Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Start a 14-Day Trial for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

A systematic review of the use of simulated patients and pharmacy practice research

A systematic review of the use of simulated patients and pharmacy practice research Abstract Objective The use of simulated patients to assess current practice, or to derive outcome measures for pharmacy practice research, has received much attention in recent years. A simulated patient is an individual who is trained to visit a pharmacy to enact a scenario testing specific behaviour of the pharmacist or pharmacy staff. The aim of this study was to provide a definitive review of the use of simulated patients as a methodological tool for pharmacy practice research. Method A systematic review was undertaken to identify all pharmacy practice studies that had used simulated patient methodology. The electronic databases searched to identify relevant studies were MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL. Articles fulfilling all the following criteria were considered for inclusion in the review: primary reports of trials conducted in community pharmacy and drug store settings which used simulated patients to derive outcome measures. The review was not restricted by language or by country. The review was restricted to publications from 1976 to May 2005. Key findings In total, 56 full publications were retrieved for further examination, of which 46 studies were included in the review, including: nine randomised controlled trials, three controlled trials, 30 cross-sectional, two time-series and two ‘other’ studies. Ten publications were excluded: seven reviews, one laboratory-based study, one telephone survey and one study presented only as an abstract. Conclusions There has been steady growth in the use of simulated patient methodology over the past 30 years. Although simulated patients have received negative attention in the pharmaceutical media, they can be a rigorous and robust method of measuring practice if used appropriately. This review demonstrates the range of activities for which this method can be used, including the assessment of counselling and advice provision, the treatment of minor and major illness, and the assessment of the public health activities of pharmacy and drug store staff. Simulated patient methodology has been used in developing countries to a similar, if not greater extent, than the developed world, demonstrating its versatility and applicability to pharmacy practice research globally. Acknowledgements MW was funded by a Medical Research Council Special Fellowship in Health Services Research. PN was funded by the School of Pharmacy, University of Otago. AG was funded by Apoforsk (Institute for Pharmacy Practice Research). We thank Isabella McNeish for her assistance with this review. References 1 Can your pharmacist cope ? Which? 2004 (February) : 10 – 13 . 2 Pharmacists in crisis . Which? 1996 (January) : 18 – 21 . 3 Norris P . Reasons why mystery shopping is a useful and justifiable research method . Pharm J 2004 ; 272 : 746 – 7 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 4 Watson MC , Skelton JR, Bond CM et al. Simulated patients in the community pharmacy setting . Pharm World Sci 2004 ; 26 : 32 – 7 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 5 Finn A , Kayande U. Unmasking a phantom: a psychometric assessment of mystery shopping . J Retail 1999 ; 75 : 195 – 217 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 6 Market Research Society . MRS code and guidelines: guidelines on mystery customer research . London : Market Research Society ; 2003 . Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat COPAC 7 Chalker J , Ratanawijitrasin S, Chuc NTK, Petzold M, Tomson G. Effectiveness of a multi-component intervention on dispensing practices at private pharmacies in Vietnam and Thailand - a randomized controlled trial . Soc Sci Med 2005 ; 60 : 131 – 41 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 8 Garcia P , Gotuzzo E, Hughes J, Holmes K. Syndromic management of STDs in pharmacies: evaluation and randomised intervention trial . Sex Transm Infect 1998 ; 74 ( suppl. 