Access the full text.

Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.

Axioms
, Volume 11 (1) – Dec 23, 2021

/lp/multidisciplinary-digital-publishing-institute/baire-type-properties-in-metrizable-c0-omega-x-3F17WIKsoE

- Publisher
- Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
- Copyright
- © 1996-2022 MDPI (Basel, Switzerland) unless otherwise stated Disclaimer The statements, opinions and data contained in the journals are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publisher and the editor(s). MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Terms and Conditions Privacy Policy
- ISSN
- 2075-1680
- DOI
- 10.3390/axioms11010006
- Publisher site
- See Article on Publisher Site

axioms Article Baire-Type Properties in Metrizable c W, X ( ) 1 2, 3 Salvador López-Alfonso , Manuel López-Pellicer * and Santiago Moll-López Departamento de Construcciones Arquitectónicas, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain; salloal@csa.upv.es IUMPA, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain Departamento de Matemática Aplicada, Universitat Politècnica de València, 46022 Valencia, Spain; sanmollp@mat.upv.es * Correspondence: mlopezpe@mat.upv.es Abstract: Ferrando and Lüdkovsky proved that for a non-empty set W and a normed space X, the normed space c (W, X) is barrelled, ultrabornological, or unordered Baire-like if and only if X is, respectively, barrelled, ultrabornological, or unordered Baire-like. When X is a metrizable locally convex space, with an increasing sequence of semi-norms fk.k 2 Ng deﬁning its topology, then c (W, X) is the metrizable locally convex space over the ﬁeld K (of the real or complex numbers) of all functions f : W ! X such that for each # > 0 and n 2 N the set fw 2 W : k f (w)k > #g is ﬁnite or empty, with the topology deﬁned by the semi-norms k fk = supfk f (w)k : w 2 Wg, n 2 N. Ka ¸ kol, n n López-Pellicer and Moll-López also proved that the metrizable space c (W, X) is quasi barrelled, barrelled, ultrabornological, bornological, unordered Baire-like, totally barrelled, and barrelled of class p if and only if X is, respectively, quasi barrelled, barrelled, ultrabornological, bornological, unordered Baire-like, totally barrelled, and barrelled of class p. The main result of this paper is that the metrizable c (W, X) is baireled if and only if X is baireled, and its proof is divided in several lemmas, with the aim of making it easier to read. An application of this result to closed graph theorem, and two open problems are also presented. Keywords: Banach disk; Baire-like; barrelled; metrizable; p-barrelled; ultrabornological; unordered Citation: López-Alfonso, S.; Baire-like López-Pellicer, M.; Moll-López, S. Baire-Type Properties in Metrizable MSC: 46A08; 46B25 c (W, X). Axioms 2022, 11, 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/ axioms11010006 Academic Editor: Hari Mohan 1. Introduction Srivastava Let W be a non-empty set, X a locally convex space over the ﬁeld K (of real or complex numbers), cs(X) the family of all continuous seminorms in X, ` (X) the space of all Received: 19 November 2021 absolutely summable sequences in X, namely Accepted: 21 December 2021 Published: 23 December 2021 n o ` (X) := (x ) 2 X : (x ) = p(x ) < ¥, for all p 2 cs(X) 1 n n å n n2N n2N p n=1 Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in n o published maps and institutional afﬁl- endowed with the family of seminorms : p 2 cs(X) , and c (W, X) the locally convex k k iations. space over K of all functions f : W ! X such that for each # > 0 and p 2 cs(X) the set fw 2 W : p( f (w)) > #g is ﬁnite or empty, with the topology deﬁned by the semi-norms k fk = supf p( f (w)) : w 2 Wg, p 2 cs(X). In particular, c (W) := c (W,K) and for W = N, c (X) := c (N, X) and c := c (N,K). 