Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Subscribe now for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs

Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and... Abstract An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by growing pigs of AA in soybean meal (SBM) produced in different regions of the United States. Twenty-two growing barrows (25.5 ± 1.73 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula near the distal ileum and allotted to a 22 × 8 Youden square design. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from soybean crushing plants located throughout the United States. For analysis, the crushing plant locations were separated into the following 3 zones: 1) Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota (n = 4); 2) Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio (n = 11); and 3) Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska (n = 7). Dietary treatments included 22 diets based on a mixture of cornstarch, sucrose, and each source of SBM as the sole source of CP. Results indicated that the concentration of most indispensable and dispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones. However, SBM from zone 2 had a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Thr than SBM from zone 3 and a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Gly than SBM from zone 1. The concentration of Tyr in SBM from zone 2 was also greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM from zones 1 and 3. However, if concentrations of AA were calculated as a percent of CP, there were no differences in the concentrations of indispensable and dispensable AA among SBM from the 3 zones. Likewise, the AID of CP and the AID of indispensable and dispensable AA were not different among SBM from the 3 zones. The SID of CP and most AA was also not different among SBM from the 3 zones. However, SBM from zone 3 had a greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Asp, and Cys than SBM from zone 2, and SBM from zone 1 had a greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys than SBM from zone 2. There was also a tendency (P < 0.10) for SBM from zone 3 to have a greater SID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, and Tyr than SBM from zone 2. If the concentrations of SID CP and AA were calculated as grams per kilogram, SBM among the 3 zones were not different with the exception that there was a tendency (P = 0.07) for SBM from zone 2 to contain more SID Thr and SID Tyr than SBM from zone 3. In conclusion, only a few differences in concentrations and digestibility of CP and AA exist among sources of SBM from different zones in the United States. These observations indicate that the protein value is not different among SBM produced in the United States regardless of the location of the crushing plants. INTRODUCTION In the 2014-2015 crop year, the United States, Brazil, Argentina, China, Paraguay, and India were the major global producers of soybeans, accounting for 92% of total world production and producing a total of 293.3 million t of soybeans (ASA, 2015). The United States is the top soybean producer in the world, with a total production of 107 million t of soybeans in 2015. In the United States, soybean meal (SBM) is the most commonly used protein source in swine diets (Shelton et al., 2001) and accounts for 26% of total SBM consumption (Stein et al., 2008). Soybeans grown in the northern United States have a decreased CP concentration compared with soybeans grown further south because of fewer growing days and fewer hours of sunlight (Dudley-Cash, 1999). A decrease in growing days and hours of sunlight allows the soybean plant less time for N fixation and, therefore, reduced protein synthesis. Because traditional CP assays measure N content, these samples tend to have decreased CP values compared with SBM from other parts of the United States. However, the protein in SBM produced in the northern United States may sometimes have greater concentrations of indispensable AA (Grieshop et al., 2003), but this is not always the case. Research has been conducted to compare the nutritional value of SBM produced in different parts of the world (Karr-Lilienthal et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2011; Ravindran et al., 2014); however, no research has been conducted to compare the digestibility of AA among SBM produced in different regions of the United States. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that known differences in CP in soybeans grown in different areas of the United States will also result in differences in the quantities of digestible AA that are present in SBM produced from crushing plants located in different regions of the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Illinois reviewed and approved the protocol for the experiment. Twenty-two growing barrows (initial BW, 25.5 ± 1.73 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula near the distal ileum and allotted to a 22 × 8 Youden square design with 22 pigs and 8 periods. Pigs were placed in individual pens (1.2 by 1.5 m) that were equipped with a self-feeder, a nipple waterer, and a slatted tri-bar floor. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from crushing facilities in different regions of the United States (Tables 1, 2, and 3;  Appendix Table A1) in the spring and summer of 2012. The dietary treatments included 22 diets based on a mixture of cornstarch, sucrose, and each source of SBM, with SBM as the only source of AA in the diets (Table 4). Vitamins and minerals were included in all diets to meet or exceed the estimated nutrient requirements for growing pigs (NRC, 2012). All diets were fed in meal form. Feed consumption was recorded daily, and individual pig weights were recorded at the beginning of each period to determine feed allowance during the period. Pigs were limit fed to 3 times their estimated energy requirement for maintenance (i.e., 197 kcal of ME/kg0.60; NRC, 2012), but throughout the experiment, pigs had ad libitum access to water. The experiment had a total of 8 periods, with each period lasting 7 d. The first 5 d of each period were considered the adaptation period to the diet, whereas ileal digesta were collected for 8 h on d 6 and 7 of each period. A 225-mL plastic bag was attached to the cannula barrel using a cable tie and digesta flowing into the bag were collected. Bags were removed every 30 min, or whenever full, and replaced with a new bag. Digesta were stored at −20°C immediately after collection. Table 1. Locations of the crushing plants for the 22 sources of soybean meal used in the experiment State  Zone  No. of samples      Michigan  1  1      Minnesota  1  2      South Dakota  1  1      Georgia  2  1      Illinois  2  5      Indiana  2  3      Ohio  2  2      Iowa  3  3      Missouri  3  2      Nebraska  3  2  Total  3  22  State  Zone  No. of samples      Michigan  1  1      Minnesota  1  2      South Dakota  1  1      Georgia  2  1      Illinois  2  5      Indiana  2  3      Ohio  2  2      Iowa  3  3      Missouri  3  2      Nebraska  3  2  Total  3  22  View Large Table 1. Locations of the crushing plants for the 22 sources of soybean meal used in the experiment State  Zone  No. of samples      Michigan  1  1      Minnesota  1  2      South Dakota  1  1      Georgia  2  1      Illinois  2  5      Indiana  2  3      Ohio  2  2      Iowa  3  3      Missouri  3  2      Nebraska  3  2  Total  3  22  State  Zone  No. of samples      Michigan  1  1      Minnesota  1  2      South Dakota  1  1      Georgia  2  1      Illinois  2  5      Indiana  2  3      Ohio  2  2      Iowa  3  3      Missouri  3  2      Nebraska  3  2  Total  3  22  View Large Table 2. Analyzed nutrient composition of soybean meal (as-fed basis)   Zone1        Item  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP3, %  46.64xy  48.27x  46.50y  47.41  0.65  0.039  DM, %  88.60  88.85  88.30  88.63  0.35  0.444  NDF, %  7.78  7.54  8.21  7.84  0.81  0.794  ADF, %  4.81  5.00  4.89  4.90  0.29  0.890  Indispensable, AA %                Arg  3.36  3.45  3.37  3.41  0.04  0.203      His  1.18  1.22  1.19  1.21  0.01  0.106      Ile  2.05  2.17  2.11  2.13  0.05  0.262      Leu  3.58  3.67  3.56  3.62  0.04  0.057      Lys  3.00  3.06  2.99  3.03  0.04  0.249      Met  0.64  0.64  0.62  0.63  0.01  0.375      Phe  2.26  2.33  2.26  2.30  0.03  0.098      Thr  1.75ab  1.80a  1.73b  1.77  0.02  0.010      Trp  0.70  0.71  0.69  0.70  0.01  0.322      Val  2.17  2.29  2.24  2.26  0.05  0.319  Dispensable, AA %                Ala3  1.96y  2.01x  1.96y  1.98  0.02  0.048      Asp  5.09  5.20  5.07  5.14  0.05  0.108      Cys  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.62  0.01  0.318      Glu  7.71  7.79  7.68  7.74  0.10  0.635      Gly  1.89b  1.96a  1.91ab  1.93  0.02  0.018      Pro  2.25  2.28  2.23  2.26  0.02  0.164      Ser  2.15  2.16  2.08  2.13  0.03  0.188      Tyr  1.65b  1.71a  1.66b  1.68  0.02  0.016      Total AA  44.00  45.09  43.97  44.54  0.47  0.107  TIU4, units/mg  3.73  3.03  3.26  3.29  0.44  0.553    Zone1        Item  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP3, %  46.64xy  48.27x  46.50y  47.41  0.65  0.039  DM, %  88.60  88.85  88.30  88.63  0.35  0.444  NDF, %  7.78  7.54  8.21  7.84  0.81  0.794  ADF, %  4.81  5.00  4.89  4.90  0.29  0.890  Indispensable, AA %                Arg  3.36  3.45  3.37  3.41  0.04  0.203      His  1.18  1.22  1.19  1.21  0.01  0.106      Ile  2.05  2.17  2.11  2.13  0.05  0.262      Leu  3.58  3.67  3.56  3.62  0.04  0.057      Lys  3.00  3.06  2.99  3.03  0.04  0.249      Met  0.64  0.64  0.62  0.63  0.01  0.375      Phe  2.26  2.33  2.26  2.30  0.03  0.098      Thr  1.75ab  1.80a  1.73b  1.77  0.02  0.010      Trp  0.70  0.71  0.69  0.70  0.01  0.322      Val  2.17  2.29  2.24  2.26  0.05  0.319  Dispensable, AA %                Ala3  1.96y  2.01x  1.96y  1.98  0.02  0.048      Asp  5.09  5.20  5.07  5.14  0.05  0.108      Cys  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.62  0.01  0.318      Glu  7.71  7.79  7.68  7.74  0.10  0.635      Gly  1.89b  1.96a  1.91ab  1.93  0.02  0.018      Pro  2.25  2.28  2.23  2.26  0.02  0.164      Ser  2.15  2.16  2.08  2.13  0.03  0.188      Tyr  1.65b  1.71a  1.66b  1.68  0.02  0.016      Total AA  44.00  45.09  43.97  44.54  0.47  0.107  TIU4, units/mg  3.73  3.03  3.26  3.29  0.44  0.553  a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05). 1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2Th average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. 3Means were separated with Tukey adjustment and means within a row lacking a common superscript letter (x,y) tend to be different (P < 0.10). 4TIU = trypsin inhibitor units. View Large Table 2. Analyzed nutrient composition of soybean meal (as-fed basis)   Zone1        Item  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP3, %  46.64xy  48.27x  46.50y  47.41  0.65  0.039  DM, %  88.60  88.85  88.30  88.63  0.35  0.444  NDF, %  7.78  7.54  8.21  7.84  0.81  0.794  ADF, %  4.81  5.00  4.89  4.90  0.29  0.890  Indispensable, AA %                Arg  3.36  3.45  3.37  3.41  0.04  0.203      His  1.18  1.22  1.19  1.21  0.01  0.106      Ile  2.05  2.17  2.11  2.13  0.05  0.262      Leu  3.58  3.67  3.56  3.62  0.04  0.057      Lys  3.00  3.06  2.99  3.03  0.04  0.249      Met  0.64  0.64  0.62  0.63  0.01  0.375      Phe  2.26  2.33  2.26  2.30  0.03  0.098      Thr  1.75ab  1.80a  1.73b  1.77  0.02  0.010      Trp  0.70  0.71  0.69  0.70  0.01  0.322      Val  2.17  2.29  2.24  2.26  0.05  0.319  Dispensable, AA %                Ala3  1.96y  2.01x  1.96y  1.98  0.02  0.048      Asp  5.09  5.20  5.07  5.14  0.05  0.108      Cys  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.62  0.01  0.318      Glu  7.71  7.79  7.68  7.74  0.10  0.635      Gly  1.89b  1.96a  1.91ab  1.93  0.02  0.018      Pro  2.25  2.28  2.23  2.26  0.02  0.164      Ser  2.15  2.16  2.08  2.13  0.03  0.188      Tyr  1.65b  1.71a  1.66b  1.68  0.02  0.016      Total AA  44.00  45.09  43.97  44.54  0.47  0.107  TIU4, units/mg  3.73  3.03  3.26  3.29  0.44  0.553    Zone1        Item  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP3, %  46.64xy  48.27x  46.50y  47.41  0.65  0.039  DM, %  88.60  88.85  88.30  88.63  0.35  0.444  NDF, %  7.78  7.54  8.21  7.84  0.81  0.794  ADF, %  4.81  5.00  4.89  4.90  0.29  0.890  Indispensable, AA %                Arg  3.36  3.45  3.37  3.41  0.04  0.203      His  1.18  1.22  1.19  1.21  0.01  0.106      Ile  2.05  2.17  2.11  2.13  0.05  0.262      Leu  3.58  3.67  3.56  3.62  0.04  0.057      Lys  3.00  3.06  2.99  3.03  0.04  0.249      Met  0.64  0.64  0.62  0.63  0.01  0.375      Phe  2.26  2.33  2.26  2.30  0.03  0.098      Thr  1.75ab  1.80a  1.73b  1.77  0.02  0.010      Trp  0.70  0.71  0.69  0.70  0.01  0.322      Val  2.17  2.29  2.24  2.26  0.05  0.319  Dispensable, AA %                Ala3  1.96y  2.01x  1.96y  1.98  0.02  0.048      Asp  5.09  5.20  5.07  5.14  0.05  0.108      Cys  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.62  0.01  0.318      Glu  7.71  7.79  7.68  7.74  0.10  0.635      Gly  1.89b  1.96a  1.91ab  1.93  0.02  0.018      Pro  2.25  2.28  2.23  2.26  0.02  0.164      Ser  2.15  2.16  2.08  2.13  0.03  0.188      Tyr  1.65b  1.71a  1.66b  1.68  0.02  0.016      Total AA  44.00  45.09  43.97  44.54  0.47  0.107  TIU4, units/mg  3.73  3.03  3.26  3.29  0.44  0.553  a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05). 1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2Th average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. 3Means were separated with Tukey adjustment and means within a row lacking a common superscript letter (x,y) tend to be different (P < 0.10). 4TIU = trypsin inhibitor units. View Large Table 3. Concentrations of AA in soybean meal expressed as a percent of CP   Zone1        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  Indispensable AA                Arg  7.21  7.14  7.25  7.19  0.06  0.344      His  2.54  2.54  2.56  2.54  0.03  0.635      Ile  4.38  4.49  4.54  4.48  0.10  0.588      Leu  7.66  7.61  7.65  7.64  0.07  0.841      Lys  6.42  6.35  6.43  6.39  0.06  0.453      Met  1.37  1.32  1.34  1.34  0.02  0.203      Phe  4.85  4.84  4.86  4.85  0.05  0.957      Thr  3.76  3.73  3.73  3.73  0.03  0.841      Trp  1.50  1.47  1.49  1.48  0.02  0.253      Val  4.65  4.76  4.83  4.76  0.11  0.588      Mean  44.33  44.25  44.68  44.40  0.45  0.723  Dispensable AA                Ala  4.21  4.16  4.21  4.19  0.04  0.637      Asp  10.92  10.79  10.90  10.85  0.10  0.549      Cys  1.34  1.31  1.32  1.32  0.02  0.752      Glu  16.54  16.15  16.51  16.34  0.25  0.388      Gly  4.06  4.07  4.11  4.08  0.04  0.629      Pro  4.82  4.72  4.79  4.76  0.05  0.255      Ser  4.62  4.47  4.48  4.50  0.07  0.342      Tyr  3.54  3.54  3.57  3.55  0.03  0.828      Mean  50.03  49.22  49.89  49.58  0.50  0.414      Total AA  94.36  93.47  94.57  93.98  0.89  0.553    Zone1        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  Indispensable AA                Arg  7.21  7.14  7.25  7.19  0.06  0.344      His  2.54  2.54  2.56  2.54  0.03  0.635      Ile  4.38  4.49  4.54  4.48  0.10  0.588      Leu  7.66  7.61  7.65  7.64  0.07  0.841      Lys  6.42  6.35  6.43  6.39  0.06  0.453      Met  1.37  1.32  1.34  1.34  0.02  0.203      Phe  4.85  4.84  4.86  4.85  0.05  0.957      Thr  3.76  3.73  3.73  3.73  0.03  0.841      Trp  1.50  1.47  1.49  1.48  0.02  0.253      Val  4.65  4.76  4.83  4.76  0.11  0.588      Mean  44.33  44.25  44.68  44.40  0.45  0.723  Dispensable AA                Ala  4.21  4.16  4.21  4.19  0.04  0.637      Asp  10.92  10.79  10.90  10.85  0.10  0.549      Cys  1.34  1.31  1.32  1.32  0.02  0.752      Glu  16.54  16.15  16.51  16.34  0.25  0.388      Gly  4.06  4.07  4.11  4.08  0.04  0.629      Pro  4.82  4.72  4.79  4.76  0.05  0.255      Ser  4.62  4.47  4.48  4.50  0.07  0.342      Tyr  3.54  3.54  3.57  3.55  0.03  0.828      Mean  50.03  49.22  49.89  49.58  0.50  0.414      Total AA  94.36  93.47  94.57  93.98  0.89  0.553  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 3. Concentrations of AA in soybean meal expressed as a percent of CP   Zone1        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  Indispensable AA                Arg  7.21  7.14  7.25  7.19  0.06  0.344      His  2.54  2.54  2.56  2.54  0.03  0.635      Ile  4.38  4.49  4.54  4.48  0.10  0.588      Leu  7.66  7.61  7.65  7.64  0.07  0.841      Lys  6.42  6.35  6.43  6.39  0.06  0.453      Met  1.37  1.32  1.34  1.34  0.02  0.203      Phe  4.85  4.84  4.86  4.85  0.05  0.957      Thr  3.76  3.73  3.73  3.73  0.03  0.841      Trp  1.50  1.47  1.49  1.48  0.02  0.253      Val  4.65  4.76  4.83  4.76  0.11  0.588      Mean  44.33  44.25  44.68  44.40  0.45  0.723  Dispensable AA                Ala  4.21  4.16  4.21  4.19  0.04  0.637      Asp  10.92  10.79  10.90  10.85  0.10  0.549      Cys  1.34  1.31  1.32  1.32  0.02  0.752      Glu  16.54  16.15  16.51  16.34  0.25  0.388      Gly  4.06  4.07  4.11  4.08  0.04  0.629      Pro  4.82  4.72  4.79  4.76  0.05  0.255      Ser  4.62  4.47  4.48  4.50  0.07  0.342      Tyr  3.54  3.54  3.57  3.55  0.03  0.828      Mean  50.03  49.22  49.89  49.58  0.50  0.414      Total AA  94.36  93.47  94.57  93.98  0.89  0.553    Zone1        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  Indispensable AA                Arg  7.21  7.14  7.25  7.19  0.06  0.344      His  2.54  2.54  