Get 20M+ Full-Text Papers For Less Than $1.50/day. Subscribe now for You or Your Team.

Learn More →

Secreted and Transmembrane 1A Is a Novel Co-Stimulatory Ligand

Secreted and Transmembrane 1A Is a Novel Co-Stimulatory Ligand Most T cell responses to pathogens or self antigens are modulated through the action of regulatory T cells and tissue- specific inhibitory mechanisms. To this end, several receptor-ligand pairs have evolved which either augment or diminish T cell function. Here we describe the tissue ligand SECTM1A (Secreted and transmembrane1A) as an alternative murine CD7 ligand. We show that SECTM1A, like SECTM1B, binds strongly to CD7, and that SECTM1B was able to compete with SECTM1A for CD7 binding. SECTM1A is ubiquitously expressed and has two major alternative transcripts which differ in expression between tissues. Both immobilised soluble forms of SECTM1A and SECTM1B and cell surface anchored forms demonstrated opposing effects on CD4+ T cell activation. Whereas SECTM1A acted as a co-stimulator of T cells, enhancing IL-2 production and proliferation, SECTM1B proved inhibitory to TCR mediated T cell activation. Surprisingly, both functional outcomes proved to be CD7-independent, indicating the existence of alternative receptors for both ligands. We used a 2/2 SECTM1A-Fc fusion protein to immunoprecipitate potential alternative ligands from detergent lysates of CD7 T cells and, using mass spectrometry, identified GITR as a SECTM1A binder. SECTM1A was found to bind to activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as to CHO cells expressing cell surface GITR. Binding of SECTM1A to activated primary T cells was inhibited by either GITRL-Fc or anti GITR antibodies. Thus SECTM1A and SECTM1B represent novel reciprocal alternative ligands which may function to modulate the activation of effector and regulatory T cells. The ability of SECTM1A to activate T cells may be explained by its ability to bind to GITR. Citation: Howie D, Garcia Rueda H, Brown MH, Waldmann H (2013) Secreted and Transmembrane 1A Is a Novel Co-Stimulatory Ligand. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73610. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610 Editor: Barry I. Hudson, University of Miami, United States of America Received June 14, 2013; Accepted July 19, 2013; Published September 10, 2013 Copyright:  2013 Howie et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This work was funded by two programme grants from the Medical Research Council www.mrc.ac.uk G0400808 (MHB) and G7904009 (HW). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: duncan.howie@path.ox.ac.uk whilst up regulating activation markers on activated NK cells. The Introduction human genome contains only one SECTM gene, SECTM1 which T cell responses to antigen are controlled at multiple levels. is situated in close proximity to CD7 on chromosome 17q25. As These include control of the cells’ anatomical location, local described here the mouse genome contains two SECTM genes in MHC-antigen concentration on APCs, intracellular signalling close proximity to the CD7 gene. Mouse SECTM1A shares the changes, inhibition by regulatory T cells and soluble and cell greatest homology to human SECTM1. SECTM1-Fc fusion surface regulatory ligand molecules expressed by antigen present- proteins were shown by Lyman and colleagues to increase surface ing cells. Examples of the latter group include receptor/ligand activation markers on human NK cells [4]. Wang et al reported pairs such as GITR and GITR ligand, previously described by our SECTM1-Fc fusion proteins co-stimulated IL-2 and interferon laboratory to control activation of effector and regulatory T cells gamma production by human CD4+ and CD8+ cells [5]. [1] PD1/PDL, CTLA4/B71&2, 41BB/41BBL, ICOS/ICOS SECTM1 is predicted to be a type 1A transmembrane protein ligand and CD7/SECTM1B (Secreted and transmembrane1B). with extracellular N terminus and cleaved signal peptide. CD7 is a T cell and NK cell expressed 40 kD transmembrane Depending on the experimental system used, SECTM1 appears protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily which can induce lipid either as a Golgi-associated