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Axioms
, Volume 9 (2) – Jun 14, 2020

/lp/multidisciplinary-digital-publishing-institute/structure-and-functions-of-topological-metagroups-a30j0iFWL8

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- Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute
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- 10.3390/axioms9020066
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axioms Article Sergey V. Ludkowski Department of Applied Mathematics, MIREA–Russian Technological University, av. Vernadsky 78, 119454 Moscow, Russia; sludkowski@mail.ru Received: 5 April 2020; Accepted: 10 June 2020; Published: 14 June 2020 Abstract: In this article, the structure of topological metagroups was investigated. Relations between topological and algebraic properties of metagroups were scrutinized. A uniform continuity of functions on them was studied. Smashed products of topological metagroups were investigated. Keywords: metagroup; topological; function; smashed product MSC: 20N05; 22A30; 54C05; 54E15; 54H11 1. Introduction In nonassociative algebra, noncommutative geometry, ﬁeld theory, and topological algebra there frequently appear binary systems, which are nonassociative generalizations of groups and are related to loops, quasi-groups, and Moufang loops, etc. (see [1–6]). A particular class of quasi-groups known as gyrogroups G arise as a skew product of a group A and its automorphism group Aut( A ). Relations y y y between (ab)c and a(bc) for each a, b and c in G are provided with the help of the automorphism y of A acting on c, where y : G ! Aut( A ), y = y may depend only on two parameters a and b in G . y y y y a,b They found applications in physics for studying Thomas precession with the help of the Lorentz group and its automorphism group [7]. It was investigated and proved in the 20th century that a nontrivial geometry exists if and only if there exists a corresponding unital quasi-group (loop) [2,4]. A very important role in mathematics and quantum ﬁeld theory play octonions and generalized Cayley–Dickson algebras [8–10]. A multiplicative law of their canonical bases is nonassociative and leads to a more general notion of a metagroup instead of a group [11]. They are used not only in algebra and geometry, but also in noncommutative analysis and PDEs, particle physics, and mathematical physics [9,10,12–26]. The preposition meta is used to emphasize that such an algebraic object has properties milder than those of a group. By their axiomatic metagroups are loops (that is, satisfy the conditions of Equations (1)–(3)) with additional weak relations (10). Metagroups were used in [11] to investigate of automorphisms and derivations of nonassociative algebras, as well as cohomologies of nonassociative algebras [27]. Constructions of metagroups from groups or other metagroups with the help of smashed and twisted wreath products, of certain nonassociative algebras and examples were given in [11,27,28]. This article is devoted to the structure of topological metagroups. Speciﬁc algebraic and topological features of metagroups are studied in Lemmas 1–4, Theorem 2, and Propositions 1 and 2. Relations between topological and algebraic properties of metagroups are scrutinized. A quotient of a metagroup by its central subgroup is investigated in Theorem 1. A uniform continuity of maps on topological metagroups is studied in Theorem 3 and Corollary 2. Smashed products of topological metagroups are investigated in Section 3. It is proved in Theorems 4 and 5 and Corollaries 3–5 that there are abundant families of topological metagroups. All main results of this paper are obtained for the ﬁrst time. Axioms 2020, 9, 66; doi:10.3390/axioms9020066 www.mdpi.com/journal/axioms Axioms 2020, 9, 66 2 of 13 2. Structure of Topological Metagroups To avoid misunderstandings, we provide the necessary deﬁnition. A reader familiar with [2,11,27] can skip