1 ): S153 – 8 . Google Scholar PubMed OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 9 Garcia P , Hughes J, Carcamo C, Holmes KK. Training pharmacy workers in recognition, management, and prevention of STDs: district-randomized controlled trial . Bulletin WHO 2003 ; 81 : 806 – 14 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 10 Neto A , Benrimoj S, Kavanagh D, Boakes R. Novel educational training program for community pharmacists . Am J Pharm Educ 2000 ; 64 (Autumn): 302 – 7 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 11 Neto A , Benrimoj S, Kavanagh D, Boakes R. A pharmacy based protocol and training programme for non-prescription analgesics . J Soc Admin Pharm 2000 ; 17 : 183 – 92 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 12 Ratanajamit C , Chongsuvivatwong V, Geater AF. A randomized controlled educational intervention on emergency contraception among drugstore personnel in Southern Thailand . J Am Med Womens Assoc 2002 ; 57 : 196 – 200 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 13 Ross-Degnan D , Soumerai S, Goel P et al. The impact of face-to-face educational outreach on diarrhoea treatment in pharmacies . Health Policy Plan 1996 ; 11 : 308 – 18 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 14 Sigrist T , Benrimoj S, Hersberger K, Langford J. Changing pharmacists' and pharmacist assistants' practice in dealing with direct requests for non-prescription analgesics . Int J Pharm Pract 2002 ; 10 : 23 – 9 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 15 Watson MC , Bond CM, Grimshaw JM, Mollison J, Ludbrook A, Walker A. Educational strategies to promote evidence-based community pharmacy practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) . Fam Pract 2002 ; 19 : 529 – 36 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 16 Adu-Sarkodie Y , Steiner MJ, Attafuah J, Tweedy K. Syndromic management of urethral discharge in Ghanaian pharmacies . Sex Transm Inf 2000 ; 76 : 439 – 42 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 17 Anderson A . A controlled study of the effect of a health promotion training scheme on pharmacists' advice about smoking cessation . J Soc Admin Pharm 1995 ; 12 : 115 – 24 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 18 Pick S , Reyes J, Alvarez M, Cohen S, Craige J, Troya A. AIDS prevention training for pharmacy workers in Mexico City . AIDS Care 1996 ; 8 : 55 – 69 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 19 Amidi S , Ajamee G, Sadeghi H, Yourshalmi P, Gharehjeh A. Dispensing drugs without prescription and treating patients by pharmacy attendants in Shiraz, Iran . Public Health Briefs 1978 ; 68 : 495 – 7 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 20 Anderson C , Bissell P. Using semi covert research to evaluate an emergency hormonal contraception service . Pharm World Sci 2004 ; 26 : 102 – 6 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 21 Anderson C , Alexander A. Response to dysmennorhoea: an assessment of pharmacists' knowledge and its application in practice . Int J Pharm Pract 1993 ; 2 : 180 – 3 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 22 Chalker J , Chuc NTK, Falkenberg T, Do NT, Tomson G. STD management by private pharmacies in Hanoi: practice and knowledge of drug sellers . Sex Transm Inf 2000 ; 76 : 299 – 302 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 23 Cohen MM , Dunn S, Cockeril R, Brown TER. Using a secret shopper to evaluate pharmacist provision of emergency contraception . Can Pharm J 2004 ; 137 : 28 – 33 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 24 Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG , Koliofoti ID, Koutroumpa IC, Giannakakis IA, Ioannidis JPA. Pathways for inappropriate dispensing of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis: a randomized trial . Clin Infect Dis 2001 ; 33 : 76 – 82 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 25 Dennis RJ , Lozano JM. Ethical challenges in pharmcoepidemiological research in Colombia . Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2001 ; 10 : 613 – 18 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 26 Eng HJ , Bulfer BA, Doering PL, Kimberling CL. Assessment of the Florida pharmacist self-care consultant law using a trained shopper method . J Pharm Mark Manage 1991 ; 5 : 27 – 52 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 27 Goodburn E , Mattosinho S, Mongi P, Waterston A. Management of childhood diarrhoea by pharmacists and parents: is Britain lagging behind the Third World BMJ 1991 ; 302 : 440 – 3 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 28 Igun U . Reported and actual prescription of oral rehydration therapy for childhood diarrhoeas by retail pharmacists in Nigeria . Soc Sci Med 1994 ; 39 : 797 – 806 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 29 Kafle KK , Madden JM, Shrestha AD et al. Can licensed drug sellers contribute to safe motherhood? A survey of the treatment of pregnancy-related anaemia in Nepal . Soc Sci Med 1996 ; 42 : 1577 – 88 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 30 Krska J , Greenwood R, Howitt E. Audit of advice provided in response to symptoms . Pharm J 1994 ; 252 : 93 – 6 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 31 Lambert M , Delgado R, Michaux G, Volz A, Van Der Stuyft , P. Tuberculosis control and the private health sector in Bolivia: a survey of pharmacies . Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 20 ; 8 : 1325 – 9 . OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 32 Lamsam GD , Kropff MA. Community pharmacists' assessments and recommendations for treatment in four care scenarios . Ann Pharmacother 1998 ; 32 : 409 – 16 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 33 Leiva A , Shaw M, Paine K, Manneh K, McAdam K, Mayaud P. Management of sexually transmitted diseases in urban pharmacies in The Gambia . Int J STD AIDS 2001 ; 12 : 444 – 52 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 34 Lewis JH , Schonlau M, Munoz JA et al. Compliance among pharmacists in California with a prescription-drug discount program for medicine beneficiaries . N Engl J Med 2002 ; 346 : 830 – 5 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 35 Leyva FR , Bronfman PM, Erviti EJ. Simulated client in drugstores: prescriptive behaviour of drugstore attendants . J Soc Admin Pharm 2000 ; 17 : 151 – 8 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 36 Mason HI , Svarstad BL. Medication counseling behaviours and attitudes of rural community pharmacists . Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1984 ; 18 : 409 – 14 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 37 Mobey N , Wood A, Edwards C, Jepson MH. An assessment of the response to symptoms in community pharmacies . Pharm J 1986 ; 237 : 807 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 38 Norris P . Which sort of pharmacies provide more patient counselling J Health Serv Res Policy 2002 ; 7 ( suppl. 1 ): 23 – 8 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 39 Ratanajamit C , Chongsuvivatwong V. Survey of knowledge and practice on oral contraceptive and emergency contraceptive pills of drugstore personnel in Hat Yai, Thailand . Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2001 ; 10 : 149 – 56 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 40 Rutter PM , Horsley E, Brown DT. Evaluation of community pharmacists' recommendations to standardized patient scenarios . Ann Pharmacother 2004 ; 38 : 1080 – 5 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 41 Sierralta OE , Scott DM. Pharmacists as nonprescription drug advisors . Am Pharm 1995 ;NS35( 5 ): 36 – 8 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 42 Thamlikitkul V . Antibiotic dispensing by drug store personnel in Bangkok, Thailand . J Antimicrob Chemother 1988 ; 21 : 125 – 31 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 43 Thornley T , Gray N, Anderson C, Eastham S. A study to investigate the extent of delivery of an intervention in asthma, in a UK national community pharmacy chain, using mystery customers . Patient Educ Couns 2006 ; 60 : 246 – 52 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 44 Tomson G , Sterky G. Self-prescribing by way of pharmacies in three Asian developing countries . Lancet 1986 September : 620 – 2 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 45 Vacca C , Orozco J, Figueras A, Capella D. Assessment of risks related to medicine dispensing by nonprofessionals in Colombia: clinical case simulations . Ann Pharmacother 2005 ; 39 : 527 – 32 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 46 Willison DJ , Muzzin LJ. Workload, data gathering, and quality of community pharmacists' advice . Med Care 1995 ; 33 : 29 – 40 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 47 Wolffers I . Drug information and sale practices in some pharmacies of Colombo, Sri Lanka . Soc Sci Med 1987 ; 25 : 319 – 21 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 48 Salamano M , Palchik V, Botta C, Colautti M, Perez B, Traverso M. Patient counseling in community pharmacies . Atencion Farmaceutica 2004 ; 6 : 144 – 8 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 49 Granas AG , Haugli A, Horn AM. Smoking cessation advice provided in 53 Norwegian pharmacies . Int J Pharm Pract 2004 ; 12 : 179 – 84 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 50 Puumalainen II , Peura SH, Kansanaho HM, Benrimoj CSI, Airaksinen MSA. Progress in patient counselling practices in Finnish community pharmacies . Int J Pharm Pract 2005 ; 13 : 149 – 56 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 51 Tuladhar SM , Mills S, Acharya S, Pradhan M, Pollock J, Dallabetta G. The role of pharmacists in HIV/STD prevention: evaluation of an STD syndromic management intervention in Nepal . AIDS 1998 ; 12 ( suppl. 