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axioms Article Local Spectral Theory for R and S Satisfying n n j R SR = R Salvatore Triolo Dipartimento di Ingegneria, Università di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, I-90128 Palermo, Italy; salvatore.triolo@unipa.it Received: 8 August 2020; Accepted: 14 October 2020; Published: 19 October 2020 Abstract: In this paper, we analyze local spectral properties of operators R, S and RS which satisfy n n j n n j the operator equations R SR = R and S RS = S for same integers j n 0. We also continue to study the relationship between the local spectral properties of an operator R and the local spectral properties of S. Thus, we investigate the transmission of some local spectral properties from R to S and we illustrate our results with an example. The theory is exempliﬁed in some cases. Keywords: local spectral subspaces; Dunford’s property (C) and property (b); Drazin invertible operators 1. Introduction In this paper, we continue the analysis undertaken in [1–6] on the general problem of study the local spectral properties for R, S, RS and SR 2 L(X) in the case R and S satisfy the operator n n j equations R SR = R for same integers j n 0. Following the procedure of [1], we study the n n jn relationship of Dunford property (C) for products R S and SR for operator R 2 L(X) which satisfy the operator equations n jn SR = R for same integers j n 0, (1) and hence n n j R SR = R for same integers j n 0. (2) The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2, to keep the paper sufﬁciently self-contained, we collect some preliminary deﬁnitions and propositions that are used in what follows. In Section 3, we show some results concerning the transmission of some local spectral properties from R to S. In Section 4, we give an example that plays a crucial role for the theory. The ﬁnal considerations are given in Section 5. 2. Notation and Complementary Results A bounded operator T 2 L(X) on a complex inﬁnite dimensional Banach space X is said to have the single valued extension property at l 2 C. In short, T has the SVEP at l , if for every open disc D o o l centered at l the only analytic function f : D ! X which satisﬁes the equation (l I T) f (l) = 0 (3) is the constant function f 0. T is said to have the SVEP if T has the SVEP for every l 2 C. Axioms 2020, 9, 120; doi:10.3390/axioms9040120 www.mdpi.com/journal/axioms Axioms 2020, 9, 120 2 of 8 To facilitate the reader, we remember that the SVEP is a typical tool of the local spectral theory. If r (x) denote the local resolvent set of T at the point x 2 X, deﬁned as the union of all open subsets U of C for which there exists an analytic function f : U ! X that satisﬁes (l I T) f (l) = x for all l 2 U (4) then the local spectrum s (x) of T at x is deﬁned by s (x) := Cn r (x), T T and, obviously, s (x) s(T), where s(T) denotes the spectrum of T. Remark 1. Let l 2 r (x) and U denotes an open neighborhood of l. If f : U ! X satisﬁes the equation (l I T) f (m) = x on U , then s ( f (l)) = s (x) for all l 2 U (see [7], Lemma 1.2.14). Moreover, T T 0 2 s (x) if and only if l 2 s (x). l IT T Theorem 1. Let T 2 L(X), X a Banach space. Then, T has SVEP if and only if every 0 6= x 2 X the local spectrum s (x) is non-empty. Proof. See ([7], Proposition 1.2.16). The SVEP has a decisive role in local spectral theory it has a certain interest to ﬁnd conditions for which an operator has the SVEP. Deﬁnition 1. Let T is a linear operator on a vector space X. The hyperrange of T is the subspace ¥ n T (X) := T (X). n2N ¥ ¥ Generally, T(T (X)) T (X), thus we are interested in ﬁnding conditions