protein which is secreted as a 20 kDa and tyrosine kinase activity and is thought to be important for T/ form, in breast carcinoma cells [6] or as a plasma membrane NK cell activation [2]. expressed surface protein in COS-1 cells transfected with A report of aberrant Treg development and function in CD7/ expression plasmids [4]. SECTM1 is predominantly expressed CD28 double knockout mice [3], and our observation of elevated by cells of the myeloid lineage and epithelia where its expression is CD7 expression by TGFb-induced regulatory T cells (unpublished enhanced by exposure to interferon gamma in a Stat-1 dependent observations) prompted us to investigate the effects of known CD7 manner [7]. It is possible that its ultimate location, secreted or on ligands on T cell responses. Human and murine CD7 have the plasma membrane, is dependent on either the cell on which it previously been shown to interact with cell surface and secreted is expressed, the tissue location or micro environmental factors members of the immunoglobulin superfamily named SECTM1 such as inflammation. (K12) and SECTM1B respectively [4]. In this study we report the function of the novel murine CD7 Murine SECTM1B identified by Lyman et al [4] had been ligand SECTM1A whose gene is located in the CD7/SECTM1B shown to inhibit proliferation of ConA-stimulated T lymphocytes PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation locus on mouse chromosome 11 with a tissue distribution differing 9 minutes bold solid and dotted lines). We then tested whether from the known CD7 ligand SECTM1B. We constructed fusion SECTM1B could block binding of SECTM1A to CD7. proteins between the extracellular domains of SECTM1A and SECTM1B-Fc was passed over solid phase CD7 and bound SECTM1B with an aglycosyl mutant Fc region of human IgG1, or rapidly (Figure 2C, solid line). When SECTM1A was passed over anchored forms expressed on the cell surface of CHO cells. These the same flow cell directly after SECTM1B no binding above were used to probe the function of these ligands in the experiments background was observed (Figure 2D, solid line). Thus SECTM1B described here. Exposure of T cells to SECTM1A or SECTM1B competes for CD7 binding with SECTM1A. In a reciprocal resulted in reciprocal modulation of T cell proliferation. Surpris- experiment, SECTM1A was passed in solution over solid phase ingly, despite SECTM1A being a ligand for CD7, all of these CD7 (Figure 2F, solid line) and binding was observed albeit with signalling events turned out to be CD7 independent. The co- less increase in response units seen for SECTM1B. Directly stimulatory functions of SECTM1A may be explained in part by following SECTM1A, SECTM1B was passed over the same flow our observation that it is able to interact, albeit weakly with GITR cell. This time binding to CD7-Fc was observed with almost as an alternative receptor. exactly the same stoichiometry as when SECTM1B bound CD7- Fc alone (Figure 2G, solid line) which is consistent with a weaker Results affinity of SECTM1A for CD7. SECTM1A and SECTM1B did not exhibit homophilic binding nor did they bind to each other The identification of mSECTM1A as a novel mCD7 ligand under these conditions. with homology to hSECTM1 and mSECTM1B The gene previously described as the murine orthologue of SECTM1B inhibits activation and IL-2 production of T cells human SECTM1, murine Sectm1b [4], and Sectm1a, a newly It is unclear what functions SECTM1A and SECTM1B serve. annotated gene encoding an uncharacterised protein, lie in a Our preliminary experiments with SECTM1B-Fc showed no 44kbp region neighbouring CD7 (Figure 1A). Alignment of the evidence for modulation of T cell responses when the fusion amino acid sequences of SECTM1A, SECTM1B and human protein was used in solution (data not shown). However solid phase SECTM1 reveals moderate homology between the three proteins SECTM1B-Fc but not CD7-Fc inhibited both IL-2 production in their extracellular regions, the greatest homology being between and proliferation of T cells activated through anti-CD3 stimulation mouse SECTM1A and human SECTM1 which share 43% amino (Figure 3 A & B). The inhibitory effect was not due to