Deﬁnition 1. Deﬁnition 1. Let G be a set with a single-valued binary operation (multiplication) G 3 (a, b) 7! ab 2 G deﬁned on G satisfying the conditions: For each a and b in G there is a unique x 2 G with ax = b (1) and a unique y 2 G exists satisfying ya = b (2) which are denoted by x = an b = Div (a, b) and y = b/a = Div (a, b) correspondingly, l r there exists a neutral (i.e., unit) element e = e 2 G: eg = ge = g (3) for each g 2 G. The set of all elements h 2 G commuting and associating with G: Com(G) := fa 2 G : 8b 2 G, ab = bag (4) N (G) := fa 2 G : 8b 2 G,8c 2 G, (ab)c = a(bc)g (5) N (G) := fa 2 G : 8b 2 G,8c 2 G, (ba)c = b(ac)g (6) N (G) := fa 2 G : 8b 2 G,8c 2 G, (bc)a = b(ca)g (7) N(G) := N (G)\ N (G)\ N (G) (8) m r C(G) := Com(G)\ N(G) (9) is called the center C(G) of G. We call G a metagroup if a set G possesses a single-valued binary operation and satisﬁes the conditions of Equations (1)–(3) and (ab)c = t(a, b, c)a(bc) (10) for each a, b and c in G, where t(a, b, c) = t (a, b, c) 2 C(G). Then G is called a central metagroup if in addition to (10) it satisﬁes the condition: ab = t (a, b)ba (11) for each a and b in G, where t (a, b) 2 C(G). Let t be a topology on G such that the multiplication G 3 (a, b) 7! ab 2 G, the operations Div (a, b) and Div (a, b) are jointly continuous relative to t, then (G, t) will be called a topological metagroup. Henceforth, it will be assumed that t is the T \ T topology, maps and functions on 1 3.5 metagroups are supposed to be single-valued, if something other will not be speciﬁed. A neighborhood U of the unit element e is called left (right) symmetric, if U = I nv (U) (or U = I nv (U) respectively), where I nv (a) = Div (a, e) is a left inversion, I nv (a) = Div (a, e) r l l r r is a right inversion. If a neighborhood U is left and right symmetric, then it will be called symmetric. Elements of a metagroup G will be denoted by small letters, subsets of G will be denoted by capital letters. If A and B are subsets in G, then A B means the difference of them A B = fa 2 A : a 2 / Bg. Axioms 2020, 9, 66 3 of 13 Lemma 1. If G is a metagroup, then for each a and b 2 G the following identities are fulﬁlled: bn e = (e/b)t(e/b, b, bn e) (12) (an e)b = (an b)t(e/a, a, an e)/t(e/a, a, an b) (13) b(e/a) = (b/a)t(b/a, a, an e)/t(e/a, a, an e) (14) Proof. The conditions of Equations (1)–(3) imply that b(bn a) = a, bn (ba) = a (15) (a/b)b = a, (ab)/b = a (16) for each a and b in G. Using Equation (10) and the identities of Equations (15) and (16) we deduce that e/b = (e/b)(b(bn e)) = (bn e)/t(e/b, b, bn e) which leads to Equation (12). Let c = an b, then from the identities of Equations (12) and (15) it follows that (an e)b = (e/a)t(e/a, a, an e)(ac) = ((e/a)a)(an b)t(e/a, a, an e)/t(e/a, a, an b), which provides Equation (13). Let now d = b/a, then the identities of Equations (12) and (16) imply that b(e/a) = (da)(an e)/t(e/a, a, an e) = (b/a)t(b/a, a, an e)/t(e/a, a, an e) which demonstrates (14). Lemma 2. Assume that G is a metagroup. Then for every a, a , a , a in G and p , p , p in C(G): 1 2 3 1 2 3 t( p a , p a , p a ) = t(a , a , a ) (17) 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 2 3 t(a, an e, a)t(an e, a, e/a) = e (18) Proof. Since (a a )a = t(a , a , a )a (a a ) and t(a , a , a ) 2 C(G) for every a , a , a in G, then 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 t(a , a , a ) = ((a a )a )/(a (a a )) (19) 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Therefore, for every a , a , a in G and p , p , p in C(G) we infer that 1 2 3 1 2 3 t( p a , p a , p a ) = ((( p a )( p a ))( p a ))/(( p a )(( p a )( p a ))) 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 1 1 2 2 3 3 = (( p p p )((a a )a ))/(( p p p )(a (a a ))) = ((a a )a )/(a (a a )), since 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 1 b/( pa) = p b/a, b/ p = pn b = b p (20) for each p 2 C(G), a and b in G, because C(G) is the commutative group. Thus t( p a , p a , p a ) = 1 1 2 2 3 3 t(a , a , a ). 