Nickel Alloying in Carbon Steel: Fundamentals and Applications
Nickel is an important and widely used alloying element in carbon steels. Some of its prominent metallurgical effects in these steels are moderate solid solution strengthening, mild hardenability and, importantly, a strong promotion of toughness, especially at low temperatures. The first uses of nickel as an alloying element in commercial steel production date back to the early 20th century. The aim of the current review is to give the reader a thorough and concise overview of nickel functionalities relevant to modern carbon steel production. The interaction of nickel with other alloying elements and processing conditions is also considered. Examples will be given demonstrating the advantages of nickel alloying in selected steel grades and applications.