0 0 0 0 0 0 Copyright: © 2021 by the authors. It was proved in [1] that c (X) is quasibarrelled if and only if X is quasibarrelled and its Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. strong dual satisﬁes the condition (B) of Pietsch and that if, in addition, X is complete in This article is an open access article the sense of Mackey, then c (X) is barrelled if and only if X is quasibarrelled and its strong distributed under the terms and 0 dual satisﬁes condition (B) of Pietsch. In this case, X is barrelled. Through a clever use of conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https:// a sliding-hump technique, it was proved in [2] that, even in the absence of completeness creativecommons.org/licenses/by/ in the sense of Mackey, c (X) is barrelled if and only if X is barrelled and its strong dual 4.0/). satisﬁes condition (B) of Pietsch. Recall that X has the property (B) of Pietsch if for any Axioms 2022, 11, 6. https://doi.org/10.3390/axioms11010006 https://www.mdpi.com/journal/axioms Axioms 2022, 11, 6 2 of 9 bounded set B in ` (X) there exists an absolutely convex bounded set B in X such that the normed space X formed by the linear hull of B endowed with Minkowski functional p B B of B veriﬁes that B is contained in the unit ball of the normed space ` (X ), i.e., 1 B n o B (x ) 2 X : p (x ) < ¥ n å B n n2N n=1 Metrizable locally convex spaces as well as dual metric locally convex spaces verify the property (B) of Pietsch ([3]). Ferrando and Lüdkowsky proved in [4] that for a normed space X the space c (W, X) is barrelled, ultrabornological, or unordered Baire-like (see [5]) if and only if X is, respectively, barrelled, ultrabornological, or unordered Baire-like. It was proved in [6] that for a locally convex metrizable space X the space c (W, X) is quasi barrelled, barrelled, ultrabornologi- cal, bornological, unordered Baire-like, totally barrelled, and barrelled of class p if and only if X is, respectively, quasi barrelled, barrelled, ultrabornological, bornological, unordered Baire-like, totally barrelled, and barrelled of class p. The normed space of all continuous functions vanishing at inﬁnity deﬁned on a locally compact topological space with values in a normed space and endowed with the supremum norm topology is barrelled if and only if X is barrelled; this result was obtained in [7], answering a question posed by J. Horváth. The linear subspace l of the sequence space l of ﬁnite-valued sequences in the ﬁeld K is of the ﬁrst Baire category [8]. Independently, Dieudonné ([9], p. 133) and Saxon [10] proved that l is barrelled. Schachermayer extended this result by proving that the linear hull l (A) of the characteristic functionsX , with A 2 A, and whereA is a ring of subsets of W, endowed with the supremum norm topology, is barrelled if and only if the vector space ba( A), of all bounded ﬁnitely additive scalar measures deﬁned on A equipped with the supremum norm topology, veriﬁes the Nikodým boundedness theorem, see ([11], p. 80). Furthermore, if A is a s-algebra, the space l (A) is barrelled, see ([11], p. 80) and [12]. Valdivia [13] improved this result: If (E ) is an increasing sequence of vector subspaces n n ¥ ¥ ¥ of l (A) covering l (A), then there is an E barrelled and dense in l (A). From this 0 0 0 property, suprabarrelled spaces are deﬁned, also known as (db) spaces in [14,15]. Interesting applications of suprabarrelled spaces can be found in [13,16] and ([17], Chapter 9). A p k natural generalization of suprabarrelled spaces are p-barrelled spaces. Let N := N , k=1 <¥ k N := N and recall, see [18] and ([19], Deﬁnition 3.2.1) that a p-net in a vector space k=1 E is a family W = E : t 2 N of vector subspaces of E, such that E = [fE : n 2 Ng, t n E E , E = fE : n 2 Ng, E E , for t 2 N , 1 r < p and n 2 N. n t t,n t,n n+1 t,n+1 <¥ Analogously, a linear web in E is a family W = fE : t 2 N g of vector subspaces of E, <¥ such that E = [fE : n 2 Ng, E E , E = fE : n 2 Ng, E E , for t 2 N n n t t,n t,n n+1 t,n+1 and n 2 N. All topological spaces are supposed to be Hausdorff and space will be used as an abbreviation of locally convex space, when misunderstanding is not possible. A locally p p convex space E is called p-barrelled if given a p-net W = E : t 2 N there is a t 2 N such that E is barrelled and dense in E (see [19], Deﬁnition 3.2.2). Note that suprabarrelled spaces are 1- barrelled spaces. We refer the reader to [20] for several applications of p- barrelled spaces, particularly in vector measures. The locally convex space E is @ -barrelled if it is p-barrelled, for each p 2 N (see [19], Deﬁnition 4.1.1) and E is baireled if each linear <¥ web W = fE : t 2 N g in E admits a strand formed by dense barrelled subspaces of E, i.e., there exists a sequence (n : i 2 N) such that E is a barrelled and dense subspace i n n n 1 2 i of E, for each i 2 N (see [21], Deﬁnition 1 and Theorem 1). It was proved in [22] that for a s-algebra A the space l (A) is baireled. Other related properties can be found in [23] and references therein. In this paper, it is assumed that the locally convex space X is metrizable, denot- ing