2.56  2.54  0.03  0.635      Ile  4.38  4.49  4.54  4.48  0.10  0.588      Leu  7.66  7.61  7.65  7.64  0.07  0.841      Lys  6.42  6.35  6.43  6.39  0.06  0.453      Met  1.37  1.32  1.34  1.34  0.02  0.203      Phe  4.85  4.84  4.86  4.85  0.05  0.957      Thr  3.76  3.73  3.73  3.73  0.03  0.841      Trp  1.50  1.47  1.49  1.48  0.02  0.253      Val  4.65  4.76  4.83  4.76  0.11  0.588      Mean  44.33  44.25  44.68  44.40  0.45  0.723  Dispensable AA                Ala  4.21  4.16  4.21  4.19  0.04  0.637      Asp  10.92  10.79  10.90  10.85  0.10  0.549      Cys  1.34  1.31  1.32  1.32  0.02  0.752      Glu  16.54  16.15  16.51  16.34  0.25  0.388      Gly  4.06  4.07  4.11  4.08  0.04  0.629      Pro  4.82  4.72  4.79  4.76  0.05  0.255      Ser  4.62  4.47  4.48  4.50  0.07  0.342      Tyr  3.54  3.54  3.57  3.55  0.03  0.828      Mean  50.03  49.22  49.89  49.58  0.50  0.414      Total AA  94.36  93.47  94.57  93.98  0.89  0.553  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 4. Ingredient composition (as-fed basis) of experimental diets containing soybean meal1 Ingredient, %  Soybean meal diet      Soybean meal  35.00      Soybean oil  2.00      Cornstarch  49.72      Sucrose  10.00      Ground limestone  0.75      Monocalcium phosphate  1.55      Chromic oxide  0.40      Sodium chloride  0.40      Vitamin-mineral premix2  0.18  Total  100.00  Ingredient, %  Soybean meal diet      Soybean meal  35.00      Soybean oil  2.00      Cornstarch  49.72      Sucrose  10.00      Ground limestone  0.75      Monocalcium phosphate  1.55      Chromic oxide  0.40      Sodium chloride  0.40      Vitamin-mineral premix2  0.18  Total  100.00  1A total of 22 cornstarch-soybean meal diets were formulated using 22 different sources of soybean meal. Diets were formulated to contain 16.5% CP. 2The vitamin-micromineral premix provided the following quantities of vitamins and microminerals per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 6,682 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 1,325 IU; vitamin E as DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 40 IU; vitamin K as menadione dimethylprimidinol bisulfite, 0.85 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.14 mg; riboflavin, 3.95 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.14 mg; vitamin B12, 0.02 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 14.1 mg; niacin, 26.46 mg; folic acid, 0.95 mg; biotin, 0.26 mg; Cu as copper sulfate and copper chloride, 12 mg; Fe as ferrous sulfate, 75.6 mg; I as ethylenediamine dihydriodide, 0.76 mg; Mn as manganese sulfate, 36.12 mg; Se as sodium selenite and selenium yeast, 0.18 mg; and Zn as zinc sulfate, 75.06 mg. View Large Table 4. Ingredient composition (as-fed basis) of experimental diets containing soybean meal1 Ingredient, %  Soybean meal diet      Soybean meal  35.00      Soybean oil  2.00      Cornstarch  49.72      Sucrose  10.00      Ground limestone  0.75      Monocalcium phosphate  1.55      Chromic oxide  0.40      Sodium chloride  0.40      Vitamin-mineral premix2  0.18  Total  100.00  Ingredient, %  Soybean meal diet      Soybean meal  35.00      Soybean oil  2.00      Cornstarch  49.72      Sucrose  10.00      Ground limestone  0.75      Monocalcium phosphate  1.55      Chromic oxide  0.40      Sodium chloride  0.40      Vitamin-mineral premix2  0.18  Total  100.00  1A total of 22 cornstarch-soybean meal diets were formulated using 22 different sources of soybean meal. Diets were formulated to contain 16.5% CP. 2The vitamin-micromineral premix provided the following quantities of vitamins and microminerals per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 6,682 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 1,325 IU; vitamin E as DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 40 IU; vitamin K as menadione dimethylprimidinol bisulfite, 0.85 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.14 mg; riboflavin, 3.95 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.14 mg; vitamin B12, 0.02 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 14.1 mg; niacin, 26.46 mg; folic acid, 0.95 mg; biotin, 0.26 mg; Cu as copper sulfate and copper chloride, 12 mg; Fe as ferrous sulfate, 75.6 mg; I as ethylenediamine dihydriodide, 0.76 mg; Mn as manganese sulfate, 36.12 mg; Se as sodium selenite and selenium yeast, 0.18 mg; and Zn as zinc sulfate, 75.06 mg. View Large At the conclusion of the experiment, ileal digesta were thawed and mixed within animal and diet, and a subsample was collected for analysis. Samples of the diets and of each source of SBM were also collected. Ileal digesta were lyophilized and finely ground before analysis. Samples of diets, digesta, and SBM were analyzed for CP (method 990.03; AOAC International, 2007) and DM (method 930.15; AOAC International, 2007). These samples were also analyzed for AA (method 982.30 E [a, b, c]; AOAC International, 2007) at the Experiment Station Chemical Laboratories (University of Missouri, Columbus, MO), and diets and digesta samples were analyzed for chromium (method 990.08; AOAC International, 2007) at the same laboratory. Samples of SBM were analyzed for trypsin inhibitor concentration (method Ba 12–75; AOCS, 2006). Values for apparent ileal digestibility (AID) for CP and all AA in each diet were calculated according to Stein et al. (2007). By correcting AID values for basal endogenous losses, values for the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were calculated (Stein et al., 2007). Values for the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA were calculated as the average from 22 experiments conducted at the University of Illinois between 2007 and 2014. The concentrations of digestible AA were calculated by multiplying the concentration of each AA in each source of SBM by the SID of that AA and multiplied by 10 to be expressed in grams per kilogram. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). The normality of residuals and outliers were tested using the UNIVARIATE procedure of SAS. Means that deviated from the treatment mean by more than 3 times the interquartile range were considered outliers and removed. Data for the analyzed nutrient and AA composition, concentration of AA as percent of CP, and concentration of digestible AA in SBM were analyzed using a model that included zone as a fixed effect. Data for the AID and SID of AA were analyzed using a model that included the fixed effect of zone and period and the random effect of pig. Least squares means for each zone were calculated using the LSMeans procedure in SAS, and if significant differences were detected, means were separated using the PDIFF option with the Tukey adjustment and pooled SEM were calculated. Results were considered significant at a P value of ≤0.05 and a trend at a P value of ≤0.10. RESULTS The concentration of CP in SBM from zone 2 tended to be greater (P = 0.051) than that in SBM from zone 3 (Table 2). The concentration of DM, NDF, and ADF were not different among the 3 zones. The concentrations of most indispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones, but SBM from zone 2 had a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Thr than SBM from zone 3; this value was not different from SBM from zone 1. Likewise, there was a tendency (P = 0.067) for an increase in the concentration of Leu in SBM from zone 2 compared with SBM from zone 3. Concentrations of most dispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones, but SBM from zone 2 had a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Gly than SBM from zone 1; however, this value was not different from SBM from zone 3. Soybean meal from zone 2 had a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Tyr compared with SBM from zones 1 and 3. The concentration of Ala in SBM from zone 2 tended to be greater (P = 0.063) than in SBM from zone 3. However, if concentrations of AA were calculated as a percent of CP, there were no differences in the indispensable and dispensable AA among SBM from the 3 zones (Table 3). The outlier test identified 2 pigs that were outliers—1 pig was fed SBM from zone 2 in period 7 and 1 pig was fed SBM from zone 3 in period 1. These pigs were disregarded in data analyses and summary. The AID of CP and the AID of indispensable and dispensable AA were not different among SBM from the 3 zones (Table 5). Likewise, the SID of CP and the SID of Arg, Met, Thr, Trp, Glu, and Ser were not different among SBM from the 3 zones (Table 6). However, SBM from zone 3 had a greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Asp, and Cys than SBM from zone 2, but these values were not different from SBM from zone 1. Likewise, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) for a greater SID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, mean of indispensable AA, mean of dispensable AA, and total AA in SBM from zone 3 than in SBM from zone 2. The SID of Lys in SBM from zone 1 also tended to be greater (P = 0.077) than in SBM from zone 2. There was an effect of period only for the AID of Trp, Val, Ala, Cys, and Glu and for the SID of Thr, Trp, and Glu, but no interactions were observed. Table 5. Apparent ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal by growing pigs1   Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  85.12  84.06  84.62  84.46  0.61  0.360  Indispensable AA                Arg  92.40  92.48  92.93  92.61  0.31  0.343      His  90.39  89.88  90.62  90.21  0.36  0.197      Ile  89.03  88.47  89.13  88.79  0.40  0.260      Leu  89.14  88.53  89.18  88.85  0.41  0.221      Lys  89.08  88.21  88.80  88.55  0.46  0.254      Met  90.17  90.17  90.39  90.25  0.41  0.871      Phe  89.56  88.89  89.47  89.21  0.40  0.260      Thr  83.13  82.67  83.22  82.93  0.64  0.648      Trp  91.29  90.48  90.82  90.75  0.44  0.307      Val  86.65  86.13  86.92  86.48  0.53  0.329      Mean  88.94  88.55  89.16  88.89  0.39  0.364  Dispensable AA      Ala  83.97  83.43  84.43  83.86  0.66  0.321      Asp  87.95  87.08  88.01  87.54  0.49  0.147      Cys  81.63  80.26  81.83  81.03  0.77  0.114      Glu  89.81  89.41  89.78  89.62  0.59  0.729      Gly  75.51  74.14  75.64  74.95  1.28  0.422      Pro  68.13  63.78  63.28  64.62  3.31  0.191      Ser  88.02  87.74  88.07  87.90  0.43  0.747      Tyr  88.66  88.07  88.78  88.53  0.42  0.378      Mean  83.14  81.14  82.50  82.26  1.00  0.237      All AA  86.38  85.39  86.22  86.00  0.55  0.242    Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  85.12  84.06  84.62  84.46  0.61  0.360  Indispensable AA                Arg  92.40  92.48  92.93  92.61  0.31  0.343      His  90.39  89.88  90.62  90.21  0.36  0.197      Ile  89.03  88.47  89.13  88.79  0.40  0.260      Leu  89.14  88.53  89.18  88.85  0.41  0.221      Lys  89.08  88.21  88.80  88.55  0.46  0.254      Met  90.17  90.17  90.39  90.25  0.41  0.871      Phe  89.56  88.89  89.47  89.21  0.40  0.260      Thr  83.13  82.67  83.22  82.93  0.64  0.648      Trp  91.29  90.48  90.82  90.75  0.44  0.307      Val  86.65  86.13  86.92  86.48  0.53  0.329      Mean  88.94  88.55  89.16  88.89  0.39  0.364  Dispensable AA      Ala  83.97  83.43  84.43  83.86  0.66  0.321      Asp  87.95  87.08  88.01  87.54  0.49  0.147      Cys  81.63  80.26  81.83  81.03  0.77  0.114      Glu  89.81  89.41  89.78  89.62  0.59  0.729      Gly  75.51  74.14  75.64  74.95  1.28  0.422      Pro  68.13  63.78  63.28  64.62  3.31  0.191      Ser  88.02  87.74  88.07  87.90  0.43  0.747      Tyr  88.66  88.07  88.78  88.53  0.42  0.378      Mean  83.14  81.14  82.50  82.26  1.00  0.237      All AA  86.38  85.39  86.22  86.00  0.55  0.242  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone, 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 5. Apparent ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal by growing pigs1   Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  85.12  84.06  84.62  84.46  0.61  0.360  Indispensable AA                Arg  92.40  92.48  92.93  92.61  0.31  0.343      His  90.39  89.88  90.62  90.21  0.36  0.197      Ile  89.03  88.47  89.13  88.79  0.40  0.260      Leu  89.14  88.53  89.18  88.85  0.41  0.221      Lys  89.08  88.21  88.80  88.55  0.46  0.254      Met  90.17  90.17  90.39  90.25  0.41  0.871      Phe  89.56  88.89  89.47  89.21  0.40  0.260      Thr  83.13  82.67  83.22  82.93  0.64  0.648      Trp  91.29  90.48  90.82  90.75  0.44  0.307      Val  86.65  86.13  86.92  86.48  0.53  0.329      Mean  88.94  88.55  89.16  88.89  0.39  0.364  Dispensable AA      Ala  83.97  83.43  84.43  83.86  0.66  0.321      Asp  87.95  87.08  88.01  87.54  0.49  0.147      Cys  81.63  80.26  81.83  81.03  0.77  0.114      Glu  89.81  89.41  89.78  89.62  0.59  0.729      Gly  75.51  74.14  75.64  74.95  1.28  0.422      Pro  68.13  63.78  63.28  64.62  3.31  0.191      Ser  88.02  87.74  88.07  87.90  0.43  0.747      Tyr  88.66  88.07  88.78  88.53  0.42  0.378      Mean  83.14  81.14  82.50  82.26  1.00  0.237      All AA  86.38  85.39  86.22  86.00  0.55  0.242    Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  85.12  84.06  84.62  84.46  0.61  0.360  Indispensable AA                Arg  92.40  92.48  92.93  92.61  0.31  0.343      His  90.39  89.88  90.62  90.21  0.36  0.197      Ile  89.03  88.47  89.13  88.79  0.40  0.260      Leu  89.14  88.53  89.18  88.85  0.41  0.221      Lys  89.08  88.21  88.80  88.55  0.46  0.254      Met  90.17  90.17  90.39  90.25  0.41  0.871      Phe  89.56  88.89  89.47  89.21  0.40  0.260      Thr  83.13  82.67  83.22  82.93  0.64  0.648      Trp  91.29  90.48  90.82  90.75  0.44  0.307      Val  86.65  86.13  86.92  86.48  0.53  0.329      Mean  88.94  88.55  89.16  88.89  0.39  0.364  Dispensable AA      Ala  83.97  83.43  84.43  83.86  0.66  0.321      Asp  87.95  87.08  88.01  87.54  0.49  0.147      Cys  81.63  80.26  81.83  81.03  0.77  0.114      Glu  89.81  89.41  89.78  89.62  0.59  0.729      Gly  75.51  74.14  75.64  74.95  1.28  0.422      Pro  68.13  63.78  63.28  64.62  3.31  0.191      Ser  88.02  87.74  88.07  87.90  0.43  0.747      Tyr  88.66  88.07  88.78  88.53  0.42  0.378      Mean  83.14  81.14  82.50  82.26  1.00  0.237      All AA  86.38  85.39  86.22  86.00  0.55  0.242  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone, 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 6. Standardized ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal by growing pigs1,2   Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average3  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  95.66  94.28  94.94  94.78  0.58  0.120  Indispensable AA                Arg  98.17  97.98  98.27  98.06  0.29  0.676      His  94.88ab  94.12b  94.99a  94.59  0.33  0.049      Ile  93.79  93.12  93.92  93.52  0.37  0.090      Leu  93.50  92.80  93.62  93.22  0.39  0.074      Lys  93.57a  92.39b  93.18ab  92.97  0.44  0.049      Met  95.07  94.76  95.38  94.96  0.37  0.348      Phe  93.79  93.06  93.85  93.48  0.36  0.078      Thr  92.58  91.56  92.50  92.10  0.60  0.144      Trp  95.97  95.25  95.88  95.56  0.40  0.172      Val  93.54  92.63  93.69  93.16  0.48  0.060      Mean  94.47  93.73  94.50  94.23  0.36  0.086  Dispensable AA                Ala  93.21  92.16  93.43  92.80  0.61  0.076      Asp  92.38ab  91.23b  92.41a  91.83  0.47  0.023      Cys  91.16ab  89.44b  91.30a  90.40  0.70  0.021      Glu  93.36  92.88  93.46  93.27  0.55  0.514      Ser  96.01  95.40  96.01  94.95  0.40  0.221      Tyr  93.47  92.77  93.53  93.17  0.38  0.098      Mean  93.23  92.26  93.34  92.95  0.46  0.069      All AA  94.00  93.17  94.06  93.75  0.39  0.073    Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average3  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  95.66  94.28  94.94  94.78  0.58  0.120  Indispensable AA                Arg  98.17  97.98  98.27  98.06  0.29  0.676      His  94.88ab  94.12b  94.99a  94.59  0.33  0.049      Ile  93.79  93.12  93.92  93.52  0.37  0.090      Leu  93.50  92.80  93.62  93.22  0.39  0.074      Lys  93.57a  92.39b  93.18ab  92.97  0.44  0.049      Met  95.07  94.76  95.38  94.96  0.37  0.348      Phe  93.79  93.06  93.85  93.48  0.36  0.078      Thr  92.58  91.56  92.50  92.10  0.60  0.144      Trp  95.97  95.25  95.88  95.56  0.40  0.172      Val  93.54  92.63  93.69  93.16  0.48  0.060      Mean  94.47  93.73  94.50  94.23  0.36  0.086  Dispensable AA                Ala  93.21  92.16  93.43  92.80  0.61  0.076      Asp  92.38ab  91.23b  92.41a  91.83  0.47  0.023      Cys  91.16ab  89.44b  91.30a  90.40  0.70  0.021      Glu  93.36  92.88  93.46  93.27  0.55  0.514      Ser  96.01  95.40  96.01  94.95  0.40  0.221      Tyr  93.47  92.77  93.53  93.17  0.38  0.098      Mean  93.23  92.26  93.34  92.95  0.46  0.069      All AA  94.00  93.17  94.06  93.75  0.39  0.073  a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05). 1Basal endogenous losses (g/kg DMI): CP = 19.55; Arg = 0.68; His = 0.21; Ile = 0.37; Leu = 0.60; Lys = 0.48; Met = 0.11; Phe = 0.38; Thr = 0.62; Trp = 0.13; Val = 0.55; Ala = 0.69; Asp = 0.85; Cys = 0.22; Glu = 1.11; Ser = 0.63; Tyr = 0.28. 2Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 3The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 6. Standardized ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal by growing pigs1,2   Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average3  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  95.66  94.28  94.94  94.78  0.58  0.120  Indispensable AA                Arg  98.17  97.98  98.27  98.06  0.29  0.676      His  94.88ab  94.12b  94.99a  94.59  0.33  0.049      Ile  93.79  93.12  93.92  93.52  0.37  0.090      Leu  93.50  92.80  93.62  93.22  0.39  0.074      Lys  93.57a  92.39b  93.18ab  92.97  0.44  0.049      Met  95.07  94.76  95.38  94.96  0.37  0.348      Phe  93.79  93.06  93.85  93.48  0.36  0.078      Thr  92.58  91.56  92.50  92.10  0.60  0.144      Trp  95.97  95.25  95.88  95.56  0.40  0.172      Val  93.54  92.63  93.69  93.16  0.48  0.060      Mean  94.47  93.73  94.50  94.23  0.36  0.086  Dispensable AA                Ala  93.21  92.16  93.43  92.80  0.61  0.076      Asp  92.38ab  91.23b  92.41a  91.83  0.47  0.023      Cys  91.16ab  89.44b  91.30a  90.40  0.70  0.021      Glu  93.36  92.88  93.46  93.27  0.55  0.514      Ser  96.01  95.40  96.01  94.95  0.40  0.221      Tyr  93.47  92.77  93.53  93.17  0.38  0.098      Mean  93.23  92.26  93.34  92.95  0.46  0.069      All AA  94.00  93.17  94.06  93.75  0.39  0.073    Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average3  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  95.66  94.28  94.94  94.78  0.58  0.120  Indispensable AA                Arg  98.17  97.98  98.27  98.06  0.29  0.676      His  94.88ab  94.12b  94.99a  94.59  0.33  0.049      Ile  93.79  93.12  93.92  93.52  0.37  0.090      Leu  93.50  92.80  93.62  93.22  0.39  0.074      Lys  93.57a  92.39b  93.18ab  92.97  0.44  0.049      Met  95.07  94.76  95.38  94.96  0.37  0.348      Phe  93.79  93.06  93.85  93.48  0.36  0.078      Thr  92.58  91.56  92.50  92.10  0.60  0.144      Trp  95.97  95.25  95.88  95.56  0.40  0.172      Val  93.54  92.63  93.69  93.16  0.48  0.060      Mean  94.47  93.73  94.50  94.23  0.36  0.086  Dispensable AA                Ala  93.21  92.16  93.43  92.80  0.61  0.076      Asp  92.38ab  91.23b  92.41a  91.83  0.47  0.023      Cys  91.16ab  89.44b  91.30a  90.40  0.70  0.021      Glu  93.36  92.88  93.46  93.27  0.55  0.514      Ser  96.01  95.40  96.01  94.95  0.40  0.221      Tyr  93.47  92.77  93.53  93.17  0.38  0.098      Mean  93.23  92.26  93.34  92.95  0.46  0.069      All AA  94.00  93.17  94.06  93.75  0.39  0.073  a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05). 1Basal endogenous losses (g/kg DMI): CP = 19.55; Arg = 0.68; His = 0.21; Ile = 0.37; Leu = 0.60; Lys = 0.48; Met = 0.11; Phe = 0.38; Thr = 0.62; Trp = 0.13; Val = 0.55; Ala = 0.69; Asp = 0.85; Cys = 0.22; Glu = 1.11; Ser = 0.63; Tyr = 0.28. 2Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 3The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large If the concentrations of SID CP and AA were calculated as grams per kilogram, no differences among the 3 zones were observed (Table 7). There was, however, a tendency (P = 0.075) for an increase in the concentration of SID Thr from SBM from zone 2 compared with SBM from zone 3. Likewise, the concentration of SID Tyr in SBM from zone 2 tended to be greater (P = 0.071) than in SBM from zone 1. Table 7. Concentrations (g/kg) of standardized ileal digestible CP and AA in soybean meal1   Zones        Item, g/kg  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value      CP  445.85  455.44  441.71  449.33  5.51  0.128  Indispensable AA                Arg  32.97  33.73  33.09  33.39  0.39  0.269      His  11.22  11.51  11.32  11.40  0.14  0.292      Ile  19.17  20.17  19.81  19.87  0.47  0.364      Leu  33.42  34.09  33.32  33.72  0.37  0.194      Lys  28.00  28.32  27.84  28.11  0.37  0.553      Met  6.06  6.04  5.95  6.01  0.08  0.542      Phe  21.21  21.75  21.23  21.49  0.29  0.252      Thr  16.18  16.49  16.05  16.29  0.16  0.075      Trp  6.69  6.74  6.66  6.70  0.07  0.615      Val  20.30  21.26  21.04  21.02  0.51  0.445      Total  195.20  200.10  196.29  197.99  2.52  0.302  Dispensable AA                Ala  18.26  18.52  18.28  18.40  0.17  0.394      Asp  47.00  47.49  46.82  47.19  0.50  0.513      Cys  5.67  5.66  5.61  5.64  0.09  0.868      Glu  71.98  72.41  71.70  72.10  0.97  0.828      Ser  20.63  20.58  19.99  20.40  0.33  0.286      Tyr  15.41  15.86  15.51  15.67  0.15  0.071      Total  178.94  180.52  177.90  179.39  1.73  0.458      All AA  374.14  380.61  374.19  377.39  4.02  0.341    Zones        Item, g/kg  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value      CP  445.85  455.44  441.71  449.33  5.51  0.128  Indispensable AA                Arg  32.97  33.73  33.09  33.39  0.39  0.269      His  11.22  11.51  11.32  11.40  0.14  0.292      Ile  19.17  20.17  19.81  19.87  0.47  0.364      Leu  33.42  34.09  33.32  33.72  0.37  0.194      Lys  28.00  28.32  27.84  28.11  0.37  0.553      Met  6.06  6.04  5.95  6.01  0.08  0.542      Phe  21.21  21.75  21.23  21.49  0.29  0.252      Thr  16.18  16.49  16.05  16.29  0.16  0.075      Trp  6.69  6.74  6.66  6.70  0.07  0.615      Val  20.30  21.26  21.04  21.02  0.51  0.445      Total  195.20  200.10  196.29  197.99  2.52  0.302  Dispensable AA                Ala  18.26  18.52  18.28  18.40  0.17  0.394      Asp  47.00  47.49  46.82  47.19  0.50  0.513      Cys  5.67  5.66  5.61  5.64  0.09  0.868      Glu  71.98  72.41  71.70  72.10  0.97  0.828      Ser  20.63  20.58  19.99  20.40  0.33  0.286      Tyr  15.41  15.86  15.51  15.67  0.15  0.071      Total  178.94  180.52  177.90  179.39  1.73  0.458      All AA  374.14  380.61  374.19  377.39  4.02  0.341  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone, 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 7. Concentrations (g/kg) of standardized ileal digestible CP and AA in soybean meal1   Zones        Item, g/kg  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value      CP  445.85  455.44  441.71  449.33  5.51  0.128  Indispensable AA                Arg  32.97  33.73  33.09  33.39  0.39  0.269      His  11.22  11.51  11.32  11.40  0.14  0.292      Ile  19.17  20.17  19.81  19.87  0.47  0.364      Leu  33.42  34.09  33.32  33.72  0.37  0.194      Lys  28.00  28.32  27.84  28.11  0.37  0.553      Met  6.06  6.04  5.95  6.01  0.08  0.542      Phe  21.21  21.75  21.23  21.49  0.29  0.252      Thr  16.18  16.49  16.05  16.29  0.16  0.075      Trp  6.69  6.74  6.66  6.70  0.07  0.615      Val  20.30  21.26  21.04  21.02  0.51  0.445      Total  195.20  200.10  196.29  197.99  2.52  0.302  Dispensable AA                Ala  18.26  18.52  18.28  18.40  0.17  0.394      Asp  47.00  47.49  46.82  47.19  0.50  0.513      Cys  5.67  5.66  5.61  5.64  0.09  0.868      Glu  71.98  72.41  71.70  72.10  0.97  0.828      Ser  20.63  20.58  19.99  20.40  0.33  0.286      Tyr  15.41  15.86  15.51  15.67  0.15  0.071      Total  178.94  180.52  177.90  179.39  1.73  0.458      All AA  374.14  380.61  374.19  377.39  4.02  0.341    Zones        Item, g/kg  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value      CP  445.85  455.44  441.71  449.33  5.51  0.128  Indispensable AA                Arg  32.97  33.73  33.09  33.39  0.39  0.269      His  11.22  11.51  11.32  11.40  0.14  0.292      Ile  19.17  20.17  19.81  19.87  0.47  0.364      Leu  33.42  34.09  33.32  33.72  0.37  0.194      Lys  28.00  28.32  27.84  28.11  0.37  0.553      Met  6.06  6.04  5.95  6.01  0.08  0.542      Phe  21.21  21.75  21.23  21.49  0.29  0.252      Thr  16.18  16.49  16.05  16.29  0.16  0.075      Trp  6.69  6.74  6.66  6.70  0.07  0.615      Val  20.30  21.26  21.04  21.02  0.51  0.445      Total  195.20  200.10  196.29  197.99  2.52  0.302  Dispensable AA                Ala  18.26  18.52  18.28  18.40  0.17  0.394      Asp  47.00  47.49  46.82  47.19  0.50  0.513      Cys  5.67  5.66  5.61  5.64  0.09  0.868      Glu  71.98  72.41  71.70  72.10  0.97  0.828      Ser  20.63  20.58  19.99  20.40  0.33  0.286      Tyr  15.41  15.86  15.51  15.67  0.15  0.071      Total  178.94  180.52  177.90  179.39  1.73  0.458      All AA  374.14  380.61  374.19  377.39  4.02  0.341  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone, 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large DISCUSSION The 22 sources of SBM that were used in this experiment were divided among 3 zones. Soybean meal was sourced from crushing plants located within those zones, but the growing locations of the soybeans that were used by the crushing plants were unknown. It is possible that some crushing facilities sourced soybeans from a state located in a different zone, but it is expected that the majority of crushing plants sourced soybeans from the local area; therefore, the differences observed among the zones are believed to be reflective of both growing area and crushing plant locations. Thus, we used the same approach as any purchasers of commercial SBM would use by knowing the location of the crushing plant but not knowing the exact location where the beans were grown. The concentrations of most AA in the SBM used in this experiment are in agreement with previous data (Cromwell et al., 1999; de Blas et al., 2010; Rostagno et al., 2011; NRC, 2012). The concentration of total AA for SBM from zone 2 was not different from values previously reported, but the concentration of total AA was less for SBM from zones 1 and 3 compared with previous values (Karr-Lilienthal et al., 2004). However, Grieshop et al. (2003) analyzed the chemical composition of SBM from 10 processing plants from different regions of the United States. Nine of the 10 processing plants had greater concentrations of AA in SBM compared with the values reported in this experiment, but 1 processing plant in the northern United States produced SBM with an AA concentration that was less than the values analyzed in this experiment. The lack of variability in the AA concentration in SBM collected among the 3 zones is in agreement with data indicating that the variability in AA concentration among sources is less than the variability among laboratories in analyzed values for AA (Cromwell et al., 1999). The concentrations of most AA as a percent of CP are within the range of values reported by de Blas et al. (2010), Rostagno et al. (2011), and NRC (2012). The observation that SBM from all 3 zones had a Lys to CP ratio that was greater than 6.0% indicates that, regardless of zone, SBM was not overprocessed (González-Vega et al., 2011). However, the fact that trypsin inhibitor values for all zones were less than 4 indicates that the SBM used in this experiment were also not underprocessed (Chang et al., 1987; Monari, 1993; Lallѐ;s, 2000). Thus, it appears that crushing plants in the United States, regardless of where they are located, do an excellent job of processing soybeans to produce SBM with a high protein value providing adequate processing to inactivate trypsin inhibitors but without overheating the SBM. The greater concentration of CP in SBM from zone 2 compared with the concentration of CP for SBM from zone 3 is mainly the result of greater concentrations of a few indispensable and dispensable AA. Soy hulls may be added to the SBM after processing, resulting in a reduction in CP (Stein et al., 2008); however, the reduction in CP observed in this experiment for SBM from zones 1 and 3 is most likely due to environmental conditions because values for ADF and NDF were not different among zones. Grieshop et al. (2003) observed reduced concentrations of CP for SBM from the northern United States compared with SBM from the midwestern and southern United States, and Hurburgh et al. (1990) reported that SBM from the northern and western United States tended to have concentrations of CP approximately 1% less than that of SBM produced in other regions. Thus, the observation in this experiment that CP in the SBM produced in zone 1 or zone 3 is less than that in SBM produced in zone 2 is in agreement with previous reports. The reduction in CP in SBM from the northern United States may be the result of fewer hours of sunlight and a shorter growing season, which results in less N fixation by the plant (Dudley-Cash, 1999). The AID of AA obtained in this experiment were in agreement with reported values (de Blas et al., 2010; González-Vega et al., 2011; NRC, 2012), but values for the SID of many AA were greater than some previously reported values (de Blas et al., 2010; González-Vega et al., 2011; NRC, 2012). The reason for this difference is most likely that a greater endogenous loss of AA was used to calculate SID values in this experiment compared with some previous values. Whereas SBM from the northern United States contains less CP than SBM from other regions in the United States, it may contain more indispensable AA, which would make it a better quality source of protein (Grieshop et al., 2003). However, we were unable to verify this hypothesis, and there were no differences in the AID of AA among SBM from the 3 zones. In contrast, the observed differences in the SID of a few AA among zones indicate that the source of SBM may affect digestibility of some AA, but differences were generally small. However, it appears that the location in which the crushing plant is located, and therefore also the location in which the soybeans were grown, may have a small impact on the SID of some AA, with greater values observed for soybeans grown in the northern or western growing areas compared with those of soybeans grown further to the south and east. However, when the SID of the AA were multiplied by the concentration of AA in each source of SBM to calculate the concentrations of SID AA per kilogram of SBM, which is the most important nutritional value, no differences among the 3 zones were observed, with the exception that there was a tendency for SBM from zone 2 to have a greater concentration of SID Thr than SBM from zone 3 and a greater concentration of SID Tyr than SBM from zone 1. Thus, because the concentrations of digestible AA were not different among zones, no rankings can be assigned to SBM from the 3 zones. These observations indicate that neither the quality of protein nor the quantity of digestible AA is different among zones. Pigs that are fed SBM from the different zones will, therefore, receive comparable concentrations of digestible AA regardless of where in the United States the SBM is produced. Conclusions The results of this experiment indicate that differences in concentrations of CP and some AA in SBM sources from different areas of the United States exist because a reduction in the concentration of CP and some AA was observed in SBM from zones 1 and 3 compared with SBM from zone 2. Minor differences in the SID of AA were observed, but no differences in the average SID of indispensable, dispensable, and total AA were detected. There were no differences among SBM from the 3 zones in terms of concentration (g/kg) of SID indispensable AA, SID dispensable AA, or SID total AA, although there was a tendency for SBM from zone 2 to have a greater concentration of SID Thr and SID Tyr than SBM from zones 3 and 1, respectively. Overall, although minor differences in the concentrations and digestibility of CP and AA among sources of SBM obtained from different areas of the United States were observed, concentrations of digestible AA were largely constant among sources of SBM regardless of where it was produced. It is, therefore, concluded that the protein value of SBM produced in the United States is not influenced by the geographical location of the soybean crushing plant. APPENDIX Table A1. Analyzed concentrations (%) of DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and AA in the 22 sources of soybean meal (as-fed basis)   Source of soybean meal  Item  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  Mean  DM  89.7  89.9  87.5  87.2  88.7  89.1  87.6  87.5  88.2  89.3  88.1  89.4  89.2  90.3  89.0  89.5  88.2  88.4  88.6  88.9  88.0  87.6  88.6  CP  48.9  48.1  48.4  46.6  45.9  46.7  45.6  46.4  46.2  48.1  48.2  49.1  47.1  50.9  50.8  46.0  44.2  46.2  47.3  48.7  46.9  46.7  47.4  ADF  4.4  4.4  4.9  4.5  5.2  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.7  5.2  4.5  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.8  5.6  6.0  5.2  4.6  4.5  5.3  4.6  4.8  NDF  7.2  10.7  9.0  8.3  8.4  7.7  8.3  7.3  7.6  8.3  7.7  9.1  7.1  7.4  7.8  9.2  10.9  7.2  7.4  6.8  7.6  7.4  8.1  Indispensable AA      Arg  3.52  3.41  3.55  3.42  3.28  3.39  3.21  3.35  3.33  3.50  3.41  3.44  3.41  3.47  3.53  3.26  3.20  3.44  3.40  3.56  3.46  3.40  3.41      His  1.23  1.23  1.27  1.22  1.17  1.20  1.11  1.17  1.17  1.22  1.19  1.20  1.21  1.25  1.25  1.17  1.14  1.22  1.22  1.26  1.22  1.20  1.21      Ile  2.24  2.25  2.33  2.20  2.08  2.15  1.73  2.10  1.98  2.13  2.05  2.08  2.09  2.17  2.21  1.96  2.03  2.13  2.17  2.25  2.23  2.20  2.13      Leu  3.72  3.72  3.82  3.65  3.51  3.60  3.40  3.54  3.50  3.61  3.61  3.66  3.61  3.73  3.71  3.50  3.41  3.67  3.60  3.77  3.65  3.62  3.62      Lys  3.13  3.00  3.16  2.97  2.91  3.07  2.85  2.94  2.91  3.08  3.03  2.99  2.98  3.18  3.17  2.91  2.88  3.09  3.07  3.17  3.07  3.04  3.03      Met  0.63  0.66  0.65  0.64  0.62  0.65  0.66  0.59  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.63  0.63  0.66  0.64  0.62  0.59  0.64  0.65  0.65  0.63  0.63  0.63      Phe  2.38  2.38  2.43  2.34  2.25  2.28  2.09  2.26  2.22  2.29  2.28  2.31  2.32  2.36  2.37  2.20  2.15  2.33  2.29  2.40  2.34  2.31  2.30      Thr  1.76  1.80  1.81  1.73  1.70  1.75  1.74  1.72  1.76  1.79  1.80  1.81  1.78  1.88  1.83  1.79  1.65  1.80  1.73  1.84  1.73  1.74  1.77      Trp  0.71  0.73  0.70  0.68  0.69  0.70  0.68  0.71  0.70  0.69  0.73  0.70  0.70  0.72  0.71  0.68  0.67  0.71  