2 3 From the condition of Equation (10), Lemma 1 and the identity in Equation (17) it follows that t(a, an e, a) = ((a(an e))a)/(a((an e)a)) = a/[at(e/a, a, an e)] = e/t(an e, a, e/a) for each a 2 G implying Equation (18). Lemma 3. If (G, t) is a topological metagroup, then the function t(a , a , a ) is jointly continuous in a , a , 1 2 3 1 2 a in G. Proof. This follows immediately from Equation (19) and Deﬁnition 1. Axioms 2020, 9, 66 4 of 13 Lemma 4. Assume that (G, t) is a topological metagroup and U is an open subsets in G, then for each b 2 G the sets Ub and bU are open in G. Proof. Take any c 2 Ub and consider the equation xb = c (21) Then from Equation (2) it follows that x = c/b (22) Thus x = y (c), where y (c) = c/b is a continuous bijective function in the variable c by b b Equation (14) and Lemma 3. On the other hand, the right shift mapping R u := ub (23) from G into G is continuous and bijective in u (see Deﬁnition 1). Moreover, y R u = u and b b R y (c) = c for each ﬁxed b 2 G and all u 2 G and c 2 G by (16). Thus R and y are open b b b b mappings, consequently, Ub is open. Similarly for the equation by = c (24) the unique solution is y = bn c (25) by the condition of Equation (1). Therefore, y = q (c), where q (c) = bn c is a continuous bijective function in c according to b b Lemma 3 and Equation (13). Next we consider the left shift mapping L u = bu (26) for each ﬁxed b 2 G and any u 2 G. This mapping L is continuous, since the multiplication on G is continuous. Then L q (c) = c and q L u = u for every ﬁxed b 2 G and all u 2 G and c 2 G by b b b b Equation (15). Therefore q and L are open mappings. Thus the subset bU is open in G. b b Proposition 1. Let (G, t) be a topological metagroup and let U and V be subsets in G such that either U or V is open, then UV is open in G. Proof. In view of Lemma 4 either Ub is open in G for each b 2 V or aV is open in G for each a 2 U S S respectively, consequently, UV = fx = uv : u 2 U, v 2 Vg = Ub = aV is open in G. b2V a2U Theorem 1. If G is a T topological metagroup and C is a closed subgroup in a center C(G) such that 1 0 t(a, b, c) 2 C for each a, b and c in G, then its quotient G/C is a T \ T topological group. 0 0 1 3.5 Proof. Let t be a T topology on G relative to which G is a topological metagroup. Then each point x in G is closed, since G is the T topological space (see Section 1.5 in [29]). From the continuity of multiplication and the left inversion and right inversion it follows that the center C(G) is closed in G. Therefore the subgroup C is closed in G. As is tradition, the notation: AB = fx = ab : a 2 A, b 2 Bg (27) I nv ( A) = fx = an e : a 2 Ag (28) I nv ( A) = fx = e/a : a 2 Ag (29) r Axioms 2020, 9, 66 5 of 13 is used for subsets A and B in G. Then from Equations (4)–(8) it follows that for each a, b, c in G the identities take place. ((aC )(bC ))(cC ) = (aC )((bC )(cC )) and aC = C a. Evidently eC = C . In view of Lemmas 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 and 2 (aC )n e = e/(aC ), consequently, for each aC 2 G/C a unique inverse (aC ) exists. Thus the 0 0 0 0 0 quotient G/C of G by C is a group. Since the topology t on G is T and C is closed in G, then the 0 0 1 0 quotient topology t on G/C is also T . By virtue of Theorem 8.4 in [30] this implies that t is a q q 0 1 T \ T topology on G/C . 