by fk.k 2 Ng an increasing sequence of semi-norms deﬁning the topology of X, i.e., for every x 2 X, we have that kxk kxk , n 2 N. Then, the locally convex n n+1 space c (W, X) is metrizable and its topology is deﬁned by the semi-norms k fk = supfk f (w)k : w 2 Wg, n 2 N and f 2 c (W, X). Now for every f 2 c (W, X), its 0 0 support, i.e., supp f := fw 2 W : f (w) 6= 0g, is countable since fw 2 W : f (w) 6= 0g = Axioms 2022, 11, 6 3 of 9 n o ¥ 1 w 2 W : k f (w)k > and, by deﬁnition, for each # > 0 and n 2 N the set n,m=1 n m fw 2 W : k f (x)k > #g is ﬁnite or empty. The aim of the paper is to characterize those spaces c (W, X) which are baireled. We will prove that c (W, X) is baireled if and only if X is baireled (Theorem 2). In order to do this, we need the characterization for c (W, X) to be barrelled obtained in ([6], Corollary 2.4). For the sake of completeness, we will remind readers of this characterization in Section 2. If G is a subset of W, we denote by c (G, X) the linear subspace of c (W, X) consisting 0 0 of all functions f such that f (Wn G) = 0 . By V , we denote the linear hull of a subset V f g h i of a linear space X, and, if V is absolutely convex and bounded, then hVi is the normed space formed by hVi, endowed with the norm deﬁned by the functional of Minkowski of V. Recall that an absolutely convex bounded set V in X is a Banach disk if the normed space hVi is a Banach space, and that a locally convex space X is barrelled (quasibar- relled) if every closed absolutely convex and absorbing (and bornivorous) subset of E is a neighborhood of zero. Barrelled spaces are just the locally convex spaces that verify the Banach–Steinhaus boundedness theorem. Todd and Saxon [5] discovered an applicable and natural generalization of Baire spaces to locally convex spaces: A locally convex space X is called unordered Baire-like, if every sequence of absolutely convex and closed subsets of X covering X contains a member which is a neighborhood of zero. Finally, a locally convex space X is totally barrelled if for every sequence of subspaces (X ) of X covering n n2N X, there is some X which is barrelled and its closure is ﬁnite-codimensional in X, see ([19], Deﬁnition 1.4.1) and [24]. Note that Baire ) Unordered Baire-like ) Totally barrelled )Baireled ) @ -barrelled ) p + 1-barrelled ) p-barrelled ) Baire-like ) barrelled) quasibarrelled. Even for metrizable locally convex spaces,@ -barrelled;Baireled;Totally barrelled ([21], Theorems 2 and 3). 2. Revisiting Barrelledness in c (W, X) It is well known that, if j : E ! F is a continuous linear map from a Banach space E into a locally convex space F and D is the open unit ball of E, then the normed space hj(D)i is isometric to the quotient E/(j (0)), hence j(D) is a Banach disk. If B is the j(D) closed unit ball of E, then the inclusions D B 2D imply that j(B) is also a Banach disk. This well known property is used in the following lemmas. Lemma 1 ([6], Lemma 2.1). Let X be a metrizable locally convex space and ( f ) a bounded n n sequence in c (W, X) such that the set fn 2 N : f (w) 6= 0g is ﬁnite or empty for every w 2 W. 0 n Then, ( f ) is contained in a Banach disk. In particular, if W = N and supp( f ) Nf1, 2, ..., ng, n n n for each n 2 N, then also ( f ) is contained in a Banach disk. n n n o Proof. The boundedness implies that M = sup f : n 2 N is ﬁnite for each p 2 N. k k p n Then, for each fx : n 2 Ng 2 l , the inequality n 1 ¥ ¥ x f M jx j å n n p å n n=1 n=1 implies the continuity of the map j : l ! c (W, X) deﬁned by j( x : n 2 N ) := f g 1 0 n x f . Hence, if B is the closed unit ball of l , then j(B) is a Banach disk that contains å n n n=1 the sequence ( f ) . n n From Lemma 1, it follows that, if T is an absolutely convex subset of c (W, X) that absorbs its Banach disks, then there exists in W a countable subset D and a natural number n such that T absorbs f f 2 c (WD, X) : k fk 1g because, if this is not the case, there n1 exists a sequence ( f ) such that f 2 / T, f 2 c (W D , X)nT, for n 2, where n n n 0 1 i i=1 D := supp( f ), 1 i, and k f k 1 for n = 1, 2, ... The boundedness of f f : n 2 Ng and i i n n n Axioms 2022, 11, 6 4 of 9 Lemma 1 implies that there exists k 2 N such that f : n 2 N kT, which yields to the f g contradiction f 2 kT. Lemma 2 ([6], Lemma 2.1). Let T be an absolutely convex subset of c (W, X) that absorbs its Banach disks. Then, there exists in W a ﬁnite subset D and a natural number n such that