2 ): S81 – 7 . Google Scholar PubMed OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 52 Caamano F , Ruano A, Figueiras A, Gesta-Otero JJ. Data collection methods for analyzing the quality of the dispensing in pharmacies . Pharm World Sci 2002 ; 24 : 217 – 23 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 53 Goel P , Ross-Degnan D, Berman P, Soumerai S. Retail pharmacies in developing countries: a behaviour and intervention framework . Soc Sci Med 1996 ; 42 : 1155 – 61 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 54 Madden J , Quick J, Ross-Degnan D, Kafle K. Undercover careseekers: Simulated clients in the study of health provider behaviour in developing countries . Soc Sci Med 1997 ; 10 : 1465 – 82 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 55 Morrison LJ , Colman AM, Preston CC. Mystery customer research: cognitive processes affecting accuracy . J Market Res Soc 1997 ; 39 : 349 – 61 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 56 Sangani P , Rutherford G, Wilkinson D. Population-based interventions for reducing sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection (Cochrane Review) . The Cochrane Library Issue 2. Oxford : Update Software ; 2005 . Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat COPAC 57 Salas E , Burke CS. Simulation for training is effective when… Qual Saf Health Care 2002 ; 11 : 119 – 20 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 58 Sokar-Todd HB , Einarson TR. Community pharmacy practice research: a systematic review of the past 32 years . Can Pharm J 2003 ; 136 : 26 – 38 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 59 Dyck A , Deschamps M, Taylor J. Pharmacists' discussions of medication side effects: a descriptive study . Patient Educ Counsel 2005 ; 56 : 21 – 7 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 60 Bennett W , Petraitix C, D'Anella A, Marcella S. Pharmacists' knowledge and the difficulty of obtaining emergency contraception . Contraception 2003 ; 68 : 261 – 7 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 61 Kelly F , Sare AT, Williams A, Benrimoj SI. Non-prescription medicine supply: protocols and practice . Int J Pharm Pract 2002 ; 10 ( suppl. ): R72 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 62 Schulz KF . Subverting randomization in controlled trials . J Am Med Assoc 1995 ; 274 : 1456 – 8 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 63 Sigrist T , Benrimoj SI, Hersberger K, Langford J. Changing pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' practice in dealing with direct requests for non-prescription analgesics . Int J Pharm Pract 2002 ; 10 : 23 – 9 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 64 Beullens J , Rethans JJ, Goedhuys J, Buntinx F. The use of standardized patients in research in general practice . Fam Pract 1997 ; 14 : 58 – 62 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 65 Yelland M . Standardized patients in the assessment of general practice consulting skills . Med Educ 1998 ; 32 : 8 – 13 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 66 Colliver J , Swartz M. Assessing clinical performance with standardized patients . J Am Med Assoc 1997 ; 278 : 790 – 1 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 67 Nuffield Council on Bioethics . The ethics of clinical research in developing countries . London : Nuffield Council on Bioethics ; 1999 . Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat COPAC 68 Ward J , Proude E, Shah S. Use of simulated (standardised) patients to evaluate pre/post-test HIV counselling in general practice . Report no: GPEP SG 496. Sydney : Central Sydney Area Health Service ; 1998 . Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat COPAC 2006 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model) 2006 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png International Journal of Pharmacy Practice Oxford University Press

A systematic review of the use of simulated patients and pharmacy practice research

Loading next page...