1 3.5 0 We remind reader of the following. Deﬁnition 2. Let G be a topological metagroup. For a subset U in G it is put: L := f(x, y) 2 G G : xn y 2 Ug (30) U,G R := f(x, y) 2 G G : y/x 2 Ug (31) U,G The family of all subsetsL (orR ) with U being an open neighborhood of e will be called a left (right U,G U,G correspondingly) uniform structure on G and denoted by L (respectively R ). G G Theorem 2. Assume that G is a T topological metagroup and a function t on G is deﬁned by Equation (10). Then for each compact subset S in G and each open neighborhood V of e there exists an open symmetric neighborhood U of e in G such that t((u a)v , (u b)v , (u c)v )/t(a, b, c) 2 V (32) 1 1 2 2 3 3 for every a, b, c in S and u , v in U for each j 2 f1, 2, 3g. j j Proof. Let q : G ! G/C denote the quotient map of G on the quotient group G/C =: Q provided by Theorem 1, where C = C(G). That is aC = q(a) for each a 2 G. From Lemma 2 it follows that t on G ˆ ˆ induces a continuous map t on Q with values in C , where t(q(a), q(b), q(c)) = t(a, b, c) for each a, b, c in G. Since S is compact in G and q is continuous from (G, t) into (Q, t ), then q(S) =: S is compact in Q by Theorem 3.1.10 in [29]. Therefore, ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ t(S, S, S) := fy = t(a ˆ, b, c ˆ) : a ˆ 2 S, b 2 S, c ˆ 2 Sg is a compact subset in C , where C is supplied with the topology inherited from G. In view of Proposition 1 if U is an open symmetric neighborhood of e in G, then U = q(U) is an open symmetric neighborhood of the unit element e in Q. The group C is commutative, hence Equation (32) is equivalent to ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ t(u ˆ a ˆv ˆ , u ˆ bv ˆ , u ˆ c ˆv ˆ ) 2 t(a ˆ, b, c ˆ)(V \C) (33) 1 1 2 2 3 3 ˆ ˆ ˆ for every a ˆ, b, c ˆ in S and u ˆ , v ˆ in U for each j 2 f1, 2, 3g, where a ˆ = q(a) for each a 2 G. j j Naturally Q = Q Q is a topological group as the direct product of three copies of the ˆ ˆ ˆ topological group Q (see Theorem 6.2 in [30]). Since S S S is compact in the topological group Q , ˆ ˆ ˆ then t is uniformly continuous on S S S relative to the uniformities L 3 and R 3 ; consequently, Q Q there exists an open symmetric neighborhood W of e in Q such that Equation (33) is satisﬁed for ˆ ˆ every a ˆ, b, c ˆ in S and u ˆ , v ˆ in W for each j 2 f1, 2, 3g. Take an open symmetric neighborhood U of e in j j G such that U q (W). With this U Equation (32) is fulﬁlled. Proposition 2. Suppose that (G, t) is a topological metagroup, S is a compact subset in G, q is a ﬁxed element in G, V is an open neighborhood of the unit element e. Then there are elements b , ..., b in G and an open 1 m symmetric neighborhood U of e such that U V (34) Axioms 2020, 9, 66 6 of 13 and fb n (qU), ..., b n (qU)g (35) 1 m is an open covering of S, and b (b n (qU)) qV (36) k k for each k = 1,...,m. Proof. Since the left I nv and right I nv inversions are homeomorphisms of G onto itself as the topological space, then for each open neighborhood W of e the intersection W \ I nv (W)\ I nv (W) (37) is an open symmetric neighborhood of e, since I nv I nv (b) = b and I nv I nv (b) = b for each b in r r l l G. The multiplication is continuous on G, hence the left shift mapping L (x) = bx is continuous on G in the variable x. On the other hand, the left inversion I nv is continuous on G. In view of Lemmas 1, 4 and the compactness of S for each open symmetric neighborhood U of e in G there are b , ..., b in G such that fb n (qU), ..., b n (qU)g is an open covering of S. 1 m 1 m Then Equation (15) and inclusion (34) imply inclusion (36). Corollary 1. Let G be a topological metagroup. Then for each open neighborhood W of e in G there exists an open symmetric neighborhood U of e such that (8x8y((x 2 G)&(y 2 G)&(xn y 2 U))) ) (y 2 xW) (38) and (8x8y((x 2 G)&(y 2 G)&(y/x 2 U))) ) (y 2 W x) (39) Proof. This follows from property (37), Equations (15) and (16). Theorem 3. Let G and H be topological metagroups and let f : G ! H be a continuous map so that for each open neighborhood V of a unit element e in H a compact subset K in G exists such that f (G K ) V. H V V Then f is uniformly (L ,L ) continuous and uniformly (R ,R ) continuous. G H G H Proof. Since each open neighborhood of e in H contains an open symmetric neighborhood according to property (37), then it sufﬁces to consider an open symmetric neighborhood V of e in H. Let V H 1 be an open symmetric neighborhood of e in H such that V V, where AB = fc 2 H : c = ab, a 2 A, b 2 Bg, A = A A for subsets A and B in H. By