T absorbs f f 2 c (WD, X) : k fk 1g. Proof. By the observation preceding this lemma, it is enough to prove that, if T is an absolutely convex subset of c (N, X) that absorbs its Banach disks, then there exists m 2 N such that T absorbs f f 2 c (Nf1, 2, ..., mg, X) : k fk 1g. Otherwise, there exists f 2 c (Nf1, 2, ..., ng, X)nT, with k f k 1, for each n 0 n n 2 N. By Lemma 1, there is h 2 N such that f f : n 2 Ng hT and we reach the contradiction f 2 hT. The above lemmas nicely apply to get the following characterization of barrelled c (W, X). Theorem 1 ([6], Corollary 2.4a). Let X be a metrizable locally convex space and W a non void set. Then, c (W, X) is barrelled if and only if X is barrelled. Proof. Fix p 2 W. As the quotient c (W, X)c (Wf pg, X) is isomorphic to X and bar- 0 0 relledness property is inherited by quotients, see ([25] [27.1 (4) and 28.4 (2)]), then, if c (W, X) is barrelled, we deduce that X is also barrelled. Conversely, if T is a barrel in c (W, X) and B is a Banach disk in c (W, X), it is obvious 0 0 that T contains a neighborhood of zero in the Banach space hBi , hence there exists a l > 0 such that lB T. Then, by Lemma 2, there exists in W a ﬁnite subset D such that T contains a neighborhood of zero in c (WD, X). Hence, if X is barrelled, T also contains a neighborhood of c (W, X) because the space c (W, X) is isomorphic to the 0 0 D D product c (WD, X) X , and X is barrelled. The analogous result of Theorem 1 for quasibarrelled, ultrabornological, bornological, unordered Baire like, totally barrelled, and barrelled spaces of class p are provided in ([6], Corollaries 2.4 and 2.5 and Theorem 3.7). The unordered Baire-like and the totally barrelled results need in their proofs the preceding lemmas and the following nice result ([5], The- orem 4.1): If the union of two countable families F and G of linear subspaces of a linear space E covers E, then one of them covers E. In fact, assume that there exists x 2 [fF : F 2 Fg, i i with x 2 / [ G : G 2 G , and there exists y 2 [ G : G 2 G , with y 2 / [fF : F 2 Fg. j j j j i i As the subset fx + t(y x) : t 2 Rg is uncountable, we may suppose that there exists F 2 F and t 6= t such that fx + t (y x) : n = 1, 2g F . This inclusion implies that 2 n i 1 i m m fx + t(y x) : t 2 Rg F because F is a linear subspace. In particular, for t = 1, we i i m m obtain that y 2 F , in contradiction with y 2 / [fF : F 2 Fg. i i i The fact that c (W, X) is barrelled of class p if and only if X is barrelled of class p, for each p 2 N, implies directly that c (W, X) is @ -barrelled if and only if X is @ -barrelled. 0 0 0 3. Baireledness In this section, we prove that the space c (W, X) is baireled if and only if X is baireled. Recall that a locally convex space E is baireled if each linear web in E contains a strand formed by Baire-like spaces [26] and that, if E is metrizable, then E is baireled if each linear web in E contains a strand formed by barrelled spaces. <¥ s Let T be a non-void subset of N := [fN : s 2 Ng and let t = (t , t , . . . , t ) be 1 2 p an element of T. The element t(i) := (t , t , . . . , t ), if 1 6 i 6 p, and t(i) := Æ if i > p, 1 i and the set T(i) := ft(i) : t 2 Tg are named the section of length i of t and T, respectively. n <¥ With this notation, a sequence (t : n 2 N) formed by elements of N is a strand if n+1 n <¥ t (n) = t (n), for each n 2 N. A non-void subset T of N is increasing if, for each Axioms 2022, 11, 6 5 of 9 i i t = (t , t , . . . , t ) 2 T, there exists p scalars t verifying t < t , for 1 6 i 6 p, such that 1 2 p i i i 1 i <¥ (t ) 2 T(1) and (t , t , . . . , t , t ) 2 T(i), 1 < i p. If s = (s , s , . . . , s ) 2 N then 1 2 i1 1 2 q 1 i (t, s) := (t , t , . . . , t , s , s , . . . , s ) 1 2 p 1 2 q <¥ The following deﬁnition provides a particular type of increasing subsets U of N considered in ([27], Deﬁnition 1) and named NV-trees, reminding readers of O.M. Nikodým and M. Valdivia. <¥ Deﬁnition 1. An NV-tree is a non-void increasing subset T of N without strands and such <¥ that, for each t = (t , t , . . . , t ) 2 T, the set fs 2 N : (t, s) 2 Tg is empty. 