Post-Translational Chemical Modification of Amyloid-β Peptides by 4-Hydroxy-2-Nonenal
Background:The extraction and quantification of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in brain tissue commonly uses formic acid (FA) to disaggregate Aβ fibrils. However, it is not clear whether FA can disaggregate post-translationally modified Aβ peptides, or whether it induces artifact by covalent modification during disaggregation. Of particular interest are Aβ peptides that have been covalently modified by 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (HNE), an oxidative lipid degradation product produced in the vicinity of amyloid plaques that dramatically accelerates the aggregation of Aβ peptides.Objective:Test the ability of FA to disaggregate Aβ peptides modified by HNE and to induce covalent artifacts.Methods:Quantitative liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass spectrometry of monomeric Aβ peptides and identify covalently modified forms.Results:FA disaggregated ordinary Aβ fibrils but also induced the time-dependent formylation of at least 2 residue side chains in Aβ peptides, as well as oxidation of its methionine side chain. FA was unable to disaggregate Aβ peptides that had been covalently modified by HNE.Conclusion:The inability of FA to disaggregate Aβ peptides modified by HNE prevents FA-based approaches from quantifying a pool of HNE-modified Aβ peptides in brain tissue that may have pathological significance.