for which ¥ ¥ T(T (X)) = T (X). For every linear operator T on a vector space X, there corresponds the two chains: 0 2 f0g = ker T ker T ker T . and 0 2 X = T (X) T(X) T (X) . The ascent of T is the smallest positive integer p = p(T), whenever it exists, such that p p+1 ker T = ker T . If such p does not exist, we let p = +¥. Analogously, the descent of T is deﬁned q+1 q to be the smallest integer q = q(T), whenever it exists, such that T (X) = T (X). If such q does not exist, we let q = +¥. It is possible to prove that, if p(T) and q(T) are both ﬁnite, then p(T) = q(T). Note that p(T) = 0 means that T is injective, and q(T) = 0 that T is surjective. Theorem 2. If T 2 L(X) and X is a Banach space, then T does not have the SVEP at 0 ) p(T) = ¥. (5) As noted in [1] (Lemma 1.1), the local spectrum of T x and x may differ only at 0, i.e., For every T 2 L(X) and x 2 X, we have s (T x) s (x) s (T x)[f0g. (6) T T T Axioms 2020, 9, 120 3 of 8 Moreover, if T is injective, then s (T x) = s (x) for all x 2 X. (7) T T For every subset F C, the analytic spectral subspace of T associated with F is the set X (F) := fx 2 X : s (x) Fg T T For every subset F C, the global spectral subspace X (F) consists of all x 2 X for which there exists an analytic function f : Cn F ! X that satisﬁes (l I T) f (l) = x for all l 2 Cn F. (8) In general, X (F) X (F) for every closed sets F C. The identity X (F) = X (F) holds for all T T T T closed sets F C whenever T has SVEP, precisely. T has SVEP if and only if X (F) = X (F) holds for T T all closed sets F C. Deﬁnition 2. The analytical core K(l I T) of l I T is the set K(l I T) := X (Cnflg) = fx 2 X : l 62 s (x)g (9) T T The analytic core of an operator T is an invariant subspace, which, in general, is not closed [8]. Deﬁnition 3. An operator T 2 L(X) is said to be upper semi-Fredholm, T 2 F (X), if T(X) is closed and the kernel kerT is ﬁnite-dimensional. An operator T 2 L(X) is said to be lower semi-Fredholm, T 2 F (X) if the range T(X) has ﬁnite codimension. Deﬁnition 4. An operator T 2 L(X) is said to be Drazin invertible if there exist C 2 Ł(X) such that m m+1 1. T (X) = T C for some integer m 0; 2. C = TC ; and 3. TC = CT In this case, C is called Drazin inverse of T and the smallest m 0 in (4) is called the index i(T) of T. n n j 3. Operator Equation R SR = R As mentioned in the Introduction, in this section, we show some results concerning the transmission of some local spectral properties from R to S. We study the relationship between the local spectral properties of an operator R and the local spectral properties S, if this exists. In particular, we study a reciprocal relationship, analogous to that of (2). We also show that many local spectral properties, such as SVEP and Dunford property (C), are transferred from operator R to S somehow through a bond. While these properties are, in general, not preserved under sums and products of commuting operators, we obtain positive results in the case of our perturbations. n n j We suppose that R, S 2 Ł(X) satisfy R SR = R for some integers j n 0. The case n = 2 and j = 1 is studied in [1,9,10]; if n = j = 1, the operators A and B are relatively regular. Moreover, if T 2 Ł(X) is Drazin invertible operator with i(T) = k, then, by (4), 2k+1 k+1 k+1 T = T CT . Therefore, in this case, j = 2k + 1 and n = k + 1. Axioms 2020, 9, 120 4 of 8 Lemma 1. For every x 2 X, we have s (R x) s n(x). (10) jn SR Moreover, n n n n n s (SR x) s (x), s (SR x) s (R x) (11) jn jn SR SR R R Proof. Suppose that l 2 r n(x); then, there exists an open neighborhood U if l and an analytic 0 SR 0 0 function f : U ! X such that (l I SR ) f (l) = x for all l 2 U . (12) From this, it then follows that n n n n n n R x = R (l I SR ) f (l) = (lR R SR ) f (l) n j jn n = (lR R ) f (l) = (l I R )R f (l), for all l 2 U . Hence, l 2 r (R x); thus, o jn s jn(R x) s (x). SR To show the ﬁrst inclusion (11), let l 2 r (x); then, there exists an open neighborhood U of jn 0 o l and an analytic function f : U ! X such that jn (l I R ) f (l) = x for all l 2 U . 