 
/lp/oxford-university-press/a-systematic-review-of-the-use-of-simulated-patients-and-pharmacy-SfbO0d007r

References (67)

Publisher
Oxford University Press
Copyright
Copyright © 2022 Royal Pharmaceutical Society
ISSN
0961-7671
eISSN
2042-7174
DOI
10.1211/ijpp.14.2.0002
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract Objective The use of simulated patients to assess current practice, or to derive outcome measures for pharmacy practice research, has received much attention in recent years. A simulated patient is an individual who is trained to visit a pharmacy to enact a scenario testing specific behaviour of the pharmacist or pharmacy staff. The aim of this study was to provide a definitive review of the use of simulated patients as a methodological tool for pharmacy practice research. Method A systematic review was undertaken to identify all pharmacy practice studies that had used simulated patient methodology. The electronic databases searched to identify relevant studies were MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL. Articles fulfilling all the following criteria were considered for inclusion in the review: primary reports of trials conducted in community pharmacy and drug store settings which used simulated patients to derive outcome measures. The review was not restricted by language or by country. The review was restricted to publications from 1976 to May 2005. Key findings In total, 56 full publications were retrieved for further examination, of which 46 studies were included in the review, including: nine randomised controlled trials, three controlled trials, 30 cross-sectional, two time-series and two ‘other’ studies. Ten publications were excluded: seven reviews, one laboratory-based study, one telephone survey and one study presented only as an abstract. Conclusions There has been steady growth in the use of simulated patient methodology over the past 30 years. Although simulated patients have received negative attention in the pharmaceutical media, they can be a rigorous and robust method of measuring practice if used appropriately. This review demonstrates the range of activities for which this method can be used, including the assessment of counselling and advice provision, the treatment of minor and major illness, and the assessment of the public health activities of pharmacy and drug store staff. Simulated patient methodology has been used in developing countries to a similar, if not greater extent, than the developed world, demonstrating its versatility and applicability to pharmacy practice research globally. Acknowledgements MW was funded by a Medical Research Council Special Fellowship in Health Services Research. PN was funded by the School of Pharmacy, University of Otago. AG was funded by Apoforsk (Institute for Pharmacy Practice Research). We thank Isabella McNeish for her assistance with this review. References 1 Can your pharmacist cope ? Which? 2004 (February) : 10 – 13 . 2 Pharmacists in crisis . Which? 1996 (January) : 18 – 21 . 3 Norris P . Reasons why mystery shopping is a useful and justifiable research method . Pharm J 2004 ; 272 : 746 – 7 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 4 Watson MC , Skelton JR, Bond CM et al. Simulated patients in the community pharmacy setting . Pharm World Sci 2004 ; 26 : 32 – 7 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 5 Finn A , Kayande U. Unmasking a phantom: a psychometric assessment of mystery shopping . J Retail 1999 ; 75 : 195 – 217 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 6 Market Research Society . MRS code and guidelines: guidelines on mystery customer research . London : Market Research Society ; 2003 . Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat COPAC 7 Chalker J , Ratanawijitrasin S, Chuc NTK, Petzold M, Tomson G. Effectiveness of a multi-component intervention on dispensing practices at private pharmacies in Vietnam and Thailand - a randomized controlled trial . Soc Sci Med 2005 ; 60 : 131 – 41 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 8 Garcia P , Gotuzzo E, Hughes J, Holmes K. Syndromic management of STDs in pharmacies: evaluation and randomised intervention trial . Sex Transm Infect 1998 ; 74 ( suppl. 