the conditions of this theorem, a compact subset K in G exists such that f (G K ) V . V V 1 1 1 For a subset A of the metagroup G let P( A) = (P ( A)[feg)(P ( A)[feg) (40) 0 0 where P ( A) = A[ I nv ( A)[ I nv ( A), hence A P ( A) and P ( A)[feg P( A). Then S = P(K ) 0 l r 0 0 1 V is a compact subset in G, since the left I nv and right I nv inversions and multiplication are continuous on G (see Theorems 3.1.10, 8.3.13–8.3.15 in [29]), hence R = P( f (S )) is compact in H. 1 1 Axioms 2020, 9, 66 7 of 13 Since the multiplication in H is continuous, then for each open neighborhood Y of e there exists an open neighborhood X of e such that X Y. By virtue of Theorem 2 there exists an open symmetric neighborhood V of e in H such that 2 H [t ((V a)V , (V b)V , (V c)V )V /t (a, b, c)] V (41) H 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 H 1 for every a, b, c in R . For V there exists a compact subset K in G such that f (G K ) V 1 2 V V 2 2 2 by the conditions of this theorem. If A and B are compact subsets in G, then their union A [ B is also compact. Therefore it is possible to choose K such that K K , since V V and V V V 2 1 2 1 2 (G A) B = G ( A[ B) G A. We take S = P(K ) by Equation (40), consequently, S S , 2 V 1 2 since K K . V V 1 2 From the continuity of the map f and Lemma 4 it follows that for each x 2 G open symmetric neighborhoods W and W of e in G exist such that x,l x,r 2 2 f (xW ) ( f (x)V ) and f (W x) (V f (x)); consequently, 2 2 x,r x,l 2 2 f (xW ) ( f (x)V ), f (W x) (V f (x)) (42) x 2 x 2 for an open symmetric neighborhood W = W \ W of e in G. The compactness of S implies x x,r 2 x,l that coverings fxW : x 2 S g and fW y : y 2 S g of S have ﬁnite subcoverings fx W : x 2 S , x 2 y 2 2 j x j 2 j = 1, ..., ng and fW y : y 2 S , i = 1, ..., mg. Hence y 2 i i n m \ \ W = W \ W (43) x y j i j=1 i=1 is a symmetric open neighborhood of e in G. Therefore, according to Theorem 2, there exists an open symmetric neighborhood U of the unit element e in G such that [t ((U a)U, (Ub)U, (Uc)U)U/t (a, b, c)] W (44) G G 0 for every a, b, c in S , where W is an open symmetric neighborhood of e in G such that W W. 2 0 Let x and y in G be such that xn y 2 U. Then Equation (15) implies that y 2 xU (45) There are several options. Consider ﬁrst the case x 2 K . From Equation (43), Inclusions (44), (45) and Corollary 1 it follows that there exists j 2 f1, ..., ng such that x 2 x W and y 2 x W . j j x Therefore, Inclusions (41) and (42) imply that f (x)n f (y) 2 V. From xn y 2 U and Equation (15) it follows that y = xu for a unique u 2 U. Hence x = y(e/u)t(e/u, u, un e)/t(y/u, u, un e) (46) according to Equations (14) and (16). If y 2 K , then similarly from Equations (43), (46), inclusions (44), (45) and Corollary 1 it follows that there exists k 2 f1, ..., ng such that y 2 x W and x 2 x W , since an open neighborhood U of e is k x k k x symmetric and t(a, b, e) = t(a, e, b) = t(e, a, b) = e for each a and b in G. Therefore, f (x)n f (y) 2 V by Inclusions (41) and (42), since the considered neighborhoods of e in H and e = e in G are symmetric H G and S = P(K ) (see Equation (40)). 2 V It remains the case x 2 G K and y 2 G K . Therefore, f (x) 2 V and f (y) 2 V . V V 2 2 2 2 According to the choice of R we have e 2 R . The open neighborhoods V, V , V of e in 1 H 1 1 2 H H are symmetric. From Inclusion (41), Equation (15) and the inclusion V V, it follows that f (x) n f (y) 2 V. Taking into account the inclusion K K we get that f is uniformly V V 1 2 (L ,L ) continuous. G H Axioms 2020, 9, 66 8 of 13 The uniform (R ,R ) continuity is proved analogously using the ﬁnite subcovering G H fW y : y 2 S , i = 1, ..., mg and Corollary 1. i i 2 Corollary 2. Let G be a locally compact metagroup, let f 2 C (G) and let H = (C, +) be the complex ﬁeld C considered as an additive group. Then f is uniformly (L ,L ) continuous and uniformly G H (R ,R ) continuous. G H This corollary follows from Theorem 3 as