0 0 Consequently, n n jn n j SR x = SR (l I R ) f (l) = (lSR SR ) f (l) n n n n 2 = (lSR SR SR ) f (l) = (lSR [SR ] ) f (l) n n = (l I SR )SR f (l), n n for all l 2 U , and since SR f (l) is analytic, we obtain l 2 r n(SR x). Hence, this shows the 0 0 SR ﬁrst inclusion of (11). To show the second inclusion, let l 2 r (R x); then, there exists an open jn neighborhood U of l and an analytic function f : U ! X such that o o jn n (l I R ) f (l) = R x for all l 2 U . 0 0 Consequently, the argument is similar to that ﬁrst part. Theorem 3. Suppose that F is a closed subset of C and 0 2 F . Then, X (F) is closed if and only if jn X n(F) is closed. SR Proof. Suppose that X (F) is closed and let (x ) be a sequence of X n(F) which converges to x 2 X. SR Then, for every m 2 N, we have s n(x ) F . By (10), we have s (R x ) F . Since 0 2 F , by jn SR m m jn n j j (6) where T = R , we have s (R x ) s (R x )[f0g F . Therefore, R x 2 X (F) i.e., jn m jn m m Jn R R R jn n n R R x 2 X (F). By [9] (Lemma 2.3) , R x 2 X (F) and by assumption X (F) is closed. Jn Jn jn m m R R We then have R x 2 X (F), i.e., s (x) F . By (11), jn jn R R s (SR x) s (x) F . jn SR Then, SR x 2 X n(F), by [9] (Lemma 2.3) x 2 X n(F), thus X n(F) is closed. Conversely, SR SR SR suppose that X n(F) is closed and let (x ) be a sequence of X (F) which converges to x 2 X; m jn SR R Axioms 2020, 9, 120 5 of 8 n n then, s (x ) F for every m 2 N. By (11), s n(SR x ) F , and then SR x 2 X n(F). jn m SR m m SR By [9] (Lemma 2.3) x 2 X n(F), therefore x 2 X n(F). Hence, s n(x) F . Since by (10) SR SR SR n jn J jn s (R y) s n(y) for all y 2 X, then, if y = R x, we have s (R x) s n(R x). By (6), jn jn SR SR R R we have jn j jn s (R x) s (R x)[f0g s (R x)[f0g jn jn SR R R j n 2 s n(SR x)[f0g s n[(SR ) x][f0g SR SR n n s (SR x)[f0g s (x)[f0g F SR SR jn jn jn i.e., R x 2 X jn(F). Hence, s jn(R x) F i.e., R x 2 X jn(F). By [9] (Lemma 2.3) R R R x 2 X (F). jn The following result is inspired by [1] and ([11], Theorem 2.1). n n j jn Lemma 2. Let S, R 2 L(X) be such that R SR = R for same integers j n 0. If R has SVEP, n n then SR and R S have SVEP. n n jn Proof. By ([12], Proposition 2.1), SR has SVEP if and only if R S has Svep. Suppose that R has SVEP at l and let f : U ! X be an analytic function for which (l I SR ) f (l) = 0 for all lU . Then, 0 0 0 SR f (l) = l f (l). n n R (l I SR ) f (l) = n j jn n (lR R ) f (l) = (l I R )R f (l) = 0. jn n n The SVEP of R at l implies that R f (l) = 0 and hence SR f (l) = l f (l) = 0. Thus, if 0 62 U , 0 0 then f (l) = 0 for l 6= 0 and by continuity f (0) = 0. Therefore, SR has SVEP at l . We now consider the case where 0 62 F n n j Theorem 4. Let F be a closed subset of C such that 0 62 F . Suppose that R, S 2 Ł(X) satisfy R SR = R jn for some integers j n 0 and R has SVEP. If X (F) is closed, then X n(F) is closed. jn SR Proof. Let F := F [f0g; by assumption, X (F ) is closed. By (3), X n(F ) is closed. By (2), SR jn 1 1 SR 1 has SVEP; therefore, by ([9], Lemma 1.4), X (F) is closed. SR Deﬁnition 5. An operator T 2 L(X) is said to have Dunford’s property (abbreviated property (C)) if X (F) is closed for every closed set F C It is known that Dunford property (C) entails SVEP for T. n n j jn Theorem 5. Let S, R 