0.71  0.74  0.69  0.68  0.70      Val  2.38  2.40  2.46  2.35  2.22  2.29  1.84  2.22  2.09  2.27  2.16  2.19  2.22  2.30  2.34  2.07  2.18  2.25  2.31  2.38  2.40  2.32  2.26  Dispensable AA      Ala  1.98  2.07  2.08  2.00  1.94  1.98  1.92  1.92  1.97  1.96  1.95  1.98  2.00  2.05  2.03  1.93  1.88  2.00  1.98  2.05  1.99  1.97  1.98      Asp  5.19  5.27  5.39  5.19  5.04  5.12  4.92  4.97  5.05  5.17  5.05  5.11  5.19  5.32  5.30  4.95  4.81  5.21  5.16  5.33  5.19  5.14  5.14      Cys  0.61  0.63  0.64  0.61  0.62  0.65  0.64  0.57  0.60  0.62  0.60  0.60  0.63  0.65  0.64  0.65  0.59  0.62  0.66  0.66  0.63  0.62  0.62      Glu  7.73  8.28  7.96  7.99  7.79  7.72  7.46  7.53  7.85  7.56  7.38  7.54  7.99  7.86  7.91  7.30  7.29  7.86  7.79  7.89  7.94  7.66  7.74      Gly  1.92  2.02  2.01  1.95  1.89  1.93  1.82  1.88  1.91  1.94  1.89  1.93  1.94  2.00  2.00  1.90  1.85  1.94  1.93  2.00  1.97  1.94  1.93      Pro  2.27  2.32  2.35  2.27  2.20  2.27  2.19  2.20  2.21  2.26  2.21  2.28  2.27  2.30  2.32  2.21  2.13  2.33  2.26  2.32  2.24  2.24  2.26      Ser  2.08  2.10  2.14  1.99  2.03  2.13  2.26  2.07  2.14  2.16  2.18  2.20  2.13  2.30  2.22  2.18  1.99  2.23  2.09  2.22  2.00  2.06  2.13      Tyr  1.67  1.73  1.78  1.68  1.64  1.69  1.59  1.66  1.64  1.69  1.67  1.70  1.69  1.74  1.72  1.67  1.58  1.70  1.66  1.75  1.69  1.66  1.68  All AA  45.29  46.20  46.70  45.05  43.82  44.69  42.28  43.56  43.81  44.75  43.96  44.50  45.04  46.11  46.11  43.17  42.22  45.34  44.82  46.40  45.21  44.58  44.71    Source of soybean meal  Item  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  Mean  DM  89.7  89.9  87.5  87.2  88.7  89.1  87.6  87.5  88.2  89.3  88.1  89.4  89.2  90.3  89.0  89.5  88.2  88.4  88.6  88.9  88.0  87.6  88.6  CP  48.9  48.1  48.4  46.6  45.9  46.7  45.6  46.4  46.2  48.1  48.2  49.1  47.1  50.9  50.8  46.0  44.2  46.2  47.3  48.7  46.9  46.7  47.4  ADF  4.4  4.4  4.9  4.5  5.2  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.7  5.2  4.5  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.8  5.6  6.0  5.2  4.6  4.5  5.3  4.6  4.8  NDF  7.2  10.7  9.0  8.3  8.4  7.7  8.3  7.3  7.6  8.3  7.7  9.1  7.1  7.4  7.8  9.2  10.9  7.2  7.4  6.8  7.6  7.4  8.1  Indispensable AA      Arg  3.52  3.41  3.55  3.42  3.28  3.39  3.21  3.35  3.33  3.50  3.41  3.44  3.41  3.47  3.53  3.26  3.20  3.44  3.40  3.56  3.46  3.40  3.41      His  1.23  1.23  1.27  1.22  1.17  1.20  1.11  1.17  1.17  1.22  1.19  1.20  1.21  1.25  1.25  1.17  1.14  1.22  1.22  1.26  1.22  1.20  1.21      Ile  2.24  2.25  2.33  2.20  2.08  2.15  1.73  2.10  1.98  2.13  2.05  2.08  2.09  2.17  2.21  1.96  2.03  2.13  2.17  2.25  2.23  2.20  2.13      Leu  3.72  3.72  3.82  3.65  3.51  3.60  3.40  3.54  3.50  3.61  3.61  3.66  3.61  3.73  3.71  3.50  3.41  3.67  3.60  3.77  3.65  3.62  3.62      Lys  3.13  3.00  3.16  2.97  2.91  3.07  2.85  2.94  2.91  3.08  3.03  2.99  2.98  3.18  3.17  2.91  2.88  3.09  3.07  3.17  3.07  3.04  3.03      Met  0.63  0.66  0.65  0.64  0.62  0.65  0.66  0.59  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.63  0.63  0.66  0.64  0.62  0.59  0.64  0.65  0.65  0.63  0.63  0.63      Phe  2.38  2.38  2.43  2.34  2.25  2.28  2.09  2.26  2.22  2.29  2.28  2.31  2.32  2.36  2.37  2.20  2.15  2.33  2.29  2.40  2.34  2.31  2.30      Thr  1.76  1.80  1.81  1.73  1.70  1.75  1.74  1.72  1.76  1.79  1.80  1.81  1.78  1.88  1.83  1.79  1.65  1.80  1.73  1.84  1.73  1.74  1.77      Trp  0.71  0.73  0.70  0.68  0.69  0.70  0.68  0.71  0.70  0.69  0.73  0.70  0.70  0.72  0.71  0.68  0.67  0.71  0.71  0.74  0.69  0.68  0.70      Val  2.38  2.40  2.46  2.35  2.22  2.29  1.84  2.22  2.09  2.27  2.16  2.19  2.22  2.30  2.34  2.07  2.18  2.25  2.31  2.38  2.40  2.32  2.26  Dispensable AA      Ala  1.98  2.07  2.08  2.00  1.94  1.98  1.92  1.92  1.97  1.96  1.95  1.98  2.00  2.05  2.03  1.93  1.88  2.00  1.98  2.05  1.99  1.97  1.98      Asp  5.19  5.27  5.39  5.19  5.04  5.12  4.92  4.97  5.05  5.17  5.05  5.11  5.19  5.32  5.30  4.95  4.81  5.21  5.16  5.33  5.19  5.14  5.14      Cys  0.61  0.63  0.64  0.61  0.62  0.65  0.64  0.57  0.60  0.62  0.60  0.60  0.63  0.65  0.64  0.65  0.59  0.62  0.66  0.66  0.63  0.62  0.62      Glu  7.73  8.28  7.96  7.99  7.79  7.72  7.46  7.53  7.85  7.56  7.38  7.54  7.99  7.86  7.91  7.30  7.29  7.86  7.79  7.89  7.94  7.66  7.74      Gly  1.92  2.02  2.01  1.95  1.89  1.93  1.82  1.88  1.91  1.94  1.89  1.93  1.94  2.00  2.00  1.90  1.85  1.94  1.93  2.00  1.97  1.94  1.93      Pro  2.27  2.32  2.35  2.27  2.20  2.27  2.19  2.20  2.21  2.26  2.21  2.28  2.27  2.30  2.32  2.21  2.13  2.33  2.26  2.32  2.24  2.24  2.26      Ser  2.08  2.10  2.14  1.99  2.03  2.13  2.26  2.07  2.14  2.16  2.18  2.20  2.13  2.30  2.22  2.18  1.99  2.23  2.09  2.22  2.00  2.06  2.13      Tyr  1.67  1.73  1.78  1.68  1.64  1.69  1.59  1.66  1.64  1.69  1.67  1.70  1.69  1.74  1.72  1.67  1.58  1.70  1.66  1.75  1.69  1.66  1.68  All AA  45.29  46.20  46.70  45.05  43.82  44.69  42.28  43.56  43.81  44.75  43.96  44.50  45.04  46.11  46.11  43.17  42.22  45.34  44.82  46.40  45.21  44.58  44.71    Source of soybean meal  Item  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  Mean  DM  89.7  89.9  87.5  87.2  88.7  89.1  87.6  87.5  88.2  89.3  88.1  89.4  89.2  90.3  89.0  89.5  88.2  88.4  88.6  88.9  88.0  87.6  88.6  CP  48.9  48.1  48.4  46.6  45.9  46.7  45.6  46.4  46.2  48.1  48.2  49.1  47.1  50.9  50.8  46.0  44.2  46.2  47.3  48.7  46.9  46.7  47.4  ADF  4.4  4.4  4.9  4.5  5.2  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.7  5.2  4.5  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.8  5.6  6.0  5.2  4.6  4.5  5.3  4.6  4.8  NDF  7.2  10.7  9.0  8.3  8.4  7.7  8.3  7.3  7.6  8.3  7.7  9.1  7.1  7.4  7.8  9.2  10.9  7.2  7.4  6.8  7.6  7.4  8.1  Indispensable AA      Arg  3.52  3.41  3.55  3.42  3.28  3.39  3.21  3.35  3.33  3.50  3.41  3.44  3.41  3.47  3.53  3.26  3.20  3.44  3.40  3.56  3.46  3.40  3.41      His  1.23  1.23  1.27  1.22  1.17  1.20  1.11  1.17  1.17  1.22  1.19  1.20  1.21  1.25  1.25  1.17  1.14  1.22  1.22  1.26  1.22  1.20  1.21      Ile  2.24  2.25  2.33  2.20  2.08  2.15  1.73  2.10  1.98  2.13  2.05  2.08  2.09  2.17  2.21  1.96  2.03  2.13  2.17  2.25  2.23  2.20  2.13      Leu  3.72  3.72  3.82  3.65  3.51  3.60  3.40  3.54  3.50  3.61  3.61  3.66  3.61  3.73  3.71  3.50  3.41  3.67  3.60  3.77  3.65  3.62  3.62      Lys  3.13  3.00  3.16  2.97  2.91  3.07  2.85  2.94  2.91  3.08  3.03  2.99  2.98  3.18  3.17  2.91  2.88  3.09  3.07  3.17  3.07  3.04  3.03      Met  0.63  0.66  0.65  0.64  0.62  0.65  0.66  0.59  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.63  0.63  0.66  0.64  0.62  0.59  0.64  0.65  0.65  0.63  0.63  0.63      Phe  2.38  2.38  2.43  2.34  2.25  2.28  2.09  2.26  2.22  2.29  2.28  2.31  2.32  2.36  2.37  2.20  2.15  2.33  2.29  2.40  2.34  2.31  2.30      Thr  1.76  1.80  1.81  1.73  1.70  1.75  1.74  1.72  1.76  1.79  1.80  1.81  1.78  1.88  1.83  1.79  1.65  1.80  1.73  1.84  1.73  1.74  1.77      Trp  0.71  0.73  0.70  0.68  0.69  0.70  0.68  0.71  0.70  0.69  0.73  0.70  0.70  0.72  0.71  0.68  0.67  0.71  0.71  0.74  0.69  0.68  0.70      Val  2.38  2.40  2.46  2.35  2.22  2.29  1.84  2.22  2.09  2.27  2.16  2.19  2.22  2.30  2.34  2.07  2.18  2.25  2.31  2.38  2.40  2.32  2.26  Dispensable AA      Ala  1.98  2.07  2.08  2.00  1.94  1.98  1.92  1.92  1.97  1.96  1.95  1.98  2.00  2.05  2.03  1.93  1.88  2.00  1.98  2.05  1.99  1.97  1.98      Asp  5.19  5.27  5.39  5.19  5.04  5.12  4.92  4.97  5.05  5.17  5.05  5.11  5.19  5.32  5.30  4.95  4.81  5.21  5.16  5.33  5.19  5.14  5.14      Cys  0.61  0.63  0.64  0.61  0.62  0.65  0.64  0.57  0.60  0.62  0.60  0.60  0.63  0.65  0.64  0.65  0.59  0.62  0.66  0.66  0.63  0.62  0.62      Glu  7.73  8.28  7.96  7.99  7.79  7.72  7.46  7.53  7.85  7.56  7.38  7.54  7.99  7.86  7.91  7.30  7.29  7.86  7.79  7.89  7.94  7.66  7.74      Gly  1.92  2.02  2.01  1.95  1.89  1.93  1.82  1.88  1.91  1.94  1.89  1.93  1.94  2.00  2.00  1.90  1.85  1.94  1.93  2.00  1.97  1.94  1.93      Pro  2.27  2.32  2.35  2.27  2.20  2.27  2.19  2.20  2.21  2.26  2.21  2.28  2.27  2.30  2.32  2.21  2.13  2.33  2.26  2.32  2.24  2.24  2.26      Ser  2.08  2.10  2.14  1.99  2.03  2.13  2.26  2.07  2.14  2.16  2.18  2.20  2.13  2.30  2.22  2.18  1.99  2.23  2.09  2.22  2.00  2.06  2.13      Tyr  1.67  1.73  1.78  1.68  1.64  1.69  1.59  1.66  1.64  1.69  1.67  1.70  1.69  1.74  1.72  1.67  1.58  1.70  1.66  1.75  1.69  1.66  1.68  All AA  45.29  46.20  46.70  45.05  43.82  44.69  42.28  43.56  43.81  44.75  43.96  44.50  45.04  46.11  46.11  43.17  42.22  45.34  44.82  46.40  45.21  44.58  44.71    Source of soybean meal  Item  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  Mean  DM  89.7  89.9  87.5  87.2  88.7  89.1  87.6  87.5  88.2  89.3  88.1  89.4  89.2  90.3  89.0  89.5  88.2  88.4  88.6  88.9  88.0  87.6  88.6  CP  48.9  48.1  48.4  46.6  45.9  46.7  45.6  46.4  46.2  48.1  48.2  49.1  47.1  50.9  50.8  46.0  44.2  46.2  47.3  48.7  46.9  46.7  47.4  ADF  4.4  4.4  4.9  4.5  5.2  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.7  5.2  4.5  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.8  5.6  6.0  5.2  4.6  4.5  5.3  4.6  4.8  NDF  7.2  10.7  9.0  8.3  8.4  7.7  8.3  7.3  7.6  8.3  7.7  9.1  7.1  7.4  7.8  9.2  10.9  7.2  7.4  6.8  7.6  7.4  8.1  Indispensable AA      Arg  3.52  3.41  3.55  3.42  3.28  3.39  3.21  3.35  3.33  3.50  3.41  3.44  3.41  3.47  3.53  3.26  3.20  3.44  3.40  3.56  3.46  3.40  3.41      His  1.23  1.23  1.27  1.22  1.17  1.20  1.11  1.17  1.17  1.22  1.19  1.20  1.21  1.25  1.25  1.17  1.14  1.22  1.22  1.26  1.22  1.20  1.21      Ile  2.24  2.25  2.33  2.20  2.08  2.15  1.73  2.10  1.98  2.13  2.05  2.08  2.09  2.17  2.21  1.96  2.03  2.13  2.17  2.25  2.23  2.20  2.13      Leu  3.72  3.72  3.82  3.65  3.51  3.60  3.40  3.54  3.50  3.61  3.61  3.66  3.61  3.73  3.71  3.50  3.41  3.67  3.60  3.77  3.65  3.62  3.62      Lys  3.13  3.00  3.16  2.97  2.91  3.07  2.85  2.94  2.91  3.08  3.03  2.99  2.98  3.18  3.17  2.91  2.88  3.09  3.07  3.17  3.07  3.04  3.03      Met  0.63  0.66  0.65  0.64  0.62  0.65  0.66  0.59  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.63  0.63  0.66  0.64  0.62  0.59  0.64  0.65  0.65  0.63  0.63  0.63      Phe  2.38  2.38  2.43  2.34  2.25  2.28  2.09  2.26  2.22  2.29  2.28  2.31  2.32  2.36  2.37  2.20  2.15  2.33  2.29  2.40  2.34  2.31  2.30      Thr  1.76  1.80  1.81  1.73  1.70  1.75  1.74  1.72  1.76  1.79  1.80  1.81  1.78  1.88  1.83  1.79  1.65  1.80  1.73  1.84  1.73  1.74  1.77      Trp  0.71  0.73  0.70  0.68  0.69  0.70  0.68  0.71  0.70  0.69  0.73  0.70  0.70  0.72  0.71  0.68  0.67  0.71  0.71  0.74  0.69  0.68  0.70      Val  2.38  2.40  2.46  2.35  2.22  2.29  1.84  2.22  2.09  2.27  2.16  2.19  2.22  2.30  2.34  2.07  2.18  2.25  2.31  2.38  2.40  2.32  2.26  Dispensable AA      Ala  1.98  2.07  2.08  2.00  1.94  1.98  1.92  1.92  1.97  1.96  1.95  1.98  2.00  2.05  2.03  1.93  1.88  2.00  1.98  2.05  1.99  1.97  1.98      Asp  5.19  5.27  5.39  5.19  5.04  5.12  4.92  4.97  5.05  5.17  5.05  5.11  5.19  5.32  5.30  4.95  4.81  5.21  5.16  5.33  5.19  5.14  5.14      Cys  0.61  0.63  0.64  0.61  0.62  0.65  0.64  0.57  0.60  0.62  0.60  0.60  0.63  0.65  0.64  0.65  0.59  0.62  0.66  0.66  0.63  0.62  0.62      Glu  7.73  8.28  7.96  7.99  7.79  7.72  7.46  7.53  7.85  7.56  7.38  7.54  7.99  7.86  7.91  7.30  7.29  7.86  7.79  7.89  7.94  7.66  7.74      Gly  1.92  2.02  2.01  1.95  1.89  1.93  1.82  1.88  1.91  1.94  1.89  1.93  1.94  2.00  2.00  1.90  1.85  1.94  1.93  2.00  1.97  1.94  1.93      Pro  2.27  2.32  2.35  2.27  2.20  2.27  2.19  2.20  2.21  2.26  2.21  2.28  2.27  2.30  2.32  2.21  2.13  2.33  2.26  2.32  2.24  2.24  2.26      Ser  2.08  2.10  2.14  1.99  2.03  2.13  2.26  2.07  2.14  2.16  2.18  2.20  2.13  2.30  2.22  2.18  1.99  2.23  2.09  2.22  2.00  2.06  2.13      Tyr  1.67  1.73  1.78  1.68  1.64  1.69  1.59  1.66  1.64  1.69  1.67  1.70  1.69  1.74  1.72  1.67  1.58  1.70  1.66  1.75  1.69  1.66  1.68  All AA  45.29  46.20  46.70  45.05  43.82  44.69  42.28  43.56  43.81  44.75  43.96  44.50  45.04  46.11  46.11  43.17  42.22  45.34  44.82  46.40  45.21  44.58  44.71  LITERATURE CITED AOCS 2006. Official methods and recommended practices. 5th ed. American Oil Chemists' Society, Urbana, IL. AOAC International 2007. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Hortwitz W. Latimer G. W.Jr editors. 18th ed. AOAC Int., Gaithersburg, MD. ASA. 2015. Soy Stats 2015. American Soybean Association, St. Louis, MO. Chang C. J. Tanksley T. D.Jr Knabe D. A. Zebrowski T. 1987. Effects of different heat treatments during processing on nutrient digestibility of soybean meal in growing swine. J. Anim. Sci.  65: 1273– 1282. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Cromwell G. L. Calvert C. C. Cline T. R. Crenshaw J. D. Crenshaw T. D. Easter R. A. Ewan R. C. Hamilton C. R. Hill G. N. Lewis A. J. Mahan D. C. Miller E. R. Nelssen J. L. Pettigrew J. E. Triblle L. F. Veum T. L. Yen T. J. 1999. Variability among sources and laboratories in nutrient analyses of corn and soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci.  77: 3262– 3273. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  de Blas C. Mateos G. G. Garcia-Rebollar P. 2010. Tablas FEDNA de composicion y valor nutritive de alimentos para la fabricacion de piensos compuestos. 3rd rev. ed. Fundacion Española para el Desarrollo de la Nutricion Animal, Madrid, Spain. Dudley-Cash W. A. 1999. Methods for determining quality of soybean meal protein important. Feedstuffs  71: 10– 11. González-Vega J. C. Kim B. G. Htoo J. K. Lemme A. Stein H. H. 2011. Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci.  89: 3617– 3625. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Grieshop C. M. Kadzere C. T. Clapper G. M. Flickinger E. A. Bauer L. L. Frazier R. L. Fahey G. C.Jr 2003. Chemical and nutritional characteristics of United States soybeans and soybean meals. J. Agric. Food Chem.  51: 7684– 7691. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Hurburgh C. R.Jr Brumm T. J. Guinn J. M. Hartwig R. A. 1990. Protein and oil patterns in US and world soybean markets. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.  67: 966– 973. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS   Karr-Lilienthal L. K. Merchen N. R. Grieshop C. M. Flahaven M. A. Mahan D. C. Fastinger N. D. Watts M. Fahey G. C.Jr 2004. Ileal amino acid digestibilities by pigs fed soybean meals from five major soybean-producing countries. J. Anim. Sci.  82: 3198– 3209. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Lallѐs J. P. 2000. Soy products as protein sources for preruminants and young pigs. In: Drackley J. K. editor, Soy in animal nutrition.  Federation of Animal Sciences Society, Savoy, IL. p. 106– 126. Monari S. 1993. Quality control. In: Wiseman J. editor, Fullfat soya handbook.  2nd ed. American Soybean Association, Brussels, Belgium. p. 6– 9. NRC 2012. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Ravindran V. Abdollahi M. R. Bootwalla S. M. 2014. Nutrient analysis, metabolizable energy, and digestible amino acids of soybean meals of different origins for broilers. Poult. Sci.  93: 2567– 2577. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Rostagno H. H. Albino L. F. T. Donzele J. L. Gomes P. C. Oliveira R. T. Lopes D. C. Ferreira A. S. Barreto S. L. T. Euclides R. F. 2011. Brazilian tables for poultry and swine. Composition of feedstuffs and nutritional requirements. 3rd ed. Federal University of Vicosa, Vicosa, Brazil. Shelton J. L. Hemann M. D. Strode R. M. Brashear G. L. Ellis M. McKeith F. K. Bidner T. D. Southern L. L. 2001. Effect of different protein sources on growth and carcass traits in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci.  79: 2428– 2435. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Stein H. H. Berger L. L. Drackley J. K. Fahey G. F.Jr Hernot D. C. Parsons C. M. 2008. Nutritional properties and feeding values of soybeans and their coproducts. In: Johnson L. A. White P. J. Galloway R. editors, Soybeans chemistry, production, processing, and utilization.  AOCS Press, Urbana, IL. p. 613– 660. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS   Stein H. H. Séve B. Fuller M. F. Moughan P. J. de Lange C. F. M. 2007. Invited review: Amino acid bioavailability in pig feed ingredients: Terminology and application. J. Anim. Sci.  85: 172– 180. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Wang J. P. Hong S. M. Yan L. Cho J. H. Lee H. S. Kim I. H. 2011. The evaluation of soybean meals from 3 major soybean-producing countries on productive performance and feeding value of pigs diets. J. Anim. Sci.  89: 2768– 2773. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Footnotes 1 Donation of soybean meal for this research by AG Processing Inc. (Omaha, NE), Archer Daniels Midland Company (Decatur, IL), Bunge North America (St. Louis, MO), and Cargill (Elk River, MN) is greatly appreciated. This work also was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Hatch project number 233712). 2 Current address: Ralco Nutrition Inc., Marshall, MN. 3 Current address: Evonik-Degussa Corporation, Kennesaw, GA. American Society of Animal Science http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Journal of Animal Science Oxford University Press

Amino acid digestibility in soybean meal sourced from different regions of the United States and fed to pigs

Loading next page...