its particular case. 3. Products of Topological Metagroups In this section, we demonstrate that there are abundant families of topological metagroups besides those described in the introduction. Theorem 4. Let (G , t ) be a family of topological metagroups (see Deﬁnition 1), where j 2 J, J is a set. j j Then their direct product G = G relative to the Tychonoff product topology t is a topological metagroup and j2 J j C(G) = C(G ) (47) Õ j j2 J Proof. The direct product of topological loops is a topological loop (see [2,3]). Thus Conditions (1)–(3) are satisﬁed. Each element a 2 G is written as a = fa : 8j 2 J, a 2 G g. From Equations(4)–(7) we infer that j j j Com(G) := fa 2 G : 8b 2 G, ab = bag = fa 2 G : a = fa : 8j 2 J, a 2 G g;8b 2 G, j j j (48) b = fb : 8j 2 J, b 2 G g;8j 2 J, a b = b a g = Com(G ) j j j j j j j j2 J j N (G) := fa 2 G : 8b 2 G, 8c 2 G, (ab)c = a(bc)g = fa 2 G : a = fa : 8j 2 J, a 2 G g; 8b 2 G, l j j j (49) b = fb : 8j 2 J, b 2 G g; 8c 2 G, c = fc : 8j 2 J, c 2 G g; 8j 2 J, (a b )c = a (b c )g = N (G ) j j j j j j j j j j j j j2 J l j and similarly N (G) = N (G ) (50) m m Õ j j2 J and N (G) = N (G ) (51) r Õ r j j2 J This and Equation (8) imply that N(G) = N(G ) (52) Õ j j2 J Thus C(G) := Com(G)\ N(G) = C(G ) (53) Õ j j2 J Let a, b and c be in G, then (ab)c = f(a b )c : 8j 2 J, a 2 G , b 2 G , c 2 G g = ft (a , b , c )a (b c ) : j j j j j j j j j G j j j j j j (54) 8j 2 J, a 2 G , b 2 G , c 2 G g = t (a, b, c)a(bc) j j j j j j G where t (a, b, c) = ft (a , b , c ) : 8j 2 J, a 2 G , b 2 G , c 2 G g . G G j j j j j j j j j Therefore, Equations (53) and (54) imply that Condition (10) also is satisﬁed. Thus G is a topological metagroup. Axioms 2020, 9, 66 9 of 13 Remark 1. Let A and B be metagroups and let C be a commutative group such that C ( A) ,! C ,C (B) ,! C ,C ,! C( A) and C ,! C(B) (55) m m where C ( A) denotes a minimal subgroup in C( A) containing t (a, b, c) for every a, b and c in A. Using direct products it is always possible to extend either A or B to get such a case. In particular, either A or B may be a group. On A B an equivalence relation X is considered such that (gv, b)X(v, gb) and (gv, b)Xg(v, b) and (gv, b)X(v, b)g (56) for every v in A, b in B and g in C . Let f : A ! A(B) be a single-valued mapping, (57) where A(B) denotes a family of all bijective surjective single-valued mappings of B onto B subjected to the conditions given below. If a 2 A and b 2 B, then it will be written shortly b instead of f(a)b, where f(a) : B ! B. Let also h : A A B ! C , k : A B B ! C f f and x : (( A B)/X) (( A B)/X) ! C be single-valued mappings written shortly as h, k and x correspondingly such that u v vu u e (b ) = b h(v, u, b), e = e, b = b; (58) h(v, u, gb) = h(v, u, b); (59) u u u (cb) = c b k(u, c, b); (60) k(u, gc, b) = k(u, c, gb) = k(u, c, b) and k(u, g, b) = k(u, b, g) = e; (61) x((gu, c), (v, b)) = x((u, c), (gv, b)) = x((u, c), (v, b)) (62) and x((g, e), (v, b)) = e and x((u, c), (g, e)) = e for every u and v in A, b and c in B, g inC , where e denotes the neutral element in C and in A and B. We put (a , b )(a , b ) = (a a , x((a , b ), (a , b ))b b ) (63) 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 2 2 1 for each a , a in A, b and b in B. 1 2 1 2 The Cartesian product A B supplied with such a binary operation (63) will be denoted by f,h,k,x A B. Theorem 5. Let the conditions of Remark 1 be satisﬁed. Then the Cartesian product A B supplied with a binary operation of Equation (63) is a metagroup. For the proof of this theorem see Theorem 9 in [27]. f,h,k,x Deﬁnition 3. The metagroup A B of Theorem 5 is called a smashed product of metagroups A and B with smashing factors f, h, k and x. Particularly, it is possible to consider the topological metagroup fulﬁlling the condition: there exists a compact subgroup C = C (G) in C(G) such that 0 0 t (a, b, c) 2 C for every a, b and c in G (64) G Axioms 2020, 9, 66 10 of 13 Corollary 3. (i). Assume that conditions of Theorem 4 are satisﬁed and for each j 2 J a metagroup G satisﬁes Condition (64). Then the product metagroup G satisﬁes Condition (64). (ii). Moreover, if G is compact for all j 2 J and locally compact for each j 2 J n J , where J J and j 0 0 0 Jn J is a ﬁnite set, then G is locally compact. Proof. (i). Using Equation (54) it is sufﬁcient to take C (G) = C (G ), since the direct product of 0 0 j j2 J compact commutative groups C (G ) is a compact commutative group C (G) (see [29,30]). 