integrifolia 62.19 1.48 0 0.01 9.8 0.8 2.29 Clutia lanceolata 25.97 0.62 0 0.01 19.6 1.61 2.24 Nuxia congesta 6.86 0.16 0.2 1.01 9.8 0.8 1.97 Brucea antidysenterica 14.7 0.35 0 0 19.6 1.61 1.96 Acacia abyssinica 7.31 0.17 0.22 1.12 7.84 0.64 1.93 Dombeya torrida 8.82 0.21 0.08 0.4 15.68 1.29 1.90 Ekebergia capensis 4.41 0.11 0.16 0.8 11.76 0.96 1.87 Allophylus abyssinicus 6.33 0.15 0.14 0.72 11.76 0.96 1.83 Capparis tomentosa 10.78 0.26 0.02 0.12 15.86 1.3 1.68 Solanecio gigas 1.96 0.05 0 0 17.6 1.44 1.54 Dodonaea angustifolia 24.97 0.60 0.02 0.08 9.8 0.8 1.48 Dovyalis abyssinica 6.89 0.16 0 0.02 15.68 1.29 1.47 Ficus sur 1.96 0.05 0.17 0.86 5.88 0.48 1.39 Buddleja polystachya 3.88 0.09 0.06 0.31 9.8 0.8 1.20 Rosa abyssinica 12.26 0.29 0.01 0.05 9.8 0.8 1.14 Dregea rubicunda 5.88 0.14 0.04 0.19 9.8 0.8 1.13 Clematis simensis 4.9 0.12 0.03 0.14 9.8 0.8 1.06 Cordia africana 3.92 0.09 0.02 0.11 9.8 0.8 1.00 Osyris quadripartita 5.44 0.13 0.01 0.06 9.8 0.8 0.99 Rumex nervosus 7.8 0.19 0 0 9.8 0.8 0.99 Urera hypselodendron 7.35 0.18 0.05 0.27 5.88 0.48 0.93 Rhus glutinosa subsp.glutinosa 4.35 0.1 0 0 0.8 0.8 0.9 Jasminum abyssinicum 8.8 0.21 0 0 7.84 0.64 0.85 Discopodium penninervium 3.44 0.08 0.01 0.06 7.84 0.64 0.78 Premna schimperi 2.94 0.07 0.04 0.18 5.88 0.48 0.73 Grewia ferruginea 4.41 0.11 0.01 0.04 5.88 0.48 0.63 Clerodendrum myricoides 2.94 0.07 0 0.01 5.88 0.48 0.56 Ritchiea albersii 2.94 0.07 0 0.01 5.88 0.48 0.56 Prunus africana 1.47 0.04 0 0.02 5.88 0.48 0.54 Myrsine africana 0.98 0.02 0.02 0.08 1.96 0.16 0.26 Hibiscus macranthus 0.98 0.02 0 0 1.96 0.16 0.18 1 2 34 5 Frequency Class Figure 5: Frequency class distribution of woody species in Gosh-Beret forest. Number of Species 12 International Journal of Forestry Research Density Class Figure 6: Density class of mature tree species. 2 −1 similar studies [17, 28, 38, 41]. Tis implies a good re- Africa is expected to be between 23 and 37 m ha . Tis production and recruitment status of the species in the could mean that the basal area of the study forest is lower forest . than the normal value. Te basal area of Gosh-Beret forest was also compared with the basal area of other 5 dry evergreen Afromontane 3.5.4. Population Structure for Some Selected Woody Species. forest patches in Ethiopia (Table 9). Te basal area of Gosh- Te analysis of the population structure of the selected Beret forest was higher than that of Yegof and Amoro woody species based on density of DBH resulted in four forests, but it was lower than that of Tara Gedam, Alemsaga, patterns (Figures 8(a)–8(d)). Te frst pattern was inverted J- and Gedo dry evergreen Afromontane forests. A lower basal shape. Tis pattern was also reported by several previous area value would mean that the study forest is composed of similar studies [28, 30, 41, 43]. Such a structure showed good shrubby and young tree species that revealed that the forest reproduction and recruitment  (Figure 8(a)). Plant is either protected lately or still under anthropogenic species showing this pattern were Teclea nobilis, Capparis pressure. Albizia schimperiana accounted for the highest 2 −1 tomentosa, Dombeya torrida, Entada abyssinica, and basal area value (8.99 m ha ), followed by Euphorbia 2 −1 Calpurnia aurea. candelabrum (2.23 m ha ), Croton macrostachyus 2 −1 2 −1 Te second pattern was a bell-shaped distribution (1.79 m ha ), Carissa spinarum (1.6 m ha ), and Calpurnia 2 −1 (Figure 8(b)) where lower classes have a lower number of aurea (1.07 m ha ) (Table 8). individuals followed by an increase in the number of in- dividuals towards middle classes and then a progressive 3.5.6. Importance Value Index (IVI). Based on their higher decrease towards higher DBH classes. Te woody plant IVI values, the fve leading dominant and ecologically most species included in this pattern were Albizia schimperiana, signifcant woody species were Albizia schimperiana (61.88), Nuxia congesta, Euphorbia candelabrum, Juniperus procera, Carissa spinarum (34.63), Calpurnia aurea (26.87) Teclea Ficus sur, Allophylus abyssinicus, Ekebergia capenis, Olea nobilis (24.66), and Euphorbia candelabrum (20.75) (Ta- europaea, and Croton macrostachyus. Similar