 
/lp/oxford-university-press/amino-acid-digestibility-in-soybean-meal-sourced-from-different-0O0KL2cLZ0

References (25)

ISSN
0021-8812
eISSN
1525-3163
DOI
10.2527/jas.2016.0443
pmid
28380606
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Abstract An experiment was conducted to determine the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) by growing pigs of AA in soybean meal (SBM) produced in different regions of the United States. Twenty-two growing barrows (25.5 ± 1.73 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula near the distal ileum and allotted to a 22 × 8 Youden square design. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from soybean crushing plants located throughout the United States. For analysis, the crushing plant locations were separated into the following 3 zones: 1) Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota (n = 4); 2) Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio (n = 11); and 3) Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska (n = 7). Dietary treatments included 22 diets based on a mixture of cornstarch, sucrose, and each source of SBM as the sole source of CP. Results indicated that the concentration of most indispensable and dispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones. However, SBM from zone 2 had a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Thr than SBM from zone 3 and a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Gly than SBM from zone 1. The concentration of Tyr in SBM from zone 2 was also greater (P < 0.05) than in SBM from zones 1 and 3. However, if concentrations of AA were calculated as a percent of CP, there were no differences in the concentrations of indispensable and dispensable AA among SBM from the 3 zones. Likewise, the AID of CP and the AID of indispensable and dispensable AA were not different among SBM from the 3 zones. The SID of CP and most AA was also not different among SBM from the 3 zones. However, SBM from zone 3 had a greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Asp, and Cys than SBM from zone 2, and SBM from zone 1 had a greater (P < 0.05) SID of Lys than SBM from zone 2. There was also a tendency (P < 0.10) for SBM from zone 3 to have a greater SID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, and Tyr than SBM from zone 2. If the concentrations of SID CP and AA were calculated as grams per kilogram, SBM among the 3 zones were not different with the exception that there was a tendency (P = 0.07) for SBM from zone 2 to contain more SID Thr and SID Tyr than SBM from zone 3. In conclusion, only a few differences in concentrations and digestibility of CP and AA exist among sources of SBM from different zones in the United States. These observations indicate that the protein value is not different among SBM produced in the United States regardless of the location of the crushing plants. INTRODUCTION In the 2014-2015 crop year, the United States, Brazil, Argentina, China, Paraguay, and India were the major global producers of soybeans, accounting for 92% of total world production and producing a total of 293.3 million t of soybeans (ASA, 2015). The United States is the top soybean producer in the world, with a total production of 107 million t of soybeans in 2015. In the United States, soybean meal (SBM) is the most commonly used protein source in swine diets (Shelton et al., 2001) and accounts for 26% of total SBM consumption (Stein et al., 2008). Soybeans grown in the northern United States have a decreased CP concentration compared with soybeans grown further south because of fewer growing days and fewer hours of sunlight (Dudley-Cash, 1999). A decrease in growing days and hours of sunlight allows the soybean plant less time for N fixation and, therefore, reduced protein synthesis. Because traditional CP assays measure N content, these samples tend to have decreased CP values compared with SBM from other parts of the United States. However, the protein in SBM produced in the northern United States may sometimes have greater concentrations of indispensable AA (Grieshop et al., 2003), but this is not always the case. Research has been conducted to compare the nutritional value of SBM produced in different parts of the world (Karr-Lilienthal et al., 2004; Wang et al., 2011; Ravindran et al., 2014); however, no research has been conducted to compare the digestibility of AA among SBM produced in different regions of the United States. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that known differences in CP in soybeans grown in different areas of the United States will also result in differences in the quantities of digestible AA that are present in SBM produced from crushing plants located in different regions of the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee at the University of Illinois reviewed and approved the protocol for the experiment. Twenty-two growing barrows (initial BW, 25.5 ± 1.73 kg) were fitted with a T-cannula near the distal ileum and allotted to a 22 × 8 Youden square design with 22 pigs and 8 periods. Pigs were placed in individual pens (1.2 by 1.5 m) that were equipped with a self-feeder, a nipple waterer, and a slatted tri-bar floor. Twenty-two sources of SBM were procured from crushing facilities in different regions of the United States (Tables 1, 2, and 3;  Appendix Table A1) in the spring and summer of 2012. The dietary treatments included 22 diets based on a mixture of cornstarch, sucrose, and each source of SBM, with SBM as the only source of AA in the diets (Table 4). Vitamins and minerals were included in all diets to meet or exceed the estimated nutrient requirements for growing pigs (NRC, 2012). All diets were fed in meal form. Feed consumption was recorded daily, and individual pig weights were recorded at the beginning of each period to determine feed allowance during the period. Pigs were limit fed to 3 times their estimated energy requirement for maintenance (i.e., 197 kcal of ME/kg0.60; NRC, 2012), but throughout the experiment, pigs had ad libitum access to water. The experiment had a total of 8 periods, with each period lasting 7 d. The first 5 d of each period were considered the adaptation period to the diet, whereas ileal digesta were collected for 8 h on d 6 and 7 of each period. A 225-mL plastic bag was attached to the cannula barrel using a cable tie and digesta flowing into the bag were collected. Bags were removed every 30 min, or whenever full, and replaced with a new bag. Digesta were stored at −20°C immediately after collection. Table 1. Locations of the crushing plants for the 22 sources of soybean meal used in the experiment State  Zone  No. of samples      Michigan  1  1      Minnesota  1  2      South Dakota  1  1      Georgia  2  1      Illinois  2  5      Indiana  2  3      Ohio  2  2      Iowa  3  3      Missouri  3  2      Nebraska  3  2  Total  3  22  State  Zone  No. of samples      Michigan  1  1      Minnesota  1  2      South Dakota  1  1      Georgia  2  1      Illinois  2  5      Indiana  2  3      Ohio  2  2      Iowa  3  3      Missouri  3  2      Nebraska  3  2  Total  3  22  View Large Table 1. Locations of the crushing plants for the 22 sources of soybean meal used in the experiment State  Zone  No. of samples      Michigan  1  1      Minnesota  1  2      South Dakota  1  1      Georgia  2  1      Illinois  2  5      Indiana  2  3      Ohio  2  2      Iowa  3  3      Missouri  3  2      Nebraska  3  2  Total  3  22  State  Zone  No. of samples      Michigan  1  1      Minnesota  1  2      South Dakota  1  1      Georgia  2  1      Illinois  2  5      Indiana  2  3      Ohio  2  2      Iowa  3  3      Missouri  3  2      Nebraska  3  2  Total  3  22  View Large Table 2. Analyzed nutrient composition of soybean meal (as-fed basis)   Zone1        Item  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP3, %  46.64xy  48.27x  46.50y  47.41  0.65  0.039  DM, %  88.60  88.85  88.30  88.63  0.35  0.444  NDF, %  7.78  7.54  8.21  7.84  0.81  0.794  ADF, %  4.81  5.00  4.89  4.90  0.29  0.890  Indispensable, AA %                Arg  3.36  3.45  3.37  3.41  0.04  0.203      His  1.18  1.22  1.19  1.21  0.01  0.106      Ile  2.05  2.17  2.11  2.13  0.05  0.262      Leu  3.58  3.67  3.56  3.62  0.04  0.057      Lys  3.00  3.06  2.99  3.03  0.04  0.249      Met  0.64  0.64  0.62  0.63  0.01  0.375      Phe  2.26  2.33  2.26  2.30  0.03  0.098      Thr  1.75ab  1.80a  1.73b  1.77  0.02  0.010      Trp  0.70  0.71  0.69  0.70  0.01  0.322      Val  2.17  2.29  2.24  2.26  0.05  0.319  Dispensable, AA %                Ala3  1.96y  2.01x  1.96y  1.98  0.02  0.048      Asp  5.09  5.20  5.07  5.14  0.05  0.108      Cys  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.62  0.01  0.318      Glu  7.71  7.79  7.68  7.74  0.10  0.635      Gly  1.89b  1.96a  1.91ab  1.93  0.02  0.018      Pro  2.25  2.28  2.23  2.26  0.02  0.164      Ser  2.15  2.16  2.08  2.13  0.03  0.188      Tyr  1.65b  1.71a  1.66b  1.68  0.02  0.016      Total AA  44.00  45.09  43.97  44.54  0.47  0.107  TIU4, units/mg  3.73  3.03  3.26  3.29  0.44  0.553    Zone1        Item  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP3, %  46.64xy  48.27x  46.50y  47.41  0.65  0.039  DM, %  88.60  88.85  88.30  88.63  0.35  0.444  NDF, %  7.78  7.54  8.21  7.84  0.81  0.794  ADF, %  4.81  5.00  4.89  4.90  0.29  0.890  Indispensable, AA %                Arg  3.36  3.45  3.37  3.41  0.04  0.203      His  1.18  1.22  1.19  1.21  0.01  0.106      Ile  2.05  2.17  2.11  2.13  0.05  0.262      Leu  3.58  3.67  3.56  3.62  0.04  0.057      Lys  3.00  3.06  2.99  3.03  0.04  0.249      Met  0.64  0.64  0.62  0.63  0.01  0.375      Phe  2.26  2.33  2.26  2.30  0.03  0.098      Thr  1.75ab  1.80a  1.73b  1.77  0.02  0.010      Trp  0.70  0.71  0.69  0.70  0.01  0.322      Val  2.17  2.29  2.24  2.26  0.05  0.319  Dispensable, AA %                Ala3  1.96y  2.01x  1.96y  1.98  0.02  0.048      Asp  5.09  5.20  5.07  5.14  0.05  0.108      Cys  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.62  0.01  0.318      Glu  7.71  7.79  7.68  7.74  0.10  0.635      Gly  1.89b  1.96a  1.91ab  1.93  0.02  0.018      Pro  2.25  2.28  2.23  2.26  0.02  0.164      Ser  2.15  2.16  2.08  2.13  0.03  0.188      Tyr  1.65b  1.71a  1.66b  1.68  0.02  0.016      Total AA  44.00  45.09  43.97  44.54  0.47  0.107  TIU4, units/mg  3.73  3.03  3.26  3.29  0.44  0.553  a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05). 1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2Th average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. 3Means were separated with Tukey adjustment and means within a row lacking a common superscript letter (x,y) tend to be different (P < 0.10). 4TIU = trypsin inhibitor units. View Large Table 2. Analyzed nutrient composition of soybean meal (as-fed basis)   Zone1        Item  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP3, %  46.64xy  48.27x  46.50y  47.41  0.65  0.039  DM, %  88.60  88.85  88.30  88.63  0.35  0.444  NDF, %  7.78  7.54  8.21  7.84  0.81  0.794  ADF, %  4.81  5.00  4.89  4.90  0.29  0.890  Indispensable, AA %                Arg  3.36  3.45  3.37  3.41  0.04  0.203      His  1.18  1.22  1.19  1.21  0.01  0.106      Ile  2.05  2.17  2.11  2.13  0.05  0.262      Leu  3.58  3.67  3.56  3.62  0.04  0.057      Lys  3.00  3.06  2.99  3.03  0.04  0.249      Met  0.64  0.64  0.62  0.63  0.01  0.375      Phe  2.26  2.33  2.26  2.30  0.03  0.098      Thr  1.75ab  1.80a  1.73b  1.77  0.02  0.010      Trp  0.70  0.71  0.69  0.70  0.01  0.322      Val  2.17  2.29  2.24  2.26  0.05  0.319  Dispensable, AA %                Ala3  1.96y  2.01x  1.96y  1.98  0.02  0.048      Asp  5.09  5.20  5.07  5.14  0.05  0.108      Cys  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.62  0.01  0.318      Glu  7.71  7.79  7.68  7.74  0.10  0.635      Gly  1.89b  1.96a  1.91ab  1.93  0.02  0.018      Pro  2.25  2.28  2.23  2.26  0.02  0.164      Ser  2.15  2.16  2.08  2.13  0.03  0.188      Tyr  1.65b  1.71a  1.66b  1.68  0.02  0.016      Total AA  44.00  45.09  43.97  44.54  0.47  0.107  TIU4, units/mg  3.73  3.03  3.26  3.29  0.44  0.553    Zone1        Item  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP3, %  46.64xy  48.27x  46.50y  47.41  0.65  0.039  DM, %  88.60  88.85  88.30  88.63  0.35  0.444  NDF, %  7.78  7.54  8.21  7.84  0.81  0.794  ADF, %  4.81  5.00  4.89  4.90  0.29  0.890  Indispensable, AA %                Arg  3.36  3.45  3.37  3.41  0.04  0.203      His  1.18  1.22  1.19  1.21  0.01  0.106      Ile  2.05  2.17  2.11  2.13  0.05  0.262      Leu  3.58  3.67  3.56  3.62  0.04  0.057      Lys  3.00  3.06  2.99  3.03  0.04  0.249      Met  0.64  0.64  0.62  0.63  0.01  0.375      Phe  2.26  2.33  2.26  2.30  0.03  0.098      Thr  1.75ab  1.80a  1.73b  1.77  0.02  0.010      Trp  0.70  0.71  0.69  0.70  0.01  0.322      Val  2.17  2.29  2.24  2.26  0.05  0.319  Dispensable, AA %                Ala3  1.96y  2.01x  1.96y  1.98  0.02  0.048      Asp  5.09  5.20  5.07  5.14  0.05  0.108      Cys  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.62  0.01  0.318      Glu  7.71  7.79  7.68  7.74  0.10  0.635      Gly  1.89b  1.96a  1.91ab  1.93  0.02  0.018      Pro  2.25  2.28  2.23  2.26  0.02  0.164      Ser  2.15  2.16  2.08  2.13  0.03  0.188      Tyr  1.65b  1.71a  1.66b  1.68  0.02  0.016      Total AA  44.00  45.09  43.97  44.54  0.47  0.107  TIU4, units/mg  3.73  3.03  3.26  3.29  0.44  0.553  a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05). 1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2Th average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. 3Means were separated with Tukey adjustment and means within a row lacking a common superscript letter (x,y) tend to be different (P < 0.10). 4TIU = trypsin inhibitor units. View Large Table 3. Concentrations of AA in soybean meal expressed as a percent of CP   Zone1        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  Indispensable AA                Arg  7.21  7.14  7.25  7.19  0.06  0.344      His  2.54  2.54  2.56  2.54  0.03  0.635      Ile  4.38  4.49  4.54  4.48  0.10  0.588      Leu  7.66  7.61  7.65  7.64  0.07  0.841      Lys  6.42  6.35  6.43  6.39  0.06  0.453      Met  1.37  1.32  1.34  1.34  0.02  0.203      Phe  4.85  4.84  4.86  4.85  0.05  0.957      Thr  3.76  3.73  3.73  3.73  0.03  0.841      Trp  1.50  1.47  1.49  1.48  0.02  0.253      Val  4.65  4.76  4.83  4.76  0.11  0.588      Mean  44.33  44.25  44.68  44.40  0.45  0.723  Dispensable AA                Ala  4.21  4.16  4.21  4.19  0.04  0.637      Asp  10.92  10.79  10.90  10.85  0.10  0.549      Cys  1.34  1.31  1.32  1.32  0.02  0.752      Glu  16.54  16.15  16.51  16.34  0.25  0.388      Gly  4.06  4.07  4.11  4.08  0.04  0.629      Pro  4.82  4.72  4.79  4.76  0.05  0.255      Ser  4.62  4.47  4.48  4.50  0.07  0.342      Tyr  3.54  3.54  3.57  3.55  0.03  0.828      Mean  50.03  49.22  49.89  49.58  0.50  0.414      Total AA  94.36  93.47  94.57  93.98  0.89  0.553    Zone1        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  Indispensable AA                Arg  7.21  7.14  7.25  7.19  0.06  0.344      His  2.54  2.54  2.56  2.54  0.03  0.635      Ile  4.38  4.49  4.54  4.48  0.10  0.588      Leu  7.66  7.61  7.65  7.64  0.07  0.841      Lys  6.42  6.35  6.43  6.39  0.06  0.453      Met  1.37  1.32  1.34  1.34  0.02  0.203      Phe  4.85  4.84  4.86  4.85  0.05  0.957      Thr  3.76  3.73  3.73  3.73  0.03  0.841      Trp  1.50  1.47  1.49  1.48  0.02  0.253      Val  4.65  4.76  4.83  4.76  0.11  0.588      Mean  44.33  44.25  44.68  44.40  0.45  0.723  Dispensable AA                Ala  4.21  4.16  4.21  4.19  0.04  0.637      Asp  10.92  10.79  10.90  10.85  0.10  0.549      Cys  1.34  1.31  1.32  1.32  0.02  0.752      Glu  16.54  16.15  16.51  16.34  0.25  0.388      Gly  4.06  4.07  4.11  4.08  0.04  0.629      Pro  4.82  4.72  4.79  4.76  0.05  0.255      Ser  4.62  4.47  4.48  4.50  0.07  0.342      Tyr  3.54  3.54  3.57  3.55  0.03  0.828      Mean  50.03  49.22  49.89  49.58  0.50  0.414      Total AA  94.36  93.47  94.57  93.98  0.89  0.553  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 3. Concentrations of AA in soybean meal expressed as a percent of CP   Zone1        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  Indispensable AA                Arg  7.21  7.14  7.25  7.19  0.06  0.344      His  2.54  2.54  2.56  2.54  0.03  0.635      Ile  4.38  4.49  4.54  4.48  0.10  0.588      Leu  7.66  7.61  7.65  7.64  0.07  0.841      Lys  6.42  6.35  6.43  6.39  0.06  0.453      Met  1.37  1.32  1.34  1.34  0.02  0.203      Phe  4.85  4.84  4.86  4.85  0.05  0.957      Thr  3.76  3.73  3.73  3.73  0.03  0.841      Trp  1.50  1.47  1.49  1.48  0.02  0.253      Val  4.65  4.76  4.83  4.76  0.11  0.588      Mean  44.33  44.25  44.68  44.40  0.45  0.723  Dispensable AA                Ala  4.21  4.16  4.21  4.19  0.04  0.637      Asp  10.92  10.79  10.90  10.85  0.10  0.549      Cys  1.34  1.31  1.32  1.32  0.02  0.752      Glu  16.54  16.15  16.51  16.34  0.25  0.388      Gly  4.06  4.07  4.11  4.08  0.04  0.629      Pro  4.82  4.72  4.79  4.76  0.05  0.255      Ser  4.62  4.47  4.48  4.50  0.07  0.342      Tyr  3.54  3.54  3.57  3.55  0.03  0.828      Mean  50.03  49.22  49.89  49.58  0.50  0.414      Total AA  94.36  93.47  94.57  93.98  0.89  0.553    Zone1        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  Indispensable AA                Arg  7.21  7.14  7.25  7.19  0.06  0.344      His  2.54  2.54  2.56  2.54  0.03  0.635      Ile  4.38  