0 j 0 The last assertion (ii) follows from the known fact that G as a topological space is locally compact under the imposed above conditions by Theorem 3.3.13 in [29]. Corollary 4. Suppose that the conditions of Remark 1 are fulﬁlled and A and B are topological metagroups f,h,k,x and smashing factors f, h, k, x are jointly continuous by their variables. Suppose also that A B is f,h,k,x supplied with a topology induced from the Tychonoff product topology on A B. Then A B is a topological metagroup. Corollary 5. If the conditions of Corollary 4 are satisﬁed and metagroups A and B are locally compact, then f,h,k,x A B is locally compact. Moreover, if A and B satisfy Condition (64) and ranges of h, k, x are contained f,h,k,x in C ( A)C (B), then A B satisﬁes Condition (64). 0 0 Proof. Corollaries 4 and 5 follow from Theorems 2.3.11, 3.2.4, 3.3.13 in [29], Lemma 3 and Theorems 1, 2, 5, since f,h,k,x C ( A)C (B) C C( A)\C(B) and C ( A)C (B) is a compact subgroup in A B. 0 0 0 0 Example 1. Assume that X is a T \ T topological space, G is a T \ T topological metagroup (not a group). 1 3.5 1 3.5 We consider the space C(X, G) of all continuous maps f : X ! G supplied with the compact-open topology and the point-wise multiplication ( f g)(x) = f (x)g(x) for each f , g in C(X, G) and x 2 X. Then this constriction and Deﬁnition 1 imply that there exist ( f n g)(x) = f (x)n g(x), ( f /g)(x) = f (x)/g(x), e (x) = e C(X,G) G and t ( f , g, h)(x) = t ( f (x), g(x), h(x)) for each f , g and h in C(X, G) and x 2 X. It can be easily C(X,G) seen that C(X, G) is the topological metagroup (not a group). Generally C(X, G) may be nonlocally compact metagroup for nontrivial X and G with the small inductive dimension ind(X) ind(G) and the topological weight w(X) @ , w(G) > 7. Other metagroups are given in Examples 1–3 in [28]. In general they are nonassociative and hence different from groups. Example 2. Particularly, H := fi ,i , i i,i i : j 2 L g is the metagroup, where either L = f0, ..., 2 1g r j j j j r r with 3 r 2 N or L = fj : 0 j 2 Zg, i and i i with j 2 L are the canonical generators of the complexiﬁed j j Cayley–Dickson algebraA such that i i = ii and i = 1; where i with j 2 L are the canonical generators r,C j j j r of the Cayley-Dickson algebra A over the real ﬁeld R, i = 1 (for more details see Example 1 in [28]). r,R 0 Therefore, relative to the discrete topology H is the compact nonassociative metagroup for each 3 r 2 N; while H is the locally compact nonassociative metagroup and H is not compact. Then we put ¥ ¥ H := H , (65) a,m, p Õ m(j) j2a,m(j)2W where a is a set, W = fr 2 N : 3 r pg, 3 p ¥, m : a ! W is a map. We supply H p p a,m, p with the Tychonoff product topology, hence H is the topological nonassociative metagroup by Theorem 4. a,m, p If card(a) @ , then H is not discrete. For each 3 p 2 N, each set a and every map m : a ! W , a,m, p p the metagroup H is compact. If 1 cardfj : m(j) = ¥g < @ , then H is locally compact and a,m, p 0 a,m,¥ noncompact by Corollary 3. For each a and m such that cardfj : m(j) = ¥g @ the metagroup H is not a,m,¥ locally compact. Axioms 2020, 9, 66 11 of 13 Example 3. If A and B are topological metagroups and A has the positive small inductive dimension ind( A) > 0, then ind( A B) ind( A) > 0 according to Theorems 7.1.1 in [29] and 4 above. In particular, A may be a group and B be the nonassociative metagroup, hence A B is the nonassociative topological metagroup with ind( A