results were ble 8), whereas species with the least IVI value was Hibiscus shown in [30, 43]. A bell shape follows a Gaussian distri- macranthus (0.18), followed by Myrsine africana (0.26), bution pattern indicating poor reproduction and re- Prunus africana (0.54), Ritchiea albersii (0.56), and Cler- cruitment of species, which might be associated with the odendrum myricoides (0.56). A high IVI value indicates that overharvesting of seed-bearing individuals or the presence of the species is most successful in regeneration and pathogen only some seed-bearing individuals . resistance and grows in the shade, and in comparison with Te third pattern consisted of those species occurred other species, these species are least preferred by browsing only in lower DBH classes (classes 1 and 2). Tis type of animals and seed predators and have high attraction of population structure was also reported in  that suggested pollinators that facilitate seed dispersal within the existing the good reproduction and bad recruitment status of the environmental conditions of the study area . Tus, these species. Te species in this pattern include Acokanthera species are the most dominant ones in the forest . Such schimperi, Acanthus sennii, Capparis tomentosa, Clausena species may not need immediate conservation measures, but anisata, Clematis simensis, Dodonaea angustifolia, Maytenus they need regular monitoring. On the other hand, species arbutifolia, Bersama abyssinica, and Osyris quadripartita th with a low IVI value would mean they are at the risk of local (Figure 8(c)). Te last (4 ) pattern was represented by only extinction that needs priority of conservation measures. Ficus sur (Figure 8(d)) that occurred only in the medium DBH classes (10.1–20 cm and 20.1–30 cm). Tis may be due to low regeneration status of the species and removal of the matured 3.6. Regeneration Status of Gosh-Beret Forest Species. individuals of the species for construction materials. Composition and density of seedlings, saplings, and adults would indicate the regeneration status of the forest species. 3.5.5. Basal Area. As calculated from DBH data, the total Te density of adult individuals was greater than that of basal area (BA) of adult woody species of Gosh-Beret forest seedlings (0.97 :1) and saplings (0.68 :1), whereas the density 2 −1 was 19.81m ha . Te normal value of the basal area in of seedlings was greater than that of sapling (1.42 :1). Tis Number of species International Journal of Forestry Research 13 DBH Class Figure 7: DBH classes with their density distribution of Gosh-Beret forest. Carissa spinarum Albizia schimperiana DBH class (cm) DBH class (cm) (a) (b) Ficus sur 2.5 Acokonthera schimperi 1.5 0.5 DBH class (cm) DBH class (cm) (c) (d) Figure 8: Population structures of four representative species by their DBH: (a) Carissa spinarum; (b) Albizia schimperiana; (c) Acokanthera schimperi; (d) Ficus sur. implies that the forest is grouped under fair regeneration of saplings in Carissa spinarum might be due to special status. In some of South Gondar Zone Church forests, survival mechanisms having spines, and the plant by its similar results were reported in , but some other authors nature cannot reach big trees that people do not use for [4, 28, 30, 31] reported good regeneration status in their charcoal and timber production. −1 study forest patches. Te highest sapling density was Maytenus arbutifolia (460.8 individuals ha ) followed −1 −1 recorded for Carissa spinarum (215.7 individuals ha ), by Calpurnia aurea (122.5 individuals ha ), Vernonia −1 −1 followed by Teclea nobilis (192.8 individuals ha ) and myriantha (122.5 individuals ha ), and Carissa spinarum −1 −1 Calpurnia aurea (142 individuals ha ). Te highest density (120 individuals ha ) (Table 10) accounted for higher Number of individuals Number of individuals ≤5 5.1-10 Number stems 10.1-20 20.1-30 30.1-40 >40 Number of individual Number of individuals ≤5 ≤5 5.1-10 5.1-10 10.1-20 10.1-20 20.1-30 20.1-30 30.1-40 30.1-40 >40 >40 14 International Journal of Forestry Research Table 9: BA comparison of Gosh-Beret forest with other dry Afromontane forests. 