1 ): S153 – 8 . Google Scholar PubMed OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 9 Garcia P , Hughes J, Carcamo C, Holmes KK. Training pharmacy workers in recognition, management, and prevention of STDs: district-randomized controlled trial . Bulletin WHO 2003 ; 81 : 806 – 14 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 10 Neto A , Benrimoj S, Kavanagh D, Boakes R. Novel educational training program for community pharmacists . Am J Pharm Educ 2000 ; 64 (Autumn): 302 – 7 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 11 Neto A , Benrimoj S, Kavanagh D, Boakes R. A pharmacy based protocol and training programme for non-prescription analgesics . J Soc Admin Pharm 2000 ; 17 : 183 – 92 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 12 Ratanajamit C , Chongsuvivatwong V, Geater AF. A randomized controlled educational intervention on emergency contraception among drugstore personnel in Southern Thailand . J Am Med Womens Assoc 2002 ; 57 : 196 – 200 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 13 Ross-Degnan D , Soumerai S, Goel P et al. The impact of face-to-face educational outreach on diarrhoea treatment in pharmacies . Health Policy Plan 1996 ; 11 : 308 – 18 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 14 Sigrist T , Benrimoj S, Hersberger K, Langford J. Changing pharmacists' and pharmacist assistants' practice in dealing with direct requests for non-prescription analgesics . Int J Pharm Pract 2002 ; 10 : 23 – 9 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 15 Watson MC , Bond CM, Grimshaw JM, Mollison J, Ludbrook A, Walker A. Educational strategies to promote evidence-based community pharmacy practice: a cluster randomised controlled trial (RCT) . Fam Pract 2002 ; 19 : 529 – 36 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 16 Adu-Sarkodie Y , Steiner MJ, Attafuah J, Tweedy K. Syndromic management of urethral discharge in Ghanaian pharmacies . Sex Transm Inf 2000 ; 76 : 439 – 42 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 17 Anderson A . A controlled study of the effect of a health promotion training scheme on pharmacists' advice about smoking cessation . J Soc Admin Pharm 1995 ; 12 : 115 – 24 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 18 Pick S , Reyes J, Alvarez M, Cohen S, Craige J, Troya A. AIDS prevention training for pharmacy workers in Mexico City . AIDS Care 1996 ; 8 : 55 – 69 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 19 Amidi S , Ajamee G, Sadeghi H, Yourshalmi P, Gharehjeh A. Dispensing drugs without prescription and treating patients by pharmacy attendants in Shiraz, Iran . Public Health Briefs 1978 ; 68 : 495 – 7 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 20 Anderson C , Bissell P. Using semi covert research to evaluate an emergency hormonal contraception service . Pharm World Sci 2004 ; 26 : 102 – 6 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 21 Anderson C , Alexander A. Response to dysmennorhoea: an assessment of pharmacists' knowledge and its application in practice . Int J Pharm Pract 1993 ; 2 : 180 – 3 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 22 Chalker J , Chuc NTK, Falkenberg T, Do NT, Tomson G. STD management by private pharmacies in Hanoi: practice and knowledge of drug sellers . Sex Transm Inf 2000 ; 76 : 299 – 302 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 23 Cohen MM , Dunn S, Cockeril R, Brown TER. Using a secret shopper to evaluate pharmacist provision of emergency contraception . Can Pharm J 2004 ; 137 : 28 – 33 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 24 Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG , Koliofoti ID, Koutroumpa IC, Giannakakis IA, Ioannidis JPA. Pathways for inappropriate dispensing of antibiotics for rhinosinusitis: a randomized trial . Clin Infect Dis 2001 ; 33 : 76 – 82 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 25 Dennis RJ , Lozano JM. Ethical challenges in pharmcoepidemiological research in Colombia . Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2001 ; 10 : 613 – 18 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 26 Eng HJ , Bulfer BA, Doering PL, Kimberling CL. Assessment of the Florida pharmacist self-care consultant law using a trained shopper method . J Pharm Mark Manage 1991 ; 5 : 27 – 52 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 27 Goodburn E , Mattosinho S, Mongi P, Waterston A. Management of childhood diarrhoea by pharmacists and parents: is Britain lagging behind the Third World BMJ 1991 ; 302 : 440 – 3 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 28 Igun U . Reported and actual prescription of oral rehydration therapy for childhood diarrhoeas by retail pharmacists in Nigeria . Soc Sci Med 1994 ; 39 : 797 – 806 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 29 Kafle KK , Madden JM, Shrestha AD et al. Can licensed drug sellers contribute to safe motherhood? A survey of the treatment of pregnancy-related anaemia in Nepal . Soc Sci Med 1996 ; 42 : 1577 – 88 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 30 Krska J , Greenwood R, Howitt E. Audit of advice provided in response to symptoms . Pharm J 1994 ; 252 : 93 – 6 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 31 Lambert M , Delgado R, Michaux G, Volz A, Van Der Stuyft , P. Tuberculosis control and the private health sector in Bolivia: a survey of pharmacies . Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 20 ; 8 : 1325 – 9 . OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 32 Lamsam GD , Kropff MA. Community pharmacists' assessments and recommendations for treatment in four care scenarios . Ann Pharmacother 1998 ; 32 : 409 – 16 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 33 Leiva A , Shaw M, Paine K, Manneh K, McAdam K, Mayaud P. Management of sexually transmitted diseases in urban pharmacies in The Gambia . Int J STD AIDS 2001 ; 12 : 444 – 52 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 34 Lewis JH , Schonlau M, Munoz JA et al. Compliance among pharmacists in California with a prescription-drug discount program for medicine beneficiaries . N Engl J Med 2002 ; 346 : 830 – 5 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 35 Leyva FR , Bronfman PM, Erviti EJ. Simulated client in drugstores: prescriptive behaviour of drugstore attendants . J Soc Admin Pharm 2000 ; 17 : 151 – 8 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 36 Mason HI , Svarstad BL. Medication counseling behaviours and attitudes of rural community pharmacists . Drug Intell Clin Pharm 1984 ; 18 : 409 – 14 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 37 Mobey N , Wood A, Edwards C, Jepson MH. An assessment of the response to symptoms in community pharmacies . Pharm J 1986 ; 237 : 807 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 38 Norris P . Which sort of pharmacies provide more patient counselling J Health Serv Res Policy 2002 ; 7 ( suppl. 1 ): 23 – 8 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 39 Ratanajamit C , Chongsuvivatwong V. Survey of knowledge and practice on oral contraceptive and emergency contraceptive pills of drugstore personnel in Hat Yai, Thailand . Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf 2001 ; 10 : 149 – 56 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 40 Rutter PM , Horsley E, Brown DT. Evaluation of community pharmacists' recommendations to standardized patient scenarios . Ann Pharmacother 2004 ; 38 : 1080 – 5 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 41 Sierralta OE , Scott DM. Pharmacists as nonprescription drug advisors . Am Pharm 1995 ;NS35( 5 ): 36 – 8 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 42 Thamlikitkul V . Antibiotic dispensing by drug store personnel in Bangkok, Thailand . J Antimicrob Chemother 1988 ; 21 : 125 – 31 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 43 Thornley T , Gray N, Anderson C, Eastham S. A study to investigate the extent of delivery of an intervention in asthma, in a UK national community pharmacy chain, using mystery customers . Patient Educ Couns 2006 ; 60 : 246 – 52 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 44 Tomson G , Sterky G. Self-prescribing by way of pharmacies in three Asian developing countries . Lancet 1986 September : 620 – 2 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 45 Vacca C , Orozco J, Figueras A, Capella D. Assessment of risks related to medicine dispensing by nonprofessionals in Colombia: clinical case simulations . Ann Pharmacother 2005 ; 39 : 527 – 32 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 46 Willison DJ , Muzzin LJ. Workload, data gathering, and quality of community pharmacists' advice . Med Care 1995 ; 33 : 29 – 40 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 47 Wolffers I . Drug information and sale practices in some pharmacies of Colombo, Sri Lanka . Soc Sci Med 1987 ; 25 : 319 – 21 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 48 Salamano M , Palchik V, Botta C, Colautti M, Perez B, Traverso M. Patient counseling in community pharmacies . Atencion Farmaceutica 2004 ; 6 : 144 – 8 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 49 Granas AG , Haugli A, Horn AM. Smoking cessation advice provided in 53 Norwegian pharmacies . Int J Pharm Pract 2004 ; 12 : 179 – 84 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 50 Puumalainen II , Peura SH, Kansanaho HM, Benrimoj CSI, Airaksinen MSA. Progress in patient counselling practices in Finnish community pharmacies . Int J Pharm Pract 2005 ; 13 : 149 – 56 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 51 Tuladhar SM , Mills S, Acharya S, Pradhan M, Pollock J, Dallabetta G. The role of pharmacists in HIV/STD prevention: evaluation of an STD syndromic management intervention in Nepal . AIDS 1998 ; 12 ( suppl. 