B) > 0. Example 4. Other examples follow from Remark 3 and Theorem 9 in [27], Remark 4 and Theorem 6 in [28], Examples 1–3, Theorem 5 and Corollaries 4 and 5 above providing nonassociative topological metagroups N N f,h,k,x f,h,k,x A B, which may be either locally compact or nonlocally compact or (and) with ind( A B) > 0. Remark 2. From Theorems 4 and 5 and Corollaries 3–5, it follows that taking nontrivial h, k, and x and starting even from groups with nontrivial C(G ) or C( A) it is possible to construct new metagroups with nontrivial C (G) and ranges t (G, G, G) of t may be inﬁnite and nondiscrete. With suitable smashing factors 0 G G f, h, k and x and with nontrivial metagroups or groups A and B it is easy to get examples of metagroups in f,h,k,x which e/a 6= an e for an inﬁnite family of elements a in A B. The latter and Examples 1–3 above show that there are a lot of metagroups G for which t (a, b, c) depend nontrivially on all arguments a, b, and c in G. In Theorem 5, instead of the family of all automorphisms of B, we used the family A(B) (see Remark 1). In particular, f(a) 2 A(B) may be different from the automorphism of B for some a 2 A. Moreover multipliers t in Deﬁnition 1, x, h, k in Remark 1 and Theorem 5 provide left L or right R shifts on G or A, or B respectively, where q 2 ft (a, b, c); x((a , b ), (a , b )); h(a , a , b ); k(a , b , b )g G 1 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 2 with a, b and c in G, a and a in A; b and b in B; where L a = qa for each q 2 A and a 2 A, 1 2 1 2 q 1 1 1 R b = b p for each p 2 B and b 2 B, etc. The latter means that the maps L and R are bijective p q q 1 1 1 (injective and surjective). Then L and R are different from automorphisms of G, A, B and of q q f,h,k,x A B for each q 6= e, since each automorphism y of G satisﬁes the restrictions y(ab) = y(a)y(b), y(an b) = y(a)n y(b), y(a/b) = y(a)/y(b) for each a and b in G. Moreover, in the smashed twisted wreath product of metagroup construction operators S , T , L on F are used which are generally d h w (d,d ,v) j 1 not automorphisms of F (see Theorem 6 in [28]). This implies that the class of metagroups is different from the class of gyrogroups. Example 2 means that A is the complexiﬁed octonion algebra O and A is the octonion 3,C C 3,R algebra O over R. Thus the Cayley–Dickson algebras are metagroup algebras. The complexiﬁed octonion algebra O was used, for example, in physics and geometry in [16,31,32]. The metagroup algebra A was used in [12,18,19,25] for solutions of PDEs. r,C 4. Conclusions The results of this article can be used for further studies of measures on homogeneous spaces and noncommutative manifolds related with metagroups. They can be used in topological algebra, harmonic analysis on nonassociative algebras and metagroups and loops, representation theory, geometry, mathematical physics, quantum ﬁeld theory, particle physics and PDEs, etc. Besides them it is interesting to mention possible applications in mathematical coding theory, analysis of information ﬂows and distributed databases [33–36], because codes and databases are based on topological-algebraic binary systems. Other very important applications include harmonic analysis, mathematical physics, quantum ﬁeld theory, gauge theory, quantum gravity, representation theory of metagroups and nonassociative algebras, and noncommutative geometry [16,20–22,26,30,37,38]. Funding: This research received no external funding. Conﬂicts of Interest: The author declares no conﬂict of interest. Axioms 2020, 9, 66 12 of 13 References 1. Bourbaki, N. Algebra; Springer: Berlin, Germany, 1989. 2. Bruck, R.H. 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V. 1 and V. 2; Academic Press: Boston, MA, USA, 1988. c 2020 by the author. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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**Published: ** Jun 14, 2020

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