steric acid identity (Figure 1B). Cloning of Sectm1a from splenic cDNA hindrance of the anti-CD3 antibodies as equal protein was loaded revealed a major splice variant lacking exon IV (data not shown). onto each culture well using Campath-1H (anti human CD52 with Exon IV encodes a stalk region joining the immunoglobulin the same human IgG1, aglycosyl Fc fragment as the fusion domain to the transmembrane domain (Figure 1C). Tissue proteins) as an irrelevant aglycosyl human IgG1 antibody ‘filler’. distribution of Sectm1a, 1a-ExIV and Sectm1b transcripts was The effects of SECTM1B were not due to induction of apoptosis assessed by real-time RT-PCR (Figure 1D-F). Primers and probes as shown by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V staining (data used for this analysis are shown diagrammatically in figure 1C. not shown). Inhibition of T cell activation by SECTM1B occurred Sectm1b had a variable distribution with the highest expression in the presence of co-stimulation and exogenous IL-2 (Figure 3C) detectable in large and small intestine and being undetectable in and was independent of TGFb as addition of neutralising anti- bone marrow and lymph nodes (Figure 1D). Primers spanning TGFb (1D11, [8]) did not reverse this effect. We then tested exons 3 and 4 were used to measure full length Sectm1a only whether the mechanism of SECTM1B inhibition relied on soluble (Figure 1E) whereas those spanning exons 3–5 detect 1a-ExIV inhibitory factors being released into the cell culture supernatant. (Figure 1F). Sectm1a and 1a-Exon IV were more widely expressed Culture supernatants from the experiment shown in Figure 3C than sectm1b. were transferred to fresh cultures of anti-CD3 stimulated CD4+ T To probe the functions of murine SECTM1A/B we constructed cells (Figure 3D) showing equivalent proliferation of T cells grown fusion proteins between the extracellular domains of SECTM1A, for 48 hours in the presence of each supernatant. Thus this does SECTM1A-ExIV, SECTM1B and CD7 with the aglycosyl not appear to be a major mechanism, however we cannot exclude mutated Fc portion of human IgG1. Full length SECTM1A-Fc the possibility that soluble inhibitory factors may be produced fusion proteins were relatively labile therefore SECTM1A-ExIV which immediately bind to the T cells, effectively sequestering was used in most subsequent investigations (termed ‘‘SECTM1A’’ them out of the culture supernatants. from now on). SECTM1A, SECTM1B and CD7, are predicted to have 4, 3 and 3 N-linked glycosylation sites respectively. Digestion SECTM1A is co-stimulatory for T cell activation with peptide N-glycosidase F revealed a shift in migration by SDS We compared the effects of SECTM1A and SECTM1B on T PAGE confirming that the Fc-fusion proteins were indeed cell activation. First we compared the level of the activation glycosylated (Figure 2A). marker CD69 expressed on the surface of CD4+ T cells following We used surface plasmon resonance to test the functionality of 48 hours of stimulation with immobilised anti-CD3 in the the SECTM fusion proteins and to test the hypothesis that presence of immobilised SECTM1A or SECTM1B. Following SECTM1A might be an alternative ligand for CD7. CD7, activation in this manner SECTM1B reduced the percentage of SECTM1A and SECTM1B-Fc-fusion proteins were immobilised cells expressing cell-surface CD69 (Figure 3E). Surprisingly CD4+ onto BIAcoreTM CM5 chips and the same proteins were injected T cells activated in the presence of SECTM1A showed an increase over the flow cells in solution to test binding. CD7-Fc in solution caused a rapid increase in response units indicating fast binding to of CD69 over those cultured in the presence of the control protein. Thus the cell surface phenotype of cells stimulated in the presence both SECTM1A and SECTM1B in a reproducible manner (bold of SECTM1B or SECTM1A was consistent with inhibitory or co- solid and dotted lines, Figure 2B &E). Thus SECTM1A represents a novel alternative ligand for mouse CD7. stimulatory signalling respectively. CD7-Fc dissociated from SECTM1A more rapidly than Both splice variants of SECTM1A, full length and lacking exon SECTM1B suggesting that CD7 binds