1 2 p The last condition means that elements of an NV-tree T do not have proper contin- uation in T. An NV-tree T is an inﬁnite subset of N if and only if T = T(1). The sets N , i 2 Nnf1g, and the set [f(i,N ) : i 2 Ng are non trivial NV-trees. <¥ <¥ If T is an increasing subset of N and fE : u 2 N g is a linear web in a space E, then (E ) is an increasing covering of B, and for each u = (u , u , . . . , u ) 2 T u2T 1 2 p u(1) and each i < p the sequence (B ) is an increasing covering of B . In u(i)n u(i)n2T(i+1) u(i) particular, if T is an NV-tree, then E = [fE : t 2 Tg because T does not contain strands. By deﬁnition, a locally convex space E is non baireled if there exists a linear web <¥ fE : t 2 N g without a strand formed by Baire-like spaces. In particular, a metrizable barrelled locally convex space E is non baireled if there exists a linear web without a strand formed by barrelled spaces because a metrizable space is barrelled if and only if it is Baire-like. Note that, if E , n 2 N is an increasing covering of a metrizable barrelled space E ( ) n 1 then, since E is Baire-like, we may suppose, without loss of generality that all subspaces E , n 2 N, are dense in E. Consequently, again because of denseness, if E is barrelled, n 1 n 1 1 then every E , with m n , is barrelled. m 1 1 <¥ Therefore, for a linear web fE : t 2 N g in a metrizable barrelled locally convex space E that is not baireled, we may suppose that every E is dense and barrelled or that every E is dense and not barrelled, for each n 2 N. The preceding process continues inductively only when we get barrelled spaces, i.e., if the dense subspace E is barrelled, then we may suppose that E , n 2 N, is a sequence of dense subspaces such that for n n 1 2 all E , n 2 N, are not barrelled, or all E , n 2 N, are barrelled; in the ﬁrst case, the n n 2 n n 2 1 2 1 2 inductive process stops and, in the second case, we continue with the increasing sequence <¥ (E , n 2 N). As the linear web fE : t 2 N g does not contain a strand formed by n n n 3 t 2 3 barrelled spaces, then this natural induction produces a NV-tree T, such that, for each t = (n , n , , n ) 2 T the space E is dense in E and not barrelled, and E is barrelled, 1 2 p t t(i) for each i < p. The following lemmas are part of the proof of Theorem 2. Therefore, those lemmas con- sider that E = c (W, X), with X metrizable. Moreover, we will suppose that the metrizable <¥ space c (W, X) is barrelled and not baireled, hence c (W, X) has a linear webfE : t 2 N g 0 0 without a strand formed by Baire-like spaces. With the preceding induction, we obtain a NV-tree T, such that, for each t = (n , n , , n ) 2 T, we have that E is a non p n n ...n 1 2 1 2 p barrelled dense subspace of c (W, X), hence there exists a barrel T in E that it 0 n n ...n n n ...n 2 p 2 p 1 1 is no neighborhood of zero in E . With the barrels T , with (n , n , , n ) 2 T, n n ...n n n ...n 1 2 p 1 2 p 1 2 p we form D E Z := T and S = Z , (1) n n ...n n n ...n n n ...n n n ...n m 1 2 p 1 2 p 1 2 p 1 2 p1 m=n and ¥ ¥ [ \ Z := S and S := Z , (2) n n ...n n n ...n n n n ...n n n ...n m 1 2 p1 1 2 p1 p 1 2 p1 1 2 p2 m=n n =1 p1 and ﬁnally ¥ ¥ [ \ Z = S and S = Z . (3) n n n n m 1 1 2 1 m=n n =1 1 2 Axioms 2022, 11, 6 6 of 9 A NV-tree T contained in a NV-tree T is coﬁnal in T if T (1) is a coﬁnal subset of 1 1 T(1) and for each (n , n , , n ) 2 T (i) the set fm : (n , n , , n , m) 2 T (i + 1)g is a 1 2 i 1 1 2 i 1 coﬁnal subset of fm : (n , n , , n , m) 2 T(i + 1)g. Note that, if T is coﬁnal in T and 1 2 i 1 F Z , for every t 2 T , then F S , for every m 2 T (1). t m 1 1 1 In the following four lemmas, we suppose the following conditions hold: ( H): X is a metrizable locally convex space such that c (W, X) is barrelled but not <¥ baireled, being fE : t 2 N g a linear web in c (W, X) without a strand formed by t 0 barrelled spaces and T the NV-tree such that for each t 2 T there exists a barrel T in E t t which is not a neighborhood of zero in E and E is a dense subspace of c (W, X). t t 0 With these barrels T , with t = (n , n , ..., n ) 2 T, we form the sets Z , S , t p n n ...n n n ...n 1 2 1 2 p 1 2 p , Z and S , given in (1)–(3). n n 1 1 Lemma 3. Assume conditions ( H) hold and let F be a linear subspace of E, t a locally convex topology in F ﬁner (or equal) than the topology induced by E, and such that (F, t) is baireled. Then, there exists m 2 N such that F S for n m . 1 n 1 1 In particular, if D is a Banach disk contained in E, there exists m 2 N such that hDi S , for n m . 