2 ): S81 – 7 . Google Scholar PubMed OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 52 Caamano F , Ruano A, Figueiras A, Gesta-Otero JJ. Data collection methods for analyzing the quality of the dispensing in pharmacies . Pharm World Sci 2002 ; 24 : 217 – 23 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 53 Goel P , Ross-Degnan D, Berman P, Soumerai S. Retail pharmacies in developing countries: a behaviour and intervention framework . Soc Sci Med 1996 ; 42 : 1155 – 61 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 54 Madden J , Quick J, Ross-Degnan D, Kafle K. Undercover careseekers: Simulated clients in the study of health provider behaviour in developing countries . Soc Sci Med 1997 ; 10 : 1465 – 82 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 55 Morrison LJ , Colman AM, Preston CC. Mystery customer research: cognitive processes affecting accuracy . J Market Res Soc 1997 ; 39 : 349 – 61 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 56 Sangani P , Rutherford G, Wilkinson D. Population-based interventions for reducing sexually transmitted infections, including HIV infection (Cochrane Review) . The Cochrane Library Issue 2. Oxford : Update Software ; 2005 . Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat COPAC 57 Salas E , Burke CS. Simulation for training is effective when… Qual Saf Health Care 2002 ; 11 : 119 – 20 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 58 Sokar-Todd HB , Einarson TR. Community pharmacy practice research: a systematic review of the past 32 years . Can Pharm J 2003 ; 136 : 26 – 38 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 59 Dyck A , Deschamps M, Taylor J. Pharmacists' discussions of medication side effects: a descriptive study . Patient Educ Counsel 2005 ; 56 : 21 – 7 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 60 Bennett W , Petraitix C, D'Anella A, Marcella S. Pharmacists' knowledge and the difficulty of obtaining emergency contraception . Contraception 2003 ; 68 : 261 – 7 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 61 Kelly F , Sare AT, Williams A, Benrimoj SI. Non-prescription medicine supply: protocols and practice . Int J Pharm Pract 2002 ; 10 ( suppl. ): R72 . Google Scholar OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat 62 Schulz KF . Subverting randomization in controlled trials . J Am Med Assoc 1995 ; 274 : 1456 – 8 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 63 Sigrist T , Benrimoj SI, Hersberger K, Langford J. Changing pharmacists' and pharmacy assistants' practice in dealing with direct requests for non-prescription analgesics . Int J Pharm Pract 2002 ; 10 : 23 – 9 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 64 Beullens J , Rethans JJ, Goedhuys J, Buntinx F. The use of standardized patients in research in general practice . Fam Pract 1997 ; 14 : 58 – 62 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS PubMed WorldCat 65 Yelland M . Standardized patients in the assessment of general practice consulting skills . Med Educ 1998 ; 32 : 8 – 13 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 66 Colliver J , Swartz M. Assessing clinical performance with standardized patients . J Am Med Assoc 1997 ; 278 : 790 – 1 . Google Scholar Crossref Search ADS WorldCat 67 Nuffield Council on Bioethics . The ethics of clinical research in developing countries . London : Nuffield Council on Bioethics ; 1999 . Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat COPAC 68 Ward J , Proude E, Shah S. Use of simulated (standardised) patients to evaluate pre/post-test HIV counselling in general practice . Report no: GPEP SG 496. Sydney : Central Sydney Area Health Service ; 1998 . Google Scholar Google Preview OpenURL Placeholder Text WorldCat COPAC 2006 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain This article is published and distributed under the terms of the Oxford University Press, Standard Journals Publication Model (https://academic.oup.com/journals/pages/open_access/funder_policies/chorus/standard_publication_model) 2006 Royal Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain

Journal

International Journal of Pharmacy PracticeOxford University Press

Published: Feb 18, 2010

There are no references for this article.