4.49  4.54  4.48  0.10  0.588      Leu  7.66  7.61  7.65  7.64  0.07  0.841      Lys  6.42  6.35  6.43  6.39  0.06  0.453      Met  1.37  1.32  1.34  1.34  0.02  0.203      Phe  4.85  4.84  4.86  4.85  0.05  0.957      Thr  3.76  3.73  3.73  3.73  0.03  0.841      Trp  1.50  1.47  1.49  1.48  0.02  0.253      Val  4.65  4.76  4.83  4.76  0.11  0.588      Mean  44.33  44.25  44.68  44.40  0.45  0.723  Dispensable AA                Ala  4.21  4.16  4.21  4.19  0.04  0.637      Asp  10.92  10.79  10.90  10.85  0.10  0.549      Cys  1.34  1.31  1.32  1.32  0.02  0.752      Glu  16.54  16.15  16.51  16.34  0.25  0.388      Gly  4.06  4.07  4.11  4.08  0.04  0.629      Pro  4.82  4.72  4.79  4.76  0.05  0.255      Ser  4.62  4.47  4.48  4.50  0.07  0.342      Tyr  3.54  3.54  3.57  3.55  0.03  0.828      Mean  50.03  49.22  49.89  49.58  0.50  0.414      Total AA  94.36  93.47  94.57  93.98  0.89  0.553  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 4. Ingredient composition (as-fed basis) of experimental diets containing soybean meal1 Ingredient, %  Soybean meal diet      Soybean meal  35.00      Soybean oil  2.00      Cornstarch  49.72      Sucrose  10.00      Ground limestone  0.75      Monocalcium phosphate  1.55      Chromic oxide  0.40      Sodium chloride  0.40      Vitamin-mineral premix2  0.18  Total  100.00  Ingredient, %  Soybean meal diet      Soybean meal  35.00      Soybean oil  2.00      Cornstarch  49.72      Sucrose  10.00      Ground limestone  0.75      Monocalcium phosphate  1.55      Chromic oxide  0.40      Sodium chloride  0.40      Vitamin-mineral premix2  0.18  Total  100.00  1A total of 22 cornstarch-soybean meal diets were formulated using 22 different sources of soybean meal. Diets were formulated to contain 16.5% CP. 2The vitamin-micromineral premix provided the following quantities of vitamins and microminerals per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 6,682 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 1,325 IU; vitamin E as DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 40 IU; vitamin K as menadione dimethylprimidinol bisulfite, 0.85 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.14 mg; riboflavin, 3.95 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.14 mg; vitamin B12, 0.02 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 14.1 mg; niacin, 26.46 mg; folic acid, 0.95 mg; biotin, 0.26 mg; Cu as copper sulfate and copper chloride, 12 mg; Fe as ferrous sulfate, 75.6 mg; I as ethylenediamine dihydriodide, 0.76 mg; Mn as manganese sulfate, 36.12 mg; Se as sodium selenite and selenium yeast, 0.18 mg; and Zn as zinc sulfate, 75.06 mg. View Large Table 4. Ingredient composition (as-fed basis) of experimental diets containing soybean meal1 Ingredient, %  Soybean meal diet      Soybean meal  35.00      Soybean oil  2.00      Cornstarch  49.72      Sucrose  10.00      Ground limestone  0.75      Monocalcium phosphate  1.55      Chromic oxide  0.40      Sodium chloride  0.40      Vitamin-mineral premix2  0.18  Total  100.00  Ingredient, %  Soybean meal diet      Soybean meal  35.00      Soybean oil  2.00      Cornstarch  49.72      Sucrose  10.00      Ground limestone  0.75      Monocalcium phosphate  1.55      Chromic oxide  0.40      Sodium chloride  0.40      Vitamin-mineral premix2  0.18  Total  100.00  1A total of 22 cornstarch-soybean meal diets were formulated using 22 different sources of soybean meal. Diets were formulated to contain 16.5% CP. 2The vitamin-micromineral premix provided the following quantities of vitamins and microminerals per kilogram of complete diet: vitamin A as retinyl acetate, 6,682 IU; vitamin D3 as cholecalciferol, 1,325 IU; vitamin E as DL-alpha tocopheryl acetate, 40 IU; vitamin K as menadione dimethylprimidinol bisulfite, 0.85 mg; thiamin as thiamine mononitrate, 0.14 mg; riboflavin, 3.95 mg; pyridoxine as pyridoxine hydrochloride, 0.14 mg; vitamin B12, 0.02 mg; D-pantothenic acid as D-calcium pantothenate, 14.1 mg; niacin, 26.46 mg; folic acid, 0.95 mg; biotin, 0.26 mg; Cu as copper sulfate and copper chloride, 12 mg; Fe as ferrous sulfate, 75.6 mg; I as ethylenediamine dihydriodide, 0.76 mg; Mn as manganese sulfate, 36.12 mg; Se as sodium selenite and selenium yeast, 0.18 mg; and Zn as zinc sulfate, 75.06 mg. View Large At the conclusion of the experiment, ileal digesta were thawed and mixed within animal and diet, and a subsample was collected for analysis. Samples of the diets and of each source of SBM were also collected. Ileal digesta were lyophilized and finely ground before analysis. Samples of diets, digesta, and SBM were analyzed for CP (method 990.03; AOAC International, 2007) and DM (method 930.15; AOAC International, 2007). These samples were also analyzed for AA (method 982.30 E [a, b, c]; AOAC International, 2007) at the Experiment Station Chemical Laboratories (University of Missouri, Columbus, MO), and diets and digesta samples were analyzed for chromium (method 990.08; AOAC International, 2007) at the same laboratory. Samples of SBM were analyzed for trypsin inhibitor concentration (method Ba 12–75; AOCS, 2006). Values for apparent ileal digestibility (AID) for CP and all AA in each diet were calculated according to Stein et al. (2007). By correcting AID values for basal endogenous losses, values for the standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of CP and AA were calculated (Stein et al., 2007). Values for the basal endogenous losses of CP and AA were calculated as the average from 22 experiments conducted at the University of Illinois between 2007 and 2014. The concentrations of digestible AA were calculated by multiplying the concentration of each AA in each source of SBM by the SID of that AA and multiplied by 10 to be expressed in grams per kilogram. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Inst. Inc., Cary, NC). The normality of residuals and outliers were tested using the UNIVARIATE procedure of SAS. Means that deviated from the treatment mean by more than 3 times the interquartile range were considered outliers and removed. Data for the analyzed nutrient and AA composition, concentration of AA as percent of CP, and concentration of digestible AA in SBM were analyzed using a model that included zone as a fixed effect. Data for the AID and SID of AA were analyzed using a model that included the fixed effect of zone and period and the random effect of pig. Least squares means for each zone were calculated using the LSMeans procedure in SAS, and if significant differences were detected, means were separated using the PDIFF option with the Tukey adjustment and pooled SEM were calculated. Results were considered significant at a P value of ≤0.05 and a trend at a P value of ≤0.10. RESULTS The concentration of CP in SBM from zone 2 tended to be greater (P = 0.051) than that in SBM from zone 3 (Table 2). The concentration of DM, NDF, and ADF were not different among the 3 zones. The concentrations of most indispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones, but SBM from zone 2 had a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Thr than SBM from zone 3; this value was not different from SBM from zone 1. Likewise, there was a tendency (P = 0.067) for an increase in the concentration of Leu in SBM from zone 2 compared with SBM from zone 3. Concentrations of most dispensable AA in SBM were not different among zones, but SBM from zone 2 had a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Gly than SBM from zone 1; however, this value was not different from SBM from zone 3. Soybean meal from zone 2 had a greater (P < 0.05) concentration of Tyr compared with SBM from zones 1 and 3. The concentration of Ala in SBM from zone 2 tended to be greater (P = 0.063) than in SBM from zone 3. However, if concentrations of AA were calculated as a percent of CP, there were no differences in the indispensable and dispensable AA among SBM from the 3 zones (Table 3). The outlier test identified 2 pigs that were outliers—1 pig was fed SBM from zone 2 in period 7 and 1 pig was fed SBM from zone 3 in period 1. These pigs were disregarded in data analyses and summary. The AID of CP and the AID of indispensable and dispensable AA were not different among SBM from the 3 zones (Table 5). Likewise, the SID of CP and the SID of Arg, Met, Thr, Trp, Glu, and Ser were not different among SBM from the 3 zones (Table 6). However, SBM from zone 3 had a greater (P < 0.05) SID of His, Asp, and Cys than SBM from zone 2, but these values were not different from SBM from zone 1. Likewise, there was a tendency (P < 0.10) for a greater SID of Ile, Leu, Phe, Val, Ala, Tyr, mean of indispensable AA, mean of dispensable AA, and total AA in SBM from zone 3 than in SBM from zone 2. The SID of Lys in SBM from zone 1 also tended to be greater (P = 0.077) than in SBM from zone 2. There was an effect of period only for the AID of Trp, Val, Ala, Cys, and Glu and for the SID of Thr, Trp, and Glu, but no interactions were observed. Table 5. Apparent ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal by growing pigs1   Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  85.12  84.06  84.62  84.46  0.61  0.360  Indispensable AA                Arg  92.40  92.48  92.93  92.61  0.31  0.343      His  90.39  89.88  90.62  90.21  0.36  0.197      Ile  89.03  88.47  89.13  88.79  0.40  0.260      Leu  89.14  88.53  89.18  88.85  0.41  0.221      Lys  89.08  88.21  88.80  88.55  0.46  0.254      Met  90.17  90.17  90.39  90.25  0.41  0.871      Phe  89.56  88.89  89.47  89.21  0.40  0.260      Thr  83.13  82.67  83.22  82.93  0.64  0.648      Trp  91.29  90.48  90.82  90.75  0.44  0.307      Val  86.65  86.13  86.92  86.48  0.53  0.329      Mean  88.94  88.55  89.16  88.89  0.39  0.364  Dispensable AA      Ala  83.97  83.43  84.43  83.86  0.66  0.321      Asp  87.95  87.08  88.01  87.54  0.49  0.147      Cys  81.63  80.26  81.83  81.03  0.77  0.114      Glu  89.81  89.41  89.78  89.62  0.59  0.729      Gly  75.51  74.14  75.64  74.95  1.28  0.422      Pro  68.13  63.78  63.28  64.62  3.31  0.191      Ser  88.02  87.74  88.07  87.90  0.43  0.747      Tyr  88.66  88.07  88.78  88.53  0.42  0.378      Mean  83.14  81.14  82.50  82.26  1.00  0.237      All AA  86.38  85.39  86.22  86.00  0.55  0.242    Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  85.12  84.06  84.62  84.46  0.61  0.360  Indispensable AA                Arg  92.40  92.48  92.93  92.61  0.31  0.343      His  90.39  89.88  90.62  90.21  0.36  0.197      Ile  89.03  88.47  89.13  88.79  0.40  0.260      Leu  89.14  88.53  89.18  88.85  0.41  0.221      Lys  89.08  88.21  88.80  88.55  0.46  0.254      Met  90.17  90.17  90.39  90.25  0.41  0.871      Phe  89.56  88.89  89.47  89.21  0.40  0.260      Thr  83.13  82.67  83.22  82.93  0.64  0.648      Trp  91.29  90.48  90.82  90.75  0.44  0.307      Val  86.65  86.13  86.92  86.48  0.53  0.329      Mean  88.94  88.55  89.16  88.89  0.39  0.364  Dispensable AA      Ala  83.97  83.43  84.43  83.86  0.66  0.321      Asp  87.95  87.08  88.01  87.54  0.49  0.147      Cys  81.63  80.26  81.83  81.03  0.77  0.114      Glu  89.81  89.41  89.78  89.62  0.59  0.729      Gly  75.51  74.14  75.64  74.95  1.28  0.422      Pro  68.13  63.78  63.28  64.62  3.31  0.191      Ser  88.02  87.74  88.07  87.90  0.43  0.747      Tyr  88.66  88.07  88.78  88.53  0.42  0.378      Mean  83.14  81.14  82.50  82.26  1.00  0.237      All AA  86.38  85.39  86.22  86.00  0.55  0.242  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone, 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 5. Apparent ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal by growing pigs1   Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  85.12  84.06  84.62  84.46  0.61  0.360  Indispensable AA                Arg  92.40  92.48  92.93  92.61  0.31  0.343      His  90.39  89.88  90.62  90.21  0.36  0.197      Ile  89.03  88.47  89.13  88.79  0.40  0.260      Leu  89.14  88.53  89.18  88.85  0.41  0.221      Lys  89.08  88.21  88.80  88.55  0.46  0.254      Met  90.17  90.17  90.39  90.25  0.41  0.871      Phe  89.56  88.89  89.47  89.21  0.40  0.260      Thr  83.13  82.67  83.22  82.93  0.64  0.648      Trp  91.29  90.48  90.82  90.75  0.44  0.307      Val  86.65  86.13  86.92  86.48  0.53  0.329      Mean  88.94  88.55  89.16  88.89  0.39  0.364  Dispensable AA      Ala  83.97  83.43  84.43  83.86  0.66  0.321      Asp  87.95  87.08  88.01  87.54  0.49  0.147      Cys  81.63  80.26  81.83  81.03  0.77  0.114      Glu  89.81  89.41  89.78  89.62  0.59  0.729      Gly  75.51  74.14  75.64  74.95  1.28  0.422      Pro  68.13  63.78  63.28  64.62  3.31  0.191      Ser  88.02  87.74  88.07  87.90  0.43  0.747      Tyr  88.66  88.07  88.78  88.53  0.42  0.378      Mean  83.14  81.14  82.50  82.26  1.00  0.237      All AA  86.38  85.39  86.22  86.00  0.55  0.242    Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  85.12  84.06  84.62  84.46  0.61  0.360  Indispensable AA                Arg  92.40  92.48  92.93  92.61  0.31  0.343      His  90.39  89.88  90.62  90.21  0.36  0.197      Ile  89.03  88.47  89.13  88.79  0.40  0.260      Leu  89.14  88.53  89.18  88.85  0.41  0.221      Lys  89.08  88.21  88.80  88.55  0.46  0.254      Met  90.17  90.17  90.39  90.25  0.41  0.871      Phe  89.56  88.89  89.47  89.21  0.40  0.260      Thr  83.13  82.67  83.22  82.93  0.64  0.648      Trp  91.29  90.48  90.82  90.75  0.44  0.307      Val  86.65  86.13  86.92  86.48  0.53  0.329      Mean  88.94  88.55  89.16  88.89  0.39  0.364  Dispensable AA      Ala  83.97  83.43  84.43  83.86  0.66  0.321      Asp  87.95  87.08  88.01  87.54  0.49  0.147      Cys  81.63  80.26  81.83  81.03  0.77  0.114      Glu  89.81  89.41  89.78  89.62  0.59  0.729      Gly  75.51  74.14  75.64  74.95  1.28  0.422      Pro  68.13  63.78  63.28  64.62  3.31  0.191      Ser  88.02  87.74  88.07  87.90  0.43  0.747      Tyr  88.66  88.07  88.78  88.53  0.42  0.378      Mean  83.14  81.14  82.50  82.26  1.00  0.237      All AA  86.38  85.39  86.22  86.00  0.55  0.242  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone, 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 6. Standardized ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal by growing pigs1,2   Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average3  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  95.66  94.28  94.94  94.78  0.58  0.120  Indispensable AA                Arg  98.17  97.98  98.27  98.06  0.29  0.676      His  94.88ab  94.12b  94.99a  94.59  0.33  0.049      Ile  93.79  93.12  93.92  93.52  0.37  0.090      Leu  93.50  92.80  93.62  93.22  0.39  0.074      Lys  93.57a  92.39b  93.18ab  92.97  0.44  0.049      Met  95.07  94.76  95.38  94.96  0.37  0.348      Phe  93.79  93.06  93.85  93.48  0.36  0.078      Thr  92.58  91.56  92.50  92.10  0.60  0.144      Trp  95.97  95.25  95.88  95.56  0.40  0.172      Val  93.54  92.63  93.69  93.16  0.48  0.060      Mean  94.47  93.73  94.50  94.23  0.36  0.086  Dispensable AA                Ala  93.21  92.16  93.43  92.80  0.61  0.076      Asp  92.38ab  91.23b  92.41a  91.83  0.47  0.023      Cys  91.16ab  89.44b  91.30a  90.40  0.70  0.021      Glu  93.36  92.88  93.46  93.27  0.55  0.514      Ser  96.01  95.40  96.01  94.95  0.40  0.221      Tyr  93.47  92.77  93.53  93.17  0.38  0.098      Mean  93.23  92.26  93.34  92.95  0.46  0.069      All AA  94.00  93.17  94.06  93.75  0.39  0.073    Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average3  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  95.66  94.28  94.94  94.78  0.58  0.120  Indispensable AA                Arg  98.17  97.98  98.27  98.06  0.29  0.676      His  94.88ab  94.12b  94.99a  94.59  0.33  0.049      Ile  93.79  93.12  93.92  93.52  0.37  0.090      Leu  93.50  92.80  93.62  93.22  0.39  0.074      Lys  93.57a  92.39b  93.18ab  92.97  0.44  0.049      Met  95.07  94.76  95.38  94.96  0.37  0.348      Phe  93.79  93.06  93.85  93.48  0.36  0.078      Thr  92.58  91.56  92.50  92.10  0.60  0.144      Trp  95.97  95.25  95.88  95.56  0.40  0.172      Val  93.54  92.63  93.69  93.16  0.48  0.060      Mean  94.47  93.73  94.50  94.23  0.36  0.086  Dispensable AA                Ala  93.21  92.16  93.43  92.80  0.61  0.076      Asp  92.38ab  91.23b  92.41a  91.83  0.47  0.023      Cys  91.16ab  89.44b  91.30a  90.40  0.70  0.021      Glu  93.36  92.88  93.46  93.27  0.55  0.514      Ser  96.01  95.40  96.01  94.95  0.40  0.221      Tyr  93.47  92.77  93.53  93.17  0.38  0.098      Mean  93.23  92.26  93.34  92.95  0.46  0.069      All AA  94.00  93.17  94.06  93.75  0.39  0.073  a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05). 1Basal endogenous losses (g/kg DMI): CP = 19.55; Arg = 0.68; His = 0.21; Ile = 0.37; Leu = 0.60; Lys = 0.48; Met = 0.11; Phe = 0.38; Thr = 0.62; Trp = 0.13; Val = 0.55; Ala = 0.69; Asp = 0.85; Cys = 0.22; Glu = 1.11; Ser = 0.63; Tyr = 0.28. 2Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 3The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 6. Standardized ileal digestibility (%) of CP and AA in soybean meal by growing pigs1,2   Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average3  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  95.66  94.28  94.94  94.78  0.58  0.120  Indispensable AA                Arg  98.17  97.98  98.27  98.06  0.29  0.676      His  94.88ab  94.12b  94.99a  94.59  0.33  0.049      Ile  93.79  93.12  93.92  93.52  0.37  0.090      Leu  93.50  92.80  93.62  93.22  0.39  0.074      Lys  93.57a  92.39b  93.18ab  92.97  0.44  0.049      Met  95.07  94.76  95.38  94.96  0.37  0.348      Phe  93.79  93.06  93.85  93.48  0.36  0.078      Thr  92.58  91.56  92.50  92.10  0.60  0.144      Trp  95.97  95.25  95.88  95.56  0.40  0.172      Val  93.54  92.63  93.69  93.16  0.48  0.060      Mean  94.47  93.73  94.50  94.23  0.36  0.086  Dispensable AA                Ala  93.21  92.16  93.43  92.80  0.61  0.076      Asp  92.38ab  91.23b  92.41a  91.83  0.47  0.023      Cys  91.16ab  89.44b  91.30a  90.40  0.70  0.021      Glu  93.36  92.88  93.46  93.27  0.55  0.514      Ser  96.01  95.40  96.01  94.95  0.40  0.221      Tyr  93.47  92.77  93.53  93.17  0.38  0.098      Mean  93.23  92.26  93.34  92.95  0.46  0.069      All AA  94.00  93.17  94.06  93.75  0.39  0.073    Zones        Item, %  1  2  3  Average3  Pooled SEM  P-value  CP  95.66  94.28  94.94  94.78  0.58  0.120  Indispensable AA                Arg  98.17  97.98  98.27  98.06  0.29  0.676      His  94.88ab  94.12b  94.99a  94.59  0.33  0.049      Ile  93.79  93.12  93.92  93.52  0.37  0.090      Leu  93.50  92.80  93.62  93.22  0.39  0.074      Lys  93.57a  92.39b  93.18ab  92.97  0.44  0.049      Met  95.07  94.76  95.38  94.96  0.37  0.348      Phe  93.79  93.06  93.85  93.48  0.36  0.078      Thr  92.58  91.56  92.50  92.10  0.60  0.144      Trp  95.97  95.25  95.88  95.56  0.40  0.172      Val  93.54  92.63  93.69  93.16  0.48  0.060      Mean  94.47  93.73  94.50  94.23  0.36  0.086  Dispensable AA                Ala  93.21  92.16  93.43  92.80  0.61  0.076      Asp  92.38ab  91.23b  92.41a  91.83  0.47  0.023      Cys  91.16ab  89.44b  91.30a  90.40  0.70  0.021      Glu  93.36  92.88  93.46  93.27  0.55  0.514      Ser  96.01  95.40  96.01  94.95  0.40  0.221      Tyr  93.47  92.77  93.53  93.17  0.38  0.098      Mean  93.23  92.26  93.34  92.95  0.46  0.069      All AA  94.00  93.17  94.06  93.75  0.39  0.073  a,bMeans within a row lacking a common superscript letter are different (P < 0.05). 1Basal endogenous losses (g/kg DMI): CP = 19.55; Arg = 0.68; His = 0.21; Ile = 0.37; Leu = 0.60; Lys = 0.48; Met = 0.11; Phe = 0.38; Thr = 0.62; Trp = 0.13; Val = 0.55; Ala = 0.69; Asp = 0.85; Cys = 0.22; Glu = 1.11; Ser = 0.63; Tyr = 0.28. 2Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 3The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large If the concentrations of SID CP and AA were calculated as grams per kilogram, no differences among the 3 zones were observed (Table 7). There was, however, a tendency (P = 0.075) for an increase in the concentration of SID Thr from SBM from zone 2 compared with SBM from zone 3. Likewise, the concentration of SID Tyr in SBM from zone 2 tended to be greater (P = 0.071) than in SBM from zone 1. Table 7. Concentrations (g/kg) of standardized ileal digestible CP and AA in soybean meal1   Zones        Item, g/kg  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value      CP  445.85  455.44  441.71  449.33  5.51  0.128  Indispensable AA                Arg  32.97  33.73  33.09  33.39  0.39  0.269      His  11.22  11.51  11.32  11.40  0.14  0.292      Ile  19.17  20.17  19.81  19.87  0.47  0.364      Leu  33.42  34.09  33.32  33.72  0.37  0.194      Lys  28.00  28.32  27.84  28.11  0.37  0.553      Met  6.06  6.04  5.95  6.01  0.08  0.542      Phe  21.21  21.75  21.23  21.49  0.29  0.252      Thr  16.18  16.49  16.05  16.29  0.16  0.075      Trp  6.69  6.74  6.66  6.70  0.07  0.615      Val  20.30  21.26  21.04  21.02  0.51  0.445      Total  195.20  200.10  196.29  197.99  2.52  0.302  Dispensable AA                Ala  18.26  18.52  18.28  18.40  0.17  0.394      Asp  47.00  47.49  46.82  47.19  0.50  0.513      Cys  5.67  5.66  5.61  5.64  0.09  0.868      Glu  71.98  72.41  71.70  72.10  0.97  0.828      Ser  20.63  20.58  19.99  20.40  0.33  0.286      Tyr  15.41  15.86  15.51  15.67  0.15  0.071      Total  178.94  180.52  177.90  179.39  1.73  0.458      All AA  374.14  380.61  374.19  377.39  4.02  0.341    Zones        Item, g/kg  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value      CP  445.85  455.44  441.71  449.33  5.51  0.128  Indispensable AA                Arg  32.97  33.73  33.09  33.39  0.39  0.269      His  11.22  11.51  11.32  11.40  0.14  0.292      Ile  19.17  20.17  19.81  19.87  0.47  0.364      Leu  33.42  34.09  33.32  33.72  0.37  0.194      Lys  28.00  28.32  27.84  28.11  0.37  0.553      Met  6.06  6.04  5.95  6.01  0.08  0.542      Phe  21.21  21.75  21.23  21.49  0.29  0.252      Thr  16.18  16.49  16.05  16.29  0.16  0.075      Trp  6.69  6.74  6.66  6.70  0.07  0.615      Val  20.30  21.26  21.04  21.02  0.51  0.445      Total  195.20  200.10  196.29  197.99  2.52  0.302  Dispensable AA                Ala  18.26  18.52  18.28  18.40  0.17  0.394      Asp  47.00  47.49  46.82  47.19  0.50  0.513      Cys  5.67  5.66  5.61  5.64  0.09  0.868      Glu  71.98  72.41  71.70  72.10  0.97  0.828      Ser  20.63  20.58  19.99  20.40  0.33  0.286      Tyr  15.41  15.86  15.51  15.67  0.15  0.071      Total  178.94  180.52  177.90  179.39  1.73  0.458      All AA  374.14  380.61  374.19  377.39  4.02  0.341  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone, 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large Table 7. Concentrations (g/kg) of standardized ileal digestible CP and AA in soybean meal1   Zones        Item, g/kg  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value      CP  445.85  455.44  441.71  449.33  5.51  0.128  Indispensable AA                Arg  32.97  33.73  33.09  33.39  0.39  0.269      His  11.22  11.51  11.32  11.40  0.14  0.292      Ile  19.17  20.17  19.81  19.87  0.47  0.364      Leu  33.42  34.09  33.32  33.72  0.37  0.194      Lys  28.00  28.32  27.84  28.11  0.37  0.553      Met  6.06  6.04  5.95  6.01  0.08  0.542      Phe  21.21  21.75  21.23  21.49  0.29  0.252      Thr  16.18  16.49  16.05  16.29  0.16  0.075      Trp  6.69  6.74  6.66  6.70  0.07  0.615      Val  20.30  21.26  21.04  21.02  0.51  0.445      Total  195.20  200.10  196.29  197.99  2.52  0.302  Dispensable AA                Ala  18.26  18.52  18.28  18.40  0.17  0.394      Asp  47.00  47.49  46.82  47.19  0.50  0.513      Cys  5.67  5.66  5.61  5.64  0.09  0.868      Glu  71.98  72.41  71.70  72.10  0.97  0.828      Ser  20.63  20.58  19.99  20.40  0.33  0.286      Tyr  15.41  15.86  15.51  15.67  0.15  0.071      Total  178.94  180.52  177.90  179.39  1.73  0.458      All AA  374.14  380.61  374.19  377.39  4.02  0.341    Zones        Item, g/kg  1  2  3  Average2  Pooled SEM  P-value      CP  445.85  455.44  441.71  449.33  5.51  0.128  Indispensable AA                Arg  32.97  33.73  33.09  33.39  0.39  0.269      His  11.22  11.51  11.32  11.40  0.14  0.292      Ile  19.17  20.17  19.81  19.87  0.47  0.364      Leu  33.42  34.09  33.32  33.72  0.37  0.194      Lys  28.00  28.32  27.84  28.11  0.37  0.553      Met  6.06  6.04  5.95  6.01  0.08  0.542      Phe  21.21  21.75  21.23  21.49  0.29  0.252      Thr  16.18  16.49  16.05  16.29  0.16  0.075      Trp  6.69  6.74  6.66  6.70  0.07  0.615      Val  20.30  21.26  21.04  21.02  0.51  0.445      Total  195.20  200.10  196.29  197.99  2.52  0.302  Dispensable AA                Ala  18.26  18.52  18.28  18.40  0.17  0.394      Asp  47.00  47.49  46.82  47.19  0.50  0.513      Cys  5.67  5.66  5.61  5.64  0.09  0.868      Glu  71.98  72.41  71.70  72.10  0.97  0.828      Ser  20.63  20.58  19.99  20.40  0.33  0.286      Tyr  15.41  15.86  15.51  15.67  0.15  0.071      Total  178.94  180.52  177.90  179.39  1.73  0.458      All AA  374.14  380.61  374.19  377.39  4.02  0.341  1Zone 1 = Michigan, Minnesota, and South Dakota; zone 2 = Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, and Ohio; zone 3 = Iowa, Missouri, and Nebraska. A total of 4, 11, and 7 sources of soybean meal were collected from zone 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. Each source of soybean meal was fed to 8 pigs, but 1 pig from zone 2, period 7, and 1 pig from zone 3, period 1, were identified as outliers and removed. Therefore, data are least squared means of 32, 87, and 55 observations for zone, 1, zone 2, and zone 3, respectively. 2The average is for the 22 sources of soybean meal. View Large DISCUSSION The 22 sources of SBM that were used in this experiment were divided among 3 zones. Soybean meal was sourced from crushing plants located within those zones, but the growing locations of the soybeans that were used by the crushing plants were unknown. It is possible that some crushing facilities sourced soybeans from a state located in a different zone, but it is expected that the majority of crushing plants sourced soybeans from the local area; therefore, the differences observed among the zones are believed to be reflective of both growing area and crushing plant locations. Thus, we used the same approach as any purchasers of commercial SBM would use by knowing the location of the crushing plant but not knowing the exact location where the beans were grown. The concentrations of most AA in the SBM used in this experiment are in agreement with previous data (Cromwell et al., 1999; de Blas et al., 2010; Rostagno et al., 2011; NRC, 2012). The concentration of total AA for SBM from zone 2 was not different from values previously reported, but the concentration of total AA was less for SBM from zones 1 and 3 compared with previous values (Karr-Lilienthal et al., 2004). However, Grieshop et al. (2003) analyzed the chemical composition of SBM from 10 processing plants from different regions of the United States. Nine of the 10 processing plants had greater concentrations of AA in SBM compared with the values reported in this experiment, but 1 processing plant in the northern United States produced SBM with an AA concentration that was less than the values analyzed in this experiment. The lack of variability in the AA concentration in SBM collected among the 3 zones is in agreement with data indicating that the variability in AA concentration among sources is less than the variability among laboratories in analyzed values for AA (Cromwell et al., 1999). The concentrations of most AA as a percent of CP are within the range of values reported by de Blas et al. (2010), Rostagno et al. (2011), and NRC (2012). The observation that SBM from all 3 zones had a Lys to CP ratio that was greater than 6.0% indicates that, regardless of zone, SBM was not overprocessed (González-Vega et al., 2011). However, the fact that trypsin inhibitor values for all zones were less than 4 indicates that the SBM used in this experiment were also not underprocessed (Chang et al., 1987; Monari, 1993; Lallѐ;s, 2000). Thus, it appears that crushing plants in the United States, regardless of where they are located, do an excellent job of processing soybeans to produce SBM with a high protein value providing adequate processing to inactivate trypsin inhibitors but without overheating the SBM. The greater concentration of CP in SBM from zone 2 compared with the concentration of CP for SBM from zone 3 is mainly the result of greater concentrations of a few indispensable and dispensable AA. Soy hulls may be added to the SBM after processing, resulting in a reduction in CP (Stein et al., 2008); however, the reduction in CP observed in this experiment for SBM from zones 1 and 3 is most likely due to environmental conditions because values for ADF and NDF were not different among zones. Grieshop et al. (2003) observed reduced concentrations of CP for SBM from the northern United States compared with SBM from the midwestern and southern United States, and Hurburgh et al. (1990) reported that SBM from the northern and western United States tended to have concentrations of CP approximately 1% less than that of SBM produced in other regions. Thus, the observation in this experiment that CP in the SBM produced in zone 1 or zone 3 is less than that in SBM produced in zone 2 is in agreement with previous reports. The reduction in CP in SBM from the northern United States may be the result of fewer hours of sunlight and a shorter growing season, which results in less N fixation by the plant (Dudley-Cash, 1999). The AID of AA obtained in this experiment were in agreement with reported values (de Blas et al., 2010; González-Vega et al., 2011; NRC, 2012), but values for the SID of many AA were greater than some previously reported values (de Blas et al., 2010; González-Vega et al., 2011; NRC, 2012). The reason for this difference is most likely that a greater endogenous loss of AA was used to calculate SID values in this experiment compared with some previous values. Whereas SBM from the northern United States contains less CP than SBM from other regions in the United States, it may contain more indispensable AA, which would make it a better quality source of protein (Grieshop et al., 2003). However, we were unable to verify this hypothesis, and there were no differences in the AID of AA among SBM from the 3 zones. In contrast, the observed differences in the SID of a few AA among zones indicate that the source of SBM may affect digestibility of some AA, but differences were generally small. However, it appears that the location in which the crushing plant is located, and therefore also the location in which the soybeans were grown, may have a small impact on the SID of some AA, with greater values observed for soybeans grown in the northern or western growing areas compared with those of soybeans grown further to the south and east. However, when the SID of the AA were multiplied by the concentration of AA in each source of SBM to calculate the concentrations of SID AA per kilogram of SBM, which is the most important nutritional value, no differences among the 3 zones were observed, with the exception that there was a tendency for SBM from zone 2 to have a greater concentration of SID Thr than SBM from zone 3 and a greater concentration of SID Tyr than SBM from zone 1. Thus, because the concentrations of digestible AA were not different among zones, no rankings can be assigned to SBM from the 3 zones. These observations indicate that neither the quality of protein nor the quantity of digestible AA is different among zones. Pigs that are fed SBM from the different zones will, therefore, receive comparable concentrations of digestible AA regardless of where in the United States the SBM is produced. Conclusions The results of this experiment indicate that differences in concentrations of CP and some AA in SBM sources from different areas of the United States exist because a reduction in the concentration of CP and some AA was observed in SBM from zones 1 and 3 compared with SBM from zone 2. Minor differences in the SID of AA were observed, but no differences in the average SID of indispensable, dispensable, and total AA were detected. There were no differences among SBM from the 3 zones in terms of concentration (g/kg) of SID indispensable AA, SID dispensable AA, or SID total AA, although there was a tendency for SBM from zone 2 to have a greater concentration of SID Thr and SID Tyr than SBM from zones 3 and 1, respectively. Overall, although minor differences in the concentrations and digestibility of CP and AA among sources of SBM obtained from different areas of the United States were observed, concentrations of digestible AA were largely constant among sources of SBM regardless of where it was produced. It is, therefore, concluded that the protein value of SBM produced in the United States is not influenced by the geographical location of the soybean crushing plant. APPENDIX Table A1. Analyzed concentrations (%) of DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and AA in the 22 sources of soybean meal (as-fed basis)   Source of soybean meal  Item  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  Mean  DM  89.7  89.9  87.5  87.2  88.7  89.1  87.6  87.5  88.2  89.3  88.1  89.4  89.2  90.3  89.0  89.5  88.2  88.4  88.6  88.9  88.0  87.6  88.6  CP  48.9  48.1  48.4  46.6  45.9  46.7  45.6  46.4  46.2  48.1  48.2  49.1  47.1  50.9  50.8  46.0  44.2  46.2  47.3  48.7  46.9  46.7  47.4  ADF  4.4  4.4  4.9  4.5  5.2  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.7  5.2  4.5  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.8  5.6  6.0  5.2  4.6  4.5  5.3  4.6  4.8  NDF  7.2  10.7  9.0  8.3  8.4  7.7  8.3  7.3  7.6  8.3  7.7  9.1  7.1  7.4  7.8  9.2  10.9  7.2  7.4  6.8  7.6  7.4  8.1  Indispensable AA      Arg  3.52  3.41  3.55  3.42  3.28  3.39  3.21  3.35  3.33  3.50  3.41  3.44  3.41  3.47  3.53  3.26  3.20  3.44  3.40  3.56  3.46  3.40  3.41      His  1.23  1.23  1.27  1.22  1.17  1.20  1.11  1.17  1.17  1.22  1.19  1.20  1.21  1.25  1.25  1.17  1.14  1.22  1.22  1.26  1.22  1.20  1.21      Ile  2.24  2.25  2.33  2.20  2.08  2.15  1.73  2.10  1.98  2.13  2.05  2.08  2.09  2.17  2.21  1.96  2.03  2.13  2.17  2.25  2.23  2.20  2.13      Leu  3.72  3.72  3.82  3.65  3.51  3.60  3.40  3.54  3.50  3.61  3.61  3.66  3.61  3.73  3.71  3.50  3.41  3.67  3.60  3.77  3.65  3.62  3.62      Lys  3.13  3.00  3.16  2.97  2.91  3.07  2.85  2.94  2.91  3.08  3.03  2.99  2.98  3.18  3.17  2.91  2.88  3.09  3.07  3.17  3.07  3.04  3.03      Met  0.63  0.66  0.65  0.64  0.62  0.65  0.66  0.59  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.63  0.63  0.66  0.64  0.62  0.59  0.64  0.65  0.65  0.63  0.63  0.63      Phe  2.38  2.38  2.43  2.34  2.25  2.28  2.09  2.26  2.22  2.29  2.28  2.31  2.32  2.36  2.37  2.20  2.15  2.33  2.29  2.40  2.34  2.31  2.30      Thr  1.76  1.80  1.81  1.73  1.70  1.75  1.74  1.72  1.76  1.79  1.80  1.81  