1 1 Proof. By deﬁnition of baireled, it follows that, if (E , n 2 N) is an increasing covering of a baireled space E, then there exists a set N coﬁnal in N such that E is baireled and 1 n dense in E, for each n 2 N (see ([21], Theorem 1) adding the trivial fact that, if a baireled space H is dense in the space G, then G is baireled). Hence, there exists an NV-tree T that is coﬁnal in T such that fF\ E : t 2 T g is a family of baireled dense subspaces of (F, t). Then, for each t 2 T , the set F\ T is a neighborhood of zero in F\ E endowed with the 1 t t (F,t) topology induced by t, hence, by denseness, F\ T is a neighborhood of zero in (F, t), D E D E (F,t) E so F = F\ T T = Z , if t 2 T . Then, if m 2 T (1), we have that F S t t t n 1 1 1 for n m . 1 1 Lemma 4. If conditions ( H) hold, there exists in W a countable subset D (possibly empty) and m 2 N such that c (Wn D, X) S if n m . 1 0 n 1 1 Proof. Assume the conclusion fails. Then, we can ﬁnd f 2 c (W, X) such that k f k 1 1 0 1 and f 2 / S . Since the set D = supp( f ) is countable, we deduce that c (Wn D , X) * S 1 1 1 1 0 1 2 and we ﬁnd f 2 c (Wn D , X) with k f k 1 and f 2 / S . Since D = supp( f ) is count- 2 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 able, c (Wn (D [ D ), X) * S , which implies that there exists f 2 c (Wn (D [ D ), X) 0 1 2 3 3 0 1 2 with k f k 1 and f 2 / S . 3 3 3 By induction, we obtain the sequence ( f ) such that n n f f : n 2 Ng * S n m m=1 and, by Lemma 1, this sequence is contained in a Banach disk D. Then, by Lemma 3, there exists S such that f f : n 2 Ng D S , n p in contradiction with f 2 / S . p p Lemma 5. Assume conditions ( H) hold. Then, there exists in W a ﬁnite subset D (possibly empty) and m 2 N such that c (Wn D, X) S if n m 1 0 n 1 1 Proof. Applying Lemma 4, it is enough to prove this lemma for W = N. It is necessary to prove the existence of an i 2 N such that c (Nf1, 2, ..., ig, X) S . Suppose this i Axioms 2022, 11, 6 7 of 9 is not true. Then, by induction, we ﬁnd a sequence ( f ) in c (N, X) such that f 2 n n 0 i c (Nf1, 2, ..., ig, X)S with k f k 1. It is clear that 0 i i f f : n 2 Ng * S n m m=1 and, by Lemma 1, this sequence is contained in a Banach disk D. By Lemma 3, there exists S such that f f : n 2 Ng D S , in contradiction with f 2 / S . p n p p p Lemma 6. Let us suppose that conditions ( H) hold. If X is baireled, then there exists a NV-tree T coﬁnal in T such that c (W, X) = S , if n , n , ....., n 2 T . n n ...n p 1 0 p 1 2 1 1 2 Proof. It is obvious that we only need to prove that there exists n such that c (W, X) = S . 1 0 n By Lemma 5, it is enough to show that, given a ﬁnite subset D of W, there exists m such that c (D, X) S . However, this follows from Lemma 3 and the trivial facts that c D, X ( ) 0 m 0 and X are isomorphic and that the ﬁnite product of baireled spaces is baireled ([21], Proposition 7). Theorem 2. Let X be a metrizable locally convex space and W a non void set. Then, c (W, X) is baireled if and only if X is baireled. Proof. Assume that X is baireled and that the metrizable space c (W, X) is not baireled. Then, by Theorem 1, the space c (W, X) is barrelled, hence there exists a linear T-web W := fE : t 2 T(i), i 2 Ng in c (W, X) consisting of dense subspaces such that, for each t 0 t 2 T, there exists a barrel T in E which is not a neighborhood of zero in E . By Lemma 6, t t t D E E E there is t 2 T such that c (W, X) = T and the barrelledness implies that T is a 0 t t neighborhood of zero in c (D, X). Then, we get the contradiction that E \ T = T is a 0 t t t neighborhood of zero in E . Therefore, the assumption that X baireled implies that c (W, X) t 0 is baireled. The converse follows from the trivial facts that for p 2 W the quotient c (W, X)c (W p , X) f g 0 0 is isomorphic to X and that the baireledness is inherited by quotients ([21], 5 Permanence properties of Baireled spaces). We apply Theorem 2 to get the following closed graph theorem for baireled spaces. Theorem 3. Let X be a metrizable baireled locally convex space and let F be a locally convex space <¥ that contains a linear web fF : t 2 N g such that F admits a topology t ﬁner than the topology t t t <¥ induced by F so that (F , t ) is a Fréchet space, for each t 2 N . Let f be a linear map from t t <¥ c (W, X) into F with closed graph. There exists in N a strand (t : n 2 N) such that f is a 0 n continuous mapping from c (W, X) into (F , t ), for each n 2 N. 0 t t n n 1 <¥ Proof. Let E := f (F ) for each t 2 N . By Theorem 2, there exists a strand (t : n 2 N) t t n such that each E is barrelled and dense in c (W, X). The map f restricted to f (F ) has t 0 t closed graph. By ([28], Theorems 1 and 14), this restriction admits a continuous extension U to c (W, X) with values in (F , t ) and clearly f = U. 0 t t <¥ This theorem is correct if we replace “Fréchet space, for each t 2 N ” by “G -space, <¥ for each t 2 N ” (see [28]). Recall that every B -space, in particular every Fréchet space, is a G -space. Reference [29] contains very interesting properties. 