2 L(X) be such that R SR = R for some integers j n 0. If R has the property n n (C), then SR and R S have the property (C). jn jn Proof. Suppose that F is a closed set and R has property (C); then, R has SVEP. If 0 2 F , by (3) and by assumptions X (F) is closed, it follows that X n(F) is closed. Similarly, if 0 62 F , then by jn SR (4) we have that X n(F [f0g) is closed. Therefore, SR has property (C). SR We prove that somehow there exists a bond, i.e., SR and RS share Dunford’s property (C) when n n j R SR = R for same integers j n 0. Axioms 2020, 9, 120 6 of 8 Deﬁnition 6. An operator T 2 L(X) is said to have property (Q) if the quasi-nilpotent part H (l I T) of l I T deﬁned by n 1/n H (l I T) := fx 2 X : lim supk(l I T) xk = 0g n!¥ is closed for every l 2 C. It is known that Property(C) ) Property(Q) ) SV EP, and moreover for operator T we have X (l) = H (l I T). T 0 Then, if T has SVEP, X (l) = X (l) = H (l I T). (13) T T 0 Every multiplier of a semi-simple commutative Banach algebra has property (Q), see ([13], Theorem 1.8), in particular every convolution operator T , m 2 M(G), on the group algebra L (G) has m 1 property (Q), but there are convolution operators which do not enjoy property (C) (see [7], Chapter 4). Observe that, if T has property (Q) and f is an injective analytic function deﬁned on an open neighborhood U of s(T), then f (T) also has property (Q). To see this, recall ﬁrst that the equality X (F) = X ( f (F)) (14) f (T) holds for every closed subset of C and every analytic function f on an open neighborhood U of s(T), see ([7], Theorem 3.3.6). Now, to show that f (T) has property (Q) amd f is injective, we have to prove that H (l I f (T)) is closed for every l 2 C. If l 2 / s( f (T)), then H (l I f (T)) = f0g, while, 0 0 if l 2 s( f (T)) = f (s(T)), then H (l I f (T)) = X (flg) = X ( f flg) = H (m I T), 0 T 0 f (T) where f (l) = m, and, consequently, H (l I f (T)) is closed. In particular, considering the function f (l) := , we see that, if T is invertible and has property (Q), then its inverse has property (Q). Furthermore, property (Q) for T implies property (Q) for T , for every n 2 N. n n j jn Theorem 6. Let S, R 2 L(X) be such that R SR = R for some integers j n 0. If R has the property (Q), then SR has the property (Q). jn jn n Proof. Suppose that R has property (Q). Then, R has SVEP, hence by Lemma 2 SR has SVEP. jn Therefore, by (13) and by assumption, H (l I R ) = X (flg) is closed for every l 2 C. By (13) jn and (3), H (SR ) = X n(f0g) is closed. Following the procedure of [1], let 0 6= l 2 C; by ([7], 0 SR Proposition 3.3.1, part (f)) we have jn jn X (flg[f0g) = X (flg) + X (f0g) = H(l I R ) + H (R ). jn jn jn 0 0 R R R jn jn Since R is upper semi-Fredholm, the SVEP at 0 implies that H (R ) is ﬁnite-dimensional (see [8], Theorem 3.18). Then, X (flg[f0g) is closed. By Theorem 5, we then have jn H (l I SR ) = X nflg 0 SR is closed, therefore SR has property Q. Following the procedure of [1] (Theorem 3), it is possible to prove the following: n n j Theorem 7. Let S, R 2 L(X) be such that R SR = R for same integers j n 0. Axioms 2020, 9, 120 7 of 8 jn n 1. (i) If 0 6= l 2 C, then K(l I R ) is closed if and only K(l I SR ) is closed, or equivalently K(l I R S) is closed. jn jn n 2. (ii) If R is injective, then K(l I R ) is closed if and only K(l I SR ) is closed, or equivalently K(l I R S) is closed for all l 2 C. n n j j J n Corollary 1. Suppose R SR = R , S RS = S , for some integers j n 0 and l 6= 0. Then, the following statements are equivalent: 1. K(l I R ) is closed. 2. K(l I SR ) is closed. 3. K(l I R S) is closed. 