with higher affinity to IV, enhanced T cell activation. CD4+ T cells activated in the SECTM1B than SECTM1A (Figure 2B and 2E, dissociation at 8– presence of the full length ligand or the truncated isoform lacking PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation Figure 1. Location, identity and tissue distribution of SECTM1A. A. Chromosomal organisation of the Cd7, Sectm1b and Sectm1a genes. B. Alignment of Sectm1a, Sectm1b and human SECTM1 was performed in the Jalview program using the MUSCLE algorithm [31]. Shading indicates the degree of amino acid identity between the human SECTM1 and mouse SECTM1A and SECTM1B. Dark grey indicates a residue conserved in all three sequences. Light grey indicates a residue shared by only two sequences. No shading indicates areas of divergent sequence. The boxed region within the extracellular region of SECTM1A indicates the peptide encoded by exon IV C. Positions of the taqman primers and probes used to quantify expression of the different splice variants of SECTM1A. D. Tissue distribution of Sectm1b, E. Sectm1a (full length) F. Sectm1a –ExIV transcripts. mRNA was quantified using the taqman primers and probes illustrated in Figure 1A. Samples were normalised to the level of Sectm1b in brain which was given an arbitrary value of 1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g001 exon IV also showed enhanced proliferation with increasing or PDL-1 in this case, to the plasma membrane via the concentrations of plate-bound SECTM1A (Figure 3F). transmembrane domain of the platelet derived growth factor We then investigated whether SECTM1A and B are co- receptor (PDGFR, Figure 4B). CD4+ T cells from female 2/2 A1.RAG TCR transgenic mice, whose T cells recognise the stimulatory or co-inhibitory respectively when situated on the male antigen, were cultured in the presence of CHO.IE cells plasma membrane of an antigen presenting cell. In order to reduce expressing the SECTM1 constructs pulsed with male antigen. the contribution from other co-stimulation molecules we used 2/2 Following 48 hours of culture A1.RAG T cells stimulated in CHO cells which were stably transfected with MHC class II (IE ). the presence of CHO cells expressing SECTM1A secreted We transfected these cells with membrane targeted constructs in significantly more IL-2 and those cultured in the presence of the vector pDISPLAY (Figure 4A) which targets Myc and HA CHO cells expressing SECTM1B significantly less IL-2 tagged fusion proteins, the extracellular domains of SECTM1A, B (Figure 4C). Thus SECTM1A and B represent co-stimulatory and inhibitory receptors in the context of MHCII/peptide mediated T cell activation. One explanation for opposing functional outcomes from SECTM1A and B is that although both bind CD7, as detected by BIAcore, they may have additional alternative receptors on T cells. To test this hypothesis we used CD4+ T cells from C57BL/6 2/2 PNGaseF - + - + - + CD7 mice and found (Figure 5) that remarkably, in in vitro CD7 CP1H SECTM1B SECTM1A stimulation assays, both SECTM1A-mediated co-stimulation and SECTM1B mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation occur in the absence of CD7. This indicates that there must indeed be additional receptors, other than CD7, for both these ligands on T cells. To identify potential alternative SECTM1 ligands we first determined the cell types expressing the ligands. To this end we used allophycocyanin-labelled SECTM1A and SECTM1B Fc 80 80 2/2 fusion proteins in FACS to stain CD7 resting and conA -40 -40 -40 activated splenocytes. Despite its potent inhibitory effects on T cell 1 23 4 5 67 8 9 10 1 23 4 5 67 8 9 10 1 23 9 4 5 67 8 10 Time (min) Time (min) Time (min) activation in the solid phase, SECTM1B-Fc did not bind 2/2 E F G detectably to wt or CD7 resting or activated splenocytes in 800 800 this FACS assay (data not shown). However SECTM1A-Fc was 680 680 680 shown to bind to activated CD4+, CD8+ and to a lesser extent NK 560 560 560 2/2 cells and granulocytes from CD7 mice (Figure 6A). 