4. Open Problems Problem 1. Let X be a metrizable Baire locally convex space. Is c (W, X) a Baire space? 0 Axioms 2022, 11, 6 8 of 9 The converse is true because, if X is not a Baire space, then X is not a space of the second Baire category, and if ( A ) is a sequence of closed subsets of X with empty interior n n covering X and p is a ﬁxed point of W the sets B = f f 2 c (W, X) : f ( p) 2 A g, n 2 N, n 0 n deﬁne a cover of c (W, X) of closed sets with empty interior. Hence, for such X, the space c (W, X) is not Baire. Let W be a Hausdorff completely regular space and X be a locally convex space. Then, C (W, X) denotes the linear space of continuous functions on W with values in X, endowed with the compact-open topology. In 1954, Nachbin and Shirota characterized the spaces W for which C (W) := C (W,R) is barrelled and bornological; in 1958, Warner characterized c c the spaces W for which C (W) is quasibarrelled ([30], Propositions 2.15 and 2.16). Mendoza solved in [31] the corresponding problems for barrelled and quasibarrelled spaces C (W, X), proving that, if X contains an inﬁnite compact subset, then C (W, X) is barrelled [resp. quasibarrelled] if and only if C (W) and X are barrelled [resp. quasibarrelled] and such that the strong dual of X has the property (B) of Pietsch. Problem 2. Characterize when C (W, X) is p-barrelled, @ -barrelled or baireled. c 0 Author Contributions: The authors S.L.-A., M.L.-P., S.M.-L. contributed equally to this work. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. Funding: This research was funded for the second named author by grant PGC2018-094431-B-I00 of Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities of Spain. Acknowledgments: The authors thank Hari Mohan Srivastava for his invitation to write a featured paper in his Topical Collection “Mathematical Analysis and Applications” in Axioms. Conﬂicts of Interest: The authors declare no conﬂict of interest. References 1. Marquina, A.; Sanz-Serna, J.M. Barrelledness conditions on c (E). Arch. Math. 1978, 31, 589–596. [CrossRef] 2. Mendoza, J. A barrelledness criterion for C (E). Arch. Math. 1983, 40, 156–158. [CrossRef] 3. Pietsch, A. Nuclear Locally Convex Spaces; Ergebnisse der Mathematik und ihrer Grenzgebiete, Band 66; Springer: New York, NY, USA; Heidelberg, Germany, 1972. Available online: https://link.springer.com/book/9783642876677 (accessed on 22 December 2021). 4. Ferrando, J.C.; Lüdkovsky, S.V. Some barrelledness properties of c (W, X). J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2002, 274, 577–585. [CrossRef] 5. Todd, A.R.; Saxon, S.A. A property of locally convex Baire spaces. Math. Ann. 1973, 206, 23–34. [CrossRef] 6. Ka ¸ kol, J.; López Pellicer, M.; Moll-López, S. Banach disks and barrelledness properties of metrizable c (W, X). Mediterr. J. Math. 2004, 1, 81–91. [CrossRef] 7. Ferrando, J.C.; Kakol, J.; López-Pellicer, M. On a problem of Horváth concerning barrelled spaces of vector valued continuous functions vanishing at inﬁnity. Bull. Belg. Math. Soc. Simon Stevin 2004, 11, 127–132. [CrossRef] 8. Bennet, G.; Kalton, N. Inclusion theorems for K-spaces. Canad. J. Math. 1973, 25, 511–524. [CrossRef] 9. Valdivia, M. Topics in Locally Convex Spaces; North-Holland Mathematics Studies 67; North-Holland Publishing Co.: Amsterdam, The Nrtherlands; New York, NY, USA, 1982. Available online: https://www.sciencedirect.com/bookseries/north-holland- mathematics-studies/vol/67/suppl/C (accessed on 22 December 2021). 10. Saxon, S.A. Some normed barrelled spaces which are not Baire. Math. Ann. 1974, 209, 153–170. [CrossRef] 11. Diestel, J. Sequences and Series in Banach Spaces; Graduate Texts in Mathematics 92; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 1984. Available online: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4612-5200-9 (accessed on 22 December 2021). 12. Schachermayer, W. On some classical measure-theoretic theorems for non s-complete Boolean algebras. Dissert. Math. 1982, 214, 1–36. 