2 −1 Forests Ba (m ha ) Author (source) Yegof 15.85  Gosh-Beret forest 19.81 Present study Amoro 18.5  Tara Gedam 115.5  Alemsaga 75.37  Gedo 35.45  −1 Table 10: Density of adults, saplings, and seedlings (in ha bases). No Species scientifc names Adult density Sapling density Seedling density 1 Acacia abyssinica 5.39 0.45 1.47 2 Acanthus sennii 4.41 11.80 80.80 3 Acokanthera schimperi 11.27 4.90 4.90 4 Allophylus abyssinicus 4.90 0.98 0.45 5 Bersama abyssinica 24.51 8.80 9.80 6 Buddleja polystachya 3.43 0.45 0.00 7 Calpurnia aurea 305.88 142.20 122.50 8 Capparis tomentosa 9.80 0.98 0.00 9 Carissa spinarum 474.02 215.70 120.00 10 Clausena anisata 8.33 5.90 7.40 11 Clematis simensis 4.90 0.00 0.00 12 Clerodendrum myricoides 0.98 0.98 0.98 13 Clutia lanceolata 1.47 12.70 11.80 14 Cordia africana 1.47 0.98 1.47 15 Croton macrostachyus 42.16 78.40 98.00 16 Discopodium penninervium 0.49 2.50 0.45 17 Dodonaea angustifolia 6.37 3.90 14.70 18 Dombeya torrida 8.82 0.00 0.00 19 Dregea rubicunda 4.90 0.98 0.00 20 Ekebergia capensis 4.41 0.00 0.00 21 Entada abyssinica 50.98 75.98 98.80 22 Euphorbia candelabrum 36.76 94.80 98.00 23 Ficus sur 1.96 0.00 0.00 24 Grewia ferruginea 4.41 0.00 0.00 25 Hibiscus macranthus 0.98 0.00 0.00 26 Juniperus procera 17.16 6.40 5.40 27 Albizia schimperiana 192.16 107.80 88.00 28 Maytenus arbutifolia 7.84 46.60 460.80 29 Myrsine africana 0.98 0.00 0.00 30 Nuxia congesta 6.86 0.00 0.00 31 Olea europaea subsp.cuspidata 14.22 1.96 0.98 32 Otostegia integrifolia 0.49 12.70 49.00 33 Osyris quadripartita 1.96 1.50 1.98 34 Phytolacca dodecandra 17.16 3.40 0.98 35 Premna schimperi 2.94 0.00 0.00 36 Prunus africana 1.47 0.00 0.00 37 Ritchiea albersii 0.98 0.98 0.98 38 Rosa abyssinica 6.86 2.90 2.50 39 Teclea nobilis 240.69 192.80 86.00 40 Urera hypselodendron 7.35 0.00 0.00 41 Vernonia myriantha 41.67 23.00 122.50 42 Rhus glutinosa subsp. glutinosa 0.00 3.90 0.45 43 Brucea antidysenterica 0.00 0.00 14.70 44 Jasminum abyssinicum 0.00 3.90 4.90 45 Rumex nervosus 0.00 3.90 3.90 46 Solanecio gigas 0.00 5.60 2.45 47 Laggera tomentosa 0.00 0.00 13.70 International Journal of Forestry Research 15 density of seedlings. Te high dominance of Maytenus forests. Tis can be done during social gathering arbutifolia seedling might be due to human disturbance events and religious ceremony. favoring the growth of this species by removing other woody species. Data Availability Laggera tomentosa, Brucea antidysenterica, and Jasmi- Some of the data used to support the fndings of this study num abyssinicum were some woody species without adult are available in the fgure fles (fgures and tables) and the individuals. Tese species were found in the juvenile stages remaining data (fgures and tables in Excel) are available and are newly regenerating. Premna schimperi, Dombeya from the corresponding author upon request. torrida, and Ekebergia capensis were species which were not represented by seedlings and saplings. Tese species were Disclosure not classifed in any regeneration classes. Similar results were also reported by [1, 28]. Te research was performed as part of the employment of Species that had poor regeneration status include Bud- the authors, which is considered one of the regular works of dleja polystachya, Capparis tomentosa, and Dregea rubi- the employees for the employer organization, University of cunda. Some of the species that had fair regeneration status Gondar. include Acokanthera schimperi, Allophylus abyssinicus, and Bersama abyssinica. Species that had good regeneration Conflicts of Interest status include Maytenus arbutifolia, Acanthus sennii, and Croton macrostachyus. Tree species without juveniles need Te authors declare that they have no conficts of interest. immediate conservation measures since they are at a higher risk of local extinction. Acknowledgments Te authors are grateful to the Ethiopian Meteorological 4. Conclusion and Recommendations Agency for provision of climate data of the study area. 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International Journal of Forestry Research – Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Published: Apr 28, 2023
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