4. K(l I S ) is closed. When R is injective, the equivalence also holds for l 6= 0. Proof. The equivalence of (3) and (4) follows from Theorem 3. Since, the injectivity of R is equivalent to the injectivity of S, the equivalence of (1) and (4) also holds for l = 0. We show now that property (Q) is also transmitted between operators R into S. Let S, R 2 L(X) be n n j jn such that R SR = R for some integers j n 0. If R has the property (Q) and R has the property n n (Q), then SR has the property (Q), therefore S has the property (Q), thus S has the property (Q). 4. Example: Drazin Invertible Operators In this section, we give an example that plays a crucial role for the theory, of operators R, S 2 Ł(X) n n j that satisfy the equation R CR = R for some integers j n 0. In the literature, the concept of invertibility admits several generalizations. Another generalization of the notion of invertibility, which satisﬁes the relationships of "reciprocity" observed above, is provided by the concept of Drazin invertibility. The concept of Drazin invertibility has been introduced in a more abstract setting than operator theory [14]. In the case of the Banach algebra L(X), R 2 L(X) is said to be Drazin invertible (with a ﬁnite index) if there exists an operator S 2 L(X) and n 2 N such that n n RS = SR, SRS = S, R SR = R . (15) The smallest nonnegative integer n such that (15) holds is called the index i(R) of R. In this case, the operator S is called Drazin inverse of R. Clearly, in this case, n n n n1 n n1 j R SR = R SRR = R R = R for same integers j = 2n 1 > n 0. (16) Clearly, any invertible operator or a nilpotent operator R is Drazin invertible. 5. Conclusions In this paper we give a proof that the operators S and R share property (Q) and in some modes Dunford’s property (C); we prove further results concerning the local spectral theory of R, S, RS and SR, in particular we show several results concerning the quasi-nilpotent parts and the analytic cores of these operators. It should be noted that these results are established in a very general framework. Therefore, we hope to discuss some aspect in a further paper. Funding: This work was partly supported by G.N.A.M.P.A.-INdAM and by the University of Palermo. Acknowledgments: The author thanks the referees for their careful reading and comments on the original draft. Their suggestions have greatly contributed to improve the ﬁnal form of this article. Conﬂicts of Interest: I have no competing interests. Axioms 2020, 9, 120 8 of 8 References 1. Aiena, P.; Gonzalez, M. Local Spectral Theory For Operators R And S Satisfying RSR = R . Extr. Math. 2016, 31, 37–46. 2. Aiena, P.; Triolo, S. Local spectral theory for Drazin invertible operators. J. Math. Anal. Appl. 2016, 435, 414–424. [CrossRef] 3. Aiena, P. The Weyl-Browder spectrum of a multiplier Contemp. Math. 1999, 232, 13–21. 4. Aiena, P.; Triolo, S. Weyl-Type Theorems on Banach Spaces Under Compact Perturbations. Mediterr. J. Math. 2018, 15, 126. [CrossRef] 5. Aiena, P.; Triolo, S. Fredholm Spectra and Weyl Type Theorems for Drazin Invertible Operators. Mediterr. J. Math. 2016 13, 4385–4400. [CrossRef] 6. Aiena, P.; Triolo, S. Projections and isolated points of parts of the spectrum. Adv. 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Drazin, M.P. Pseudoinverse in associative rings and semigroups. Am. Math. Mon. 1958, 65, 506–514. [CrossRef] Publisher’s Note: MDPI stays neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional afﬁliations. c 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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Published: Oct 19, 2020
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