440 440 As we were able to demonstrate binding of SECTM1A to 320 320 320 2/2 activated CD7 CD4+ T cells by FACS, we used lauryl 200 200 2/2 maltoside lysates of concanavalin A-activated CD7 splenocytes 80 80 to immunoprecipitate the potential ligand(s) as described in -40 -40 -40 methods. Eluates from SECTM1A-Fc/protein G agarose columns 1 1 23 4 9 1 23 4 5 67 8 9 10 23 4 5 67 8 9 10 5 67 8 10 Time (min) Time (min) Time (min) contained multiple proteins of different molecular weights (figure 6B). Coomassie stained gel slices containing the eluted Figure 2. SECTM1A binds to CD7. A. Western blot of mSECTM1A, proteins were tryptically digested and subjected to MS/MS mass SECTM1B and CD7 Fc fusion proteins digested with protein N spectroscopy for identification. Peptides with a MASCOT score glycosidase F (PNGaseF). Biotinylated anti-human Fc antibody was used to western blot the resultant digested proteins. Representative greater than 90 are shown in figure 6C. The only protein with a blot of two shown. B. Analysis of mSECTM1A and mSECTM1B Fc fusion plasma membrane transmembrane segment other than proteins binding to mCD7-Fc. CD7-Fc was passed over flow cells coated SECTM1A-Fc itself which was derived from the immunoprecip- with CD7-Fc, SECTM1B-Fc, SECTM1A-Fc and CAMPATH-1H in a itation procedure was TNFRSF18 (GITR). BIAcoreTM. Results in B-G representative of three separate experiments. To confirm the SECTM1A/GITR interaction we tested C. SECTM1B-Fc binds solid phase CD7-Fc. SECTM1B-Fc was passed over 2/2 whether binding of SECTM1A to activated CD7 CD4+ T CD7-Fc. D. SECTM1A-Fc was passed over the same flow cell as in (C) directly after SECTM1B-Fc to detect binding to CD7-Fc after binding to cells could be inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with either SECTM1B-Fc. E. On a separate CM5 chip CD7-Fc was passed over flow anti-GITR antibodies or GITRL. As shown in figure 6D and 6E cells coated with CD7-Fc, SECTM1B-Fc, SECTM1A-Fc and CAMPATH-1H both anti-GITR and soluble GITRL led to a reduced intensity as in 2B F. SECTM1A-Fc binds solid phase CD7-Fc. SECTM1A-Fc was staining of cells by SECTM1A-Fc. The specificity of the passed over CD7-Fc. G. SECTM1B-Fc was passed over the same flow cell interaction was confirmed by utilising CHO cells expressing as in (F) directly after SECTM1A-Fc to detect binding to CD7-Fc after SECTM1A, SECTM1B, PDL-1 or GITR as targets for FACS binding to SECTM1A-Fc. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g002 staining with SECTM1A-Fc (Figure 6F). Only CHO cells PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 4 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 Response units Response units Response units Response units Response units Response units SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation representative of two separate experiments. Differences not significant by Student’s t test. E. Left panel; Cell surface expression of CD69 on CD4+ T cells (approximately 85% pure) cultured for 48 hours on 2C11(1 ug/ml) coated 96 well plates in the presence of plate-bound * * CP1H, SECTM1B-Fc or SECTM1A-Fc. All fusion proteins coated at 10 ug/ ml. Results representative of three separate experiments. Right Panel; ** Pooled data from three experiments showing percentage change in ** CD69 on activated CD4+ T cells. Cells were cultured as above in the ** presence of 10 ug/ml plate bound fusion proteins and the percentage C D change in mean fluorescence intensity for CD69 above or below the CP1H control is shown. Statistical significance was measured using Student’s T test. F. Proliferation assay with CD4+ T cells cultured on 2C11 coated plates in the presence of solid-phase mSECTM1A-Fc fusion protein or SECTM1A-ExIV-Fc. Proliferation was measured at 48 hours. Results representative of five separate experiments. * = p,0.05, ** ** = p,0.005 by Student’s t test. ** * ** doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g003 expressing GITR gave a substantial signal in this FACS assay. Finally, we tested whether SECTM1A costimulates T cells predominantly via GITR, or CD7. We activated splenic CD4+ SECTM1A aa 26-164 SECTM1B aa 33-157 CP1H PDGFR.TM Myc HA p<0.05 A. PDL1 aa 24-239 60 SECTM1A SECTM1B B. SECTM1B CHO-IE SECTM1A -20 SECTM1A -40 SECTM1B PDL-1 CD4 ** ** ** SECTM1A-Fc SECTM1A -Ex4-Fc ** MYC C. IL-2 pg/ml Figure 3. SECTM1A