1.78  1.88  1.83  1.79  1.65  1.80  1.73  1.84  1.73  1.74  1.77      Trp  0.71  0.73  0.70  0.68  0.69  0.70  0.68  0.71  0.70  0.69  0.73  0.70  0.70  0.72  0.71  0.68  0.67  0.71  0.71  0.74  0.69  0.68  0.70      Val  2.38  2.40  2.46  2.35  2.22  2.29  1.84  2.22  2.09  2.27  2.16  2.19  2.22  2.30  2.34  2.07  2.18  2.25  2.31  2.38  2.40  2.32  2.26  Dispensable AA      Ala  1.98  2.07  2.08  2.00  1.94  1.98  1.92  1.92  1.97  1.96  1.95  1.98  2.00  2.05  2.03  1.93  1.88  2.00  1.98  2.05  1.99  1.97  1.98      Asp  5.19  5.27  5.39  5.19  5.04  5.12  4.92  4.97  5.05  5.17  5.05  5.11  5.19  5.32  5.30  4.95  4.81  5.21  5.16  5.33  5.19  5.14  5.14      Cys  0.61  0.63  0.64  0.61  0.62  0.65  0.64  0.57  0.60  0.62  0.60  0.60  0.63  0.65  0.64  0.65  0.59  0.62  0.66  0.66  0.63  0.62  0.62      Glu  7.73  8.28  7.96  7.99  7.79  7.72  7.46  7.53  7.85  7.56  7.38  7.54  7.99  7.86  7.91  7.30  7.29  7.86  7.79  7.89  7.94  7.66  7.74      Gly  1.92  2.02  2.01  1.95  1.89  1.93  1.82  1.88  1.91  1.94  1.89  1.93  1.94  2.00  2.00  1.90  1.85  1.94  1.93  2.00  1.97  1.94  1.93      Pro  2.27  2.32  2.35  2.27  2.20  2.27  2.19  2.20  2.21  2.26  2.21  2.28  2.27  2.30  2.32  2.21  2.13  2.33  2.26  2.32  2.24  2.24  2.26      Ser  2.08  2.10  2.14  1.99  2.03  2.13  2.26  2.07  2.14  2.16  2.18  2.20  2.13  2.30  2.22  2.18  1.99  2.23  2.09  2.22  2.00  2.06  2.13      Tyr  1.67  1.73  1.78  1.68  1.64  1.69  1.59  1.66  1.64  1.69  1.67  1.70  1.69  1.74  1.72  1.67  1.58  1.70  1.66  1.75  1.69  1.66  1.68  All AA  45.29  46.20  46.70  45.05  43.82  44.69  42.28  43.56  43.81  44.75  43.96  44.50  45.04  46.11  46.11  43.17  42.22  45.34  44.82  46.40  45.21  44.58  44.71    Source of soybean meal  Item  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  Mean  DM  89.7  89.9  87.5  87.2  88.7  89.1  87.6  87.5  88.2  89.3  88.1  89.4  89.2  90.3  89.0  89.5  88.2  88.4  88.6  88.9  88.0  87.6  88.6  CP  48.9  48.1  48.4  46.6  45.9  46.7  45.6  46.4  46.2  48.1  48.2  49.1  47.1  50.9  50.8  46.0  44.2  46.2  47.3  48.7  46.9  46.7  47.4  ADF  4.4  4.4  4.9  4.5  5.2  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.7  5.2  4.5  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.8  5.6  6.0  5.2  4.6  4.5  5.3  4.6  4.8  NDF  7.2  10.7  9.0  8.3  8.4  7.7  8.3  7.3  7.6  8.3  7.7  9.1  7.1  7.4  7.8  9.2  10.9  7.2  7.4  6.8  7.6  7.4  8.1  Indispensable AA      Arg  3.52  3.41  3.55  3.42  3.28  3.39  3.21  3.35  3.33  3.50  3.41  3.44  3.41  3.47  3.53  3.26  3.20  3.44  3.40  3.56  3.46  3.40  3.41      His  1.23  1.23  1.27  1.22  1.17  1.20  1.11  1.17  1.17  1.22  1.19  1.20  1.21  1.25  1.25  1.17  1.14  1.22  1.22  1.26  1.22  1.20  1.21      Ile  2.24  2.25  2.33  2.20  2.08  2.15  1.73  2.10  1.98  2.13  2.05  2.08  2.09  2.17  2.21  1.96  2.03  2.13  2.17  2.25  2.23  2.20  2.13      Leu  3.72  3.72  3.82  3.65  3.51  3.60  3.40  3.54  3.50  3.61  3.61  3.66  3.61  3.73  3.71  3.50  3.41  3.67  3.60  3.77  3.65  3.62  3.62      Lys  3.13  3.00  3.16  2.97  2.91  3.07  2.85  2.94  2.91  3.08  3.03  2.99  2.98  3.18  3.17  2.91  2.88  3.09  3.07  3.17  3.07  3.04  3.03      Met  0.63  0.66  0.65  0.64  0.62  0.65  0.66  0.59  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.63  0.63  0.66  0.64  0.62  0.59  0.64  0.65  0.65  0.63  0.63  0.63      Phe  2.38  2.38  2.43  2.34  2.25  2.28  2.09  2.26  2.22  2.29  2.28  2.31  2.32  2.36  2.37  2.20  2.15  2.33  2.29  2.40  2.34  2.31  2.30      Thr  1.76  1.80  1.81  1.73  1.70  1.75  1.74  1.72  1.76  1.79  1.80  1.81  1.78  1.88  1.83  1.79  1.65  1.80  1.73  1.84  1.73  1.74  1.77      Trp  0.71  0.73  0.70  0.68  0.69  0.70  0.68  0.71  0.70  0.69  0.73  0.70  0.70  0.72  0.71  0.68  0.67  0.71  0.71  0.74  0.69  0.68  0.70      Val  2.38  2.40  2.46  2.35  2.22  2.29  1.84  2.22  2.09  2.27  2.16  2.19  2.22  2.30  2.34  2.07  2.18  2.25  2.31  2.38  2.40  2.32  2.26  Dispensable AA      Ala  1.98  2.07  2.08  2.00  1.94  1.98  1.92  1.92  1.97  1.96  1.95  1.98  2.00  2.05  2.03  1.93  1.88  2.00  1.98  2.05  1.99  1.97  1.98      Asp  5.19  5.27  5.39  5.19  5.04  5.12  4.92  4.97  5.05  5.17  5.05  5.11  5.19  5.32  5.30  4.95  4.81  5.21  5.16  5.33  5.19  5.14  5.14      Cys  0.61  0.63  0.64  0.61  0.62  0.65  0.64  0.57  0.60  0.62  0.60  0.60  0.63  0.65  0.64  0.65  0.59  0.62  0.66  0.66  0.63  0.62  0.62      Glu  7.73  8.28  7.96  7.99  7.79  7.72  7.46  7.53  7.85  7.56  7.38  7.54  7.99  7.86  7.91  7.30  7.29  7.86  7.79  7.89  7.94  7.66  7.74      Gly  1.92  2.02  2.01  1.95  1.89  1.93  1.82  1.88  1.91  1.94  1.89  1.93  1.94  2.00  2.00  1.90  1.85  1.94  1.93  2.00  1.97  1.94  1.93      Pro  2.27  2.32  2.35  2.27  2.20  2.27  2.19  2.20  2.21  2.26  2.21  2.28  2.27  2.30  2.32  2.21  2.13  2.33  2.26  2.32  2.24  2.24  2.26      Ser  2.08  2.10  2.14  1.99  2.03  2.13  2.26  2.07  2.14  2.16  2.18  2.20  2.13  2.30  2.22  2.18  1.99  2.23  2.09  2.22  2.00  2.06  2.13      Tyr  1.67  1.73  1.78  1.68  1.64  1.69  1.59  1.66  1.64  1.69  1.67  1.70  1.69  1.74  1.72  1.67  1.58  1.70  1.66  1.75  1.69  1.66  1.68  All AA  45.29  46.20  46.70  45.05  43.82  44.69  42.28  43.56  43.81  44.75  43.96  44.50  45.04  46.11  46.11  43.17  42.22  45.34  44.82  46.40  45.21  44.58  44.71    Source of soybean meal  Item  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  Mean  DM  89.7  89.9  87.5  87.2  88.7  89.1  87.6  87.5  88.2  89.3  88.1  89.4  89.2  90.3  89.0  89.5  88.2  88.4  88.6  88.9  88.0  87.6  88.6  CP  48.9  48.1  48.4  46.6  45.9  46.7  45.6  46.4  46.2  48.1  48.2  49.1  47.1  50.9  50.8  46.0  44.2  46.2  47.3  48.7  46.9  46.7  47.4  ADF  4.4  4.4  4.9  4.5  5.2  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.7  5.2  4.5  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.8  5.6  6.0  5.2  4.6  4.5  5.3  4.6  4.8  NDF  7.2  10.7  9.0  8.3  8.4  7.7  8.3  7.3  7.6  8.3  7.7  9.1  7.1  7.4  7.8  9.2  10.9  7.2  7.4  6.8  7.6  7.4  8.1  Indispensable AA      Arg  3.52  3.41  3.55  3.42  3.28  3.39  3.21  3.35  3.33  3.50  3.41  3.44  3.41  3.47  3.53  3.26  3.20  3.44  3.40  3.56  3.46  3.40  3.41      His  1.23  1.23  1.27  1.22  1.17  1.20  1.11  1.17  1.17  1.22  1.19  1.20  1.21  1.25  1.25  1.17  1.14  1.22  1.22  1.26  1.22  1.20  1.21      Ile  2.24  2.25  2.33  2.20  2.08  2.15  1.73  2.10  1.98  2.13  2.05  2.08  2.09  2.17  2.21  1.96  2.03  2.13  2.17  2.25  2.23  2.20  2.13      Leu  3.72  3.72  3.82  3.65  3.51  3.60  3.40  3.54  3.50  3.61  3.61  3.66  3.61  3.73  3.71  3.50  3.41  3.67  3.60  3.77  3.65  3.62  3.62      Lys  3.13  3.00  3.16  2.97  2.91  3.07  2.85  2.94  2.91  3.08  3.03  2.99  2.98  3.18  3.17  2.91  2.88  3.09  3.07  3.17  3.07  3.04  3.03      Met  0.63  0.66  0.65  0.64  0.62  0.65  0.66  0.59  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.63  0.63  0.66  0.64  0.62  0.59  0.64  0.65  0.65  0.63  0.63  0.63      Phe  2.38  2.38  2.43  2.34  2.25  2.28  2.09  2.26  2.22  2.29  2.28  2.31  2.32  2.36  2.37  2.20  2.15  2.33  2.29  2.40  2.34  2.31  2.30      Thr  1.76  1.80  1.81  1.73  1.70  1.75  1.74  1.72  1.76  1.79  1.80  1.81  1.78  1.88  1.83  1.79  1.65  1.80  1.73  1.84  1.73  1.74  1.77      Trp  0.71  0.73  0.70  0.68  0.69  0.70  0.68  0.71  0.70  0.69  0.73  0.70  0.70  0.72  0.71  0.68  0.67  0.71  0.71  0.74  0.69  0.68  0.70      Val  2.38  2.40  2.46  2.35  2.22  2.29  1.84  2.22  2.09  2.27  2.16  2.19  2.22  2.30  2.34  2.07  2.18  2.25  2.31  2.38  2.40  2.32  2.26  Dispensable AA      Ala  1.98  2.07  2.08  2.00  1.94  1.98  1.92  1.92  1.97  1.96  1.95  1.98  2.00  2.05  2.03  1.93  1.88  2.00  1.98  2.05  1.99  1.97  1.98      Asp  5.19  5.27  5.39  5.19  5.04  5.12  4.92  4.97  5.05  5.17  5.05  5.11  5.19  5.32  5.30  4.95  4.81  5.21  5.16  5.33  5.19  5.14  5.14      Cys  0.61  0.63  0.64  0.61  0.62  0.65  0.64  0.57  0.60  0.62  0.60  0.60  0.63  0.65  0.64  0.65  0.59  0.62  0.66  0.66  0.63  0.62  0.62      Glu  7.73  8.28  7.96  7.99  7.79  7.72  7.46  7.53  7.85  7.56  7.38  7.54  7.99  7.86  7.91  7.30  7.29  7.86  7.79  7.89  7.94  7.66  7.74      Gly  1.92  2.02  2.01  1.95  1.89  1.93  1.82  1.88  1.91  1.94  1.89  1.93  1.94  2.00  2.00  1.90  1.85  1.94  1.93  2.00  1.97  1.94  1.93      Pro  2.27  2.32  2.35  2.27  2.20  2.27  2.19  2.20  2.21  2.26  2.21  2.28  2.27  2.30  2.32  2.21  2.13  2.33  2.26  2.32  2.24  2.24  2.26      Ser  2.08  2.10  2.14  1.99  2.03  2.13  2.26  2.07  2.14  2.16  2.18  2.20  2.13  2.30  2.22  2.18  1.99  2.23  2.09  2.22  2.00  2.06  2.13      Tyr  1.67  1.73  1.78  1.68  1.64  1.69  1.59  1.66  1.64  1.69  1.67  1.70  1.69  1.74  1.72  1.67  1.58  1.70  1.66  1.75  1.69  1.66  1.68  All AA  45.29  46.20  46.70  45.05  43.82  44.69  42.28  43.56  43.81  44.75  43.96  44.50  45.04  46.11  46.11  43.17  42.22  45.34  44.82  46.40  45.21  44.58  44.71    Source of soybean meal  Item  1  2  3  4  5  6  7  8  9  10  11  12  13  14  15  16  17  18  19  20  21  22  Mean  DM  89.7  89.9  87.5  87.2  88.7  89.1  87.6  87.5  88.2  89.3  88.1  89.4  89.2  90.3  89.0  89.5  88.2  88.4  88.6  88.9  88.0  87.6  88.6  CP  48.9  48.1  48.4  46.6  45.9  46.7  45.6  46.4  46.2  48.1  48.2  49.1  47.1  50.9  50.8  46.0  44.2  46.2  47.3  48.7  46.9  46.7  47.4  ADF  4.4  4.4  4.9  4.5  5.2  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.7  5.2  4.5  4.5  4.4  4.8  4.8  5.6  6.0  5.2  4.6  4.5  5.3  4.6  4.8  NDF  7.2  10.7  9.0  8.3  8.4  7.7  8.3  7.3  7.6  8.3  7.7  9.1  7.1  7.4  7.8  9.2  10.9  7.2  7.4  6.8  7.6  7.4  8.1  Indispensable AA      Arg  3.52  3.41  3.55  3.42  3.28  3.39  3.21  3.35  3.33  3.50  3.41  3.44  3.41  3.47  3.53  3.26  3.20  3.44  3.40  3.56  3.46  3.40  3.41      His  1.23  1.23  1.27  1.22  1.17  1.20  1.11  1.17  1.17  1.22  1.19  1.20  1.21  1.25  1.25  1.17  1.14  1.22  1.22  1.26  1.22  1.20  1.21      Ile  2.24  2.25  2.33  2.20  2.08  2.15  1.73  2.10  1.98  2.13  2.05  2.08  2.09  2.17  2.21  1.96  2.03  2.13  2.17  2.25  2.23  2.20  2.13      Leu  3.72  3.72  3.82  3.65  3.51  3.60  3.40  3.54  3.50  3.61  3.61  3.66  3.61  3.73  3.71  3.50  3.41  3.67  3.60  3.77  3.65  3.62  3.62      Lys  3.13  3.00  3.16  2.97  2.91  3.07  2.85  2.94  2.91  3.08  3.03  2.99  2.98  3.18  3.17  2.91  2.88  3.09  3.07  3.17  3.07  3.04  3.03      Met  0.63  0.66  0.65  0.64  0.62  0.65  0.66  0.59  0.62  0.63  0.61  0.63  0.63  0.66  0.64  0.62  0.59  0.64  0.65  0.65  0.63  0.63  0.63      Phe  2.38  2.38  2.43  2.34  2.25  2.28  2.09  2.26  2.22  2.29  2.28  2.31  2.32  2.36  2.37  2.20  2.15  2.33  2.29  2.40  2.34  2.31  2.30      Thr  1.76  1.80  1.81  1.73  1.70  1.75  1.74  1.72  1.76  1.79  1.80  1.81  1.78  1.88  1.83  1.79  1.65  1.80  1.73  1.84  1.73  1.74  1.77      Trp  0.71  0.73  0.70  0.68  0.69  0.70  0.68  0.71  0.70  0.69  0.73  0.70  0.70  0.72  0.71  0.68  0.67  0.71  0.71  0.74  0.69  0.68  0.70      Val  2.38  2.40  2.46  2.35  2.22  2.29  1.84  2.22  2.09  2.27  2.16  2.19  2.22  2.30  2.34  2.07  2.18  2.25  2.31  2.38  2.40  2.32  2.26  Dispensable AA      Ala  1.98  2.07  2.08  2.00  1.94  1.98  1.92  1.92  1.97  1.96  1.95  1.98  2.00  2.05  2.03  1.93  1.88  2.00  1.98  2.05  1.99  1.97  1.98      Asp  5.19  5.27  5.39  5.19  5.04  5.12  4.92  4.97  5.05  5.17  5.05  5.11  5.19  5.32  5.30  4.95  4.81  5.21  5.16  5.33  5.19  5.14  5.14      Cys  0.61  0.63  0.64  0.61  0.62  0.65  0.64  0.57  0.60  0.62  0.60  0.60  0.63  0.65  0.64  0.65  0.59  0.62  0.66  0.66  0.63  0.62  0.62      Glu  7.73  8.28  7.96  7.99  7.79  7.72  7.46  7.53  7.85  7.56  7.38  7.54  7.99  7.86  7.91  7.30  7.29  7.86  7.79  7.89  7.94  7.66  7.74      Gly  1.92  2.02  2.01  1.95  1.89  1.93  1.82  1.88  1.91  1.94  1.89  1.93  1.94  2.00  2.00  1.90  1.85  1.94  1.93  2.00  1.97  1.94  1.93      Pro  2.27  2.32  2.35  2.27  2.20  2.27  2.19  2.20  2.21  2.26  2.21  2.28  2.27  2.30  2.32  2.21  2.13  2.33  2.26  2.32  2.24  2.24  2.26      Ser  2.08  2.10  2.14  1.99  2.03  2.13  2.26  2.07  2.14  2.16  2.18  2.20  2.13  2.30  2.22  2.18  1.99  2.23  2.09  2.22  2.00  2.06  2.13      Tyr  1.67  1.73  1.78  1.68  1.64  1.69  1.59  1.66  1.64  1.69  1.67  1.70  1.69  1.74  1.72  1.67  1.58  1.70  1.66  1.75  1.69  1.66  1.68  All AA  45.29  46.20  46.70  45.05  43.82  44.69  42.28  43.56  43.81  44.75  43.96  44.50  45.04  46.11  46.11  43.17  42.22  45.34  44.82  46.40  45.21  44.58  44.71  LITERATURE CITED AOCS 2006. Official methods and recommended practices. 5th ed. American Oil Chemists' Society, Urbana, IL. AOAC International 2007. Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. Hortwitz W. Latimer G. W.Jr editors. 18th ed. AOAC Int., Gaithersburg, MD. ASA. 2015. Soy Stats 2015. American Soybean Association, St. Louis, MO. Chang C. J. Tanksley T. D.Jr Knabe D. A. Zebrowski T. 1987. Effects of different heat treatments during processing on nutrient digestibility of soybean meal in growing swine. J. Anim. Sci.  65: 1273– 1282. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Cromwell G. L. Calvert C. C. Cline T. R. Crenshaw J. D. Crenshaw T. D. Easter R. A. Ewan R. C. Hamilton C. R. Hill G. N. Lewis A. J. Mahan D. C. Miller E. R. Nelssen J. L. Pettigrew J. E. Triblle L. F. Veum T. L. Yen T. J. 1999. Variability among sources and laboratories in nutrient analyses of corn and soybean meal. J. Anim. Sci.  77: 3262– 3273. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  de Blas C. Mateos G. G. Garcia-Rebollar P. 2010. Tablas FEDNA de composicion y valor nutritive de alimentos para la fabricacion de piensos compuestos. 3rd rev. ed. Fundacion Española para el Desarrollo de la Nutricion Animal, Madrid, Spain. Dudley-Cash W. A. 1999. Methods for determining quality of soybean meal protein important. Feedstuffs  71: 10– 11. González-Vega J. C. Kim B. G. Htoo J. K. Lemme A. Stein H. H. 2011. Amino acid digestibility in heated soybean meal fed to growing pigs. J. Anim. Sci.  89: 3617– 3625. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Grieshop C. M. Kadzere C. T. Clapper G. M. Flickinger E. A. Bauer L. L. Frazier R. L. Fahey G. C.Jr 2003. Chemical and nutritional characteristics of United States soybeans and soybean meals. J. Agric. Food Chem.  51: 7684– 7691. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Hurburgh C. R.Jr Brumm T. J. Guinn J. M. Hartwig R. A. 1990. Protein and oil patterns in US and world soybean markets. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc.  67: 966– 973. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS   Karr-Lilienthal L. K. Merchen N. R. Grieshop C. M. Flahaven M. A. Mahan D. C. Fastinger N. D. Watts M. Fahey G. C.Jr 2004. Ileal amino acid digestibilities by pigs fed soybean meals from five major soybean-producing countries. J. Anim. Sci.  82: 3198– 3209. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Lallѐs J. P. 2000. Soy products as protein sources for preruminants and young pigs. In: Drackley J. K. editor, Soy in animal nutrition.  Federation of Animal Sciences Society, Savoy, IL. p. 106– 126. Monari S. 1993. Quality control. In: Wiseman J. editor, Fullfat soya handbook.  2nd ed. American Soybean Association, Brussels, Belgium. p. 6– 9. NRC 2012. Nutrient requirements of swine. 11th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, DC. Ravindran V. Abdollahi M. R. Bootwalla S. M. 2014. Nutrient analysis, metabolizable energy, and digestible amino acids of soybean meals of different origins for broilers. Poult. Sci.  93: 2567– 2577. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Rostagno H. H. Albino L. F. T. Donzele J. L. Gomes P. C. Oliveira R. T. Lopes D. C. Ferreira A. S. Barreto S. L. T. Euclides R. F. 2011. Brazilian tables for poultry and swine. Composition of feedstuffs and nutritional requirements. 3rd ed. Federal University of Vicosa, Vicosa, Brazil. Shelton J. L. Hemann M. D. Strode R. M. Brashear G. L. Ellis M. McKeith F. K. Bidner T. D. Southern L. L. 2001. Effect of different protein sources on growth and carcass traits in growing-finishing pigs. J. Anim. Sci.  79: 2428– 2435. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Stein H. H. Berger L. L. Drackley J. K. Fahey G. F.Jr Hernot D. C. Parsons C. M. 2008. Nutritional properties and feeding values of soybeans and their coproducts. In: Johnson L. A. White P. J. Galloway R. editors, Soybeans chemistry, production, processing, and utilization.  AOCS Press, Urbana, IL. p. 613– 660. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS   Stein H. H. Séve B. Fuller M. F. Moughan P. J. de Lange C. F. M. 2007. Invited review: Amino acid bioavailability in pig feed ingredients: Terminology and application. J. Anim. Sci.  85: 172– 180. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Wang J. P. Hong S. M. Yan L. Cho J. H. Lee H. S. Kim I. H. 2011. The evaluation of soybean meals from 3 major soybean-producing countries on productive performance and feeding value of pigs diets. J. Anim. Sci.  89: 2768– 2773. Google Scholar CrossRef Search ADS PubMed  Footnotes 1 Donation of soybean meal for this research by AG Processing Inc. (Omaha, NE), Archer Daniels Midland Company (Decatur, IL), Bunge North America (St. Louis, MO), and Cargill (Elk River, MN) is greatly appreciated. This work also was supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture (Hatch project number 233712). 2 Current address: Ralco Nutrition Inc., Marshall, MN. 3 Current address: Evonik-Degussa Corporation, Kennesaw, GA. American Society of Animal Science

Journal

Journal of Animal ScienceOxford University Press

Published: Feb 1, 2017

There are no references for this article.