13. Valdivia, M. On certain barrelled normed spaces. Ann. Inst. Fourier 1979, 29, 39–56. [CrossRef] 14. Robertson, W.J.; Tweddle, I.; Yeomans, F.E. On the stability of barrelled topologies III. Bull. Austral. Math. Soc. 1980, 22, 99–112. [CrossRef] 15. Saxon, S.A.; Narayanaswani, P.P. Metrizable (LF)-spaces, (db)-spaces and the separable quotient problem. Bull. Austral. Math. Soc. 1981, 23, 65–80. [CrossRef] 16. Valdivia, M. On suprabarrelled spaces. In Functional Analysis, Holomorphy, and Approximation Theory, Proceedings of the Seminário de Análise Funcional, Holomorﬁa e Teoria da Aproximação, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 7–11 August 1978; Lecture Notes in Mathematics; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 1981; Volume 843, pp. 572–580. Available online: https: //link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/BFb0089291 (accessed on 22 December 2021). Axioms 2022, 11, 6 9 of 9 17. Pérez Carreras, P.; Bonet, J. Barrelled Locally Convex Spaces; North-Holland Mathematics Studies 131; North-Holland Publishing Co.: Amsterdam, The Netherlands, 1987. Available online: https://www.elsevier.com/books/barrelled-locally-convex-spaces/ perez-carreras/978-0-444-70129-9 (accessed on 22 December 2021). 18. Ferrando, J.C.; López-Pellicer, M. Strong barrelledness properties in l (X, A) and bounded ﬁnite additive measures. Math. Ann. 1990, 287, 727–736. [CrossRef] 19. Ferrando, J.C.; López Pellicer, M.; Sánchez Ruiz, L.M. Metrizable Barrelled Spaces; Pitman Research Notes in Mathematics Series 332; Longman: Harlow, UK, 1995. [CrossRef] 20. Ferrando, J.C.; Sánchez Ruiz, L.M. A survey on recent advances on the Nikodým boundedness theorem and spaces of simple functions. Rocky Mt. J. Math. 2004, 34, 139–172. [CrossRef] 21. Ferrando, J.C.; Sánchez Ruiz, L.M. A maximal class of spaces with strong barrelledness conditions. Proc. R. Ir. Acad. Sect. A 1992, 92, 69–75. [CrossRef] 22. López-Pellicer, M. Webs and bounded additive measures. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 1997, 210, 257–267. 1997.5401. [CrossRef] 23. López-Alfonso, S.; López-Pellicer, M.; Moll-López, S. On Four Classical Measure Theorems. Mathematics 2021, 9, 526. [CrossRef] 24. Valdivia, M.; Pérez Carreras, P. On totally barrelled spaces. Math. Z. 1981, 178, 263–269. [CrossRef] 25. Köthe, G. Topological Vector Spaces I; Grundlehren der Mathematischen Wissenschaften 159; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 1979. Available online: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-642-64988-2 (accessed on 22 December 2021). 26. Saxon, S.A. Nuclear and product spaces, Baire-like spaces and the strongest locally convex topology. Math. Ann. 1972, 197, 87–106. [CrossRef] 27. López-Alfonso, S.; Mas, J.; Moll-López, S. Nikodym boundedness property for webs in s-algebras. Rev. R. Acad. Cienc. Exactas Fís. Nat. Ser. A Mat. RACSAM 2016, 110, 711–722. [CrossRef] 28. Valdivia, M. Sobre el teorema de la gráﬁca cerrada. Collect. Math. 1971, 22, 51–72. 29. de Wilde, M. Closed Graph Theorems and Webbed Spaces; Research Notes in Mathematics 19; Pitman (Advanced Publishing Program): Boston, MA, USA; London, UK, 1978. 30. Kakol, ˛ J.; Kubis, ´ W.; López-Pellicer, M. Descriptive Topology in Selected Topics of Functional Analysis; Developments in Mathematics, 24; Springer: New York, NY, USA, 2011. Available online: https://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-1-4614-0529-0 (accessed on 22 December 2021). 31. Mendoza, J. Necessary and sufﬁcient conditions for C(X; E) to be barrelled or infrabarrelled. Simon Stevin 1983, 57, 103–123.

Axioms – Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute

**Published: ** Dec 23, 2021

**Keywords: **Banach disk; Baire-like; barrelled; metrizable; p-barrelled; ultrabornological; unordered Baire-like

Loading...

You can share this free article with as many people as you like with the url below! We hope you enjoy this feature!

Read and print from thousands of top scholarly journals.

System error. Please try again!

Already have an account? Log in

Bookmark this article. You can see your Bookmarks on your DeepDyve Library.

To save an article, **log in** first, or **sign up** for a DeepDyve account if you don’t already have one.

Copy and paste the desired citation format or use the link below to download a file formatted for EndNote

Access the full text.

Sign up today, get DeepDyve free for 14 days.

All DeepDyve websites use cookies to improve your online experience. They were placed on your computer when you launched this website. You can change your cookie settings through your browser.