costimulates whereas SECTM1B inhibits T CHO-IE cell activation. A. 48 hour proliferation assay with CD4+ T cells cultured on 2C11 coated plates in the presence of solid-phase mCD7-Fc SECTM1A or mSECTM1B-Fc fusion protein. Campath-1H antibody was used to equilibrate each well to an equal protein concentration. Results SECTM1B representative of five separate experiments. * = p,0.05, ** = p,0.005 by Student’s t test. B. ELISA for IL-2 in supernatants of CBA/Ca CD4+ T PDL-1 cells stimulated for 48 hours in the presence of plate-bound 2C11 and solid phase SECTM1B-Fc, CD7-Fc or Campath-1H. Results are represen- tative of three experiments. SECTM1B inhibition significant at 20,50 and Figure 4. Cell surface targetted SECTM1A enhances IL-2 100 ug plated fusion protein assessed by Student’s t test. C. production by antigen specific T cells. A. Diagram of the structure Proliferation assay with CD4+ T cells cultured on 2C11 coated plates of pDISPLAY based constructs for cell surface expression of SECTM1A/B in the presence of solid-phase mSECTM1B-Fc fusion protein or and PDL1 on CHO cells expressing MHC class II ‘CHO-IE ’. The regions of Campath-1H as control. Anti-mCD28 or neutralising anti-TGFb (1D11) SECTM1A/B and PDL1 between the leader sequence and plasma was added to some wells at 1 ug/ml. Where indicated, IL-2 was added membrane transmembrane sequence were used. B. Flow cytometry for at 10 U/mL. * = p,0.05, ** = p,0.005 by Student’s t test. Results are MHC class II and Myc (to detect cell surface SECTM1A/B or PDL1) on representative of two experiments. D. Proliferation assay with CD4+ T CHO-IE cells. C. ELISA measurement of IL-2 in 48 hour co-culture of cells. The supernatants from the cell cultures described in ‘Figure C’ male peptide-pulsed CHO-IE cells and A1.RAG T cells. Representative of were added to fresh cultures of CBA.CA CD4+ T cells cultured with two separate experiments. * = p,0.05 by Student’s t test. plate-bound 2C11. Proliferation was assessed at 48 hours. Results doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g004 PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 5 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 CD69 %change in MFI MHC-II SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation SECTM1A and B share other unidentified alternative receptors. An alternative explanation for the reciprocal effects of SECTM1A CP1H and B may be due to differences in efficacy of blocking rather than p<0.05 crosslinking of the same receptor. Monovalent binding by the higher affinity reagent SECTM1B-Fc would result in blocking SECTM1B-Fc p<0.05 whereas the lower affinity SECTM1A-Fc would be an effective crosslinking reagent resulting in activation. Similar effects of affinity and valency have been noted before and quantitatively SECTM1A-Fc analyzed [9]. SECTM1A is an immunoglobulin-like receptor whereas GITR is a member of the TNFR superfamily and is known to bind GITRL, a member of the TNF superfamily ligand group. All other TNFR superfamily members bind to ligands of the TNF superfamily. The only known exception to this rule is that of Figure 5. Modulation of T cell proliferation by SECTM1A and SECTM1B occurs independently of CD7. Proliferation assay with Herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM, TNFRSF14) which was 2/2 C57BL/6 (black bars) and CD7 (white bars) CD4+ T cells cultured on shown to bind to B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA, 2C11 coated plates in the presence of 10 mg solid-phase mSECTM1A-Fc CD272) [10,11] an immunoglobulin superfamily member, on T fusion protein or SECTM1B-Fc. Proliferation was measured at 48 hours. cells, in addition to four other ligands, LIGHT, CD160, Results representative of five separate experiments. Statistical signifi- lymphotoxina and Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D [12]. cance determined by Student’s t test. The binding of HVEM to BTLA on T cells is inhibitory to T cell doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g005 activation [10]. 2/2 2/2 TNF family ligands form non-covalent homotrimers which T cells isolated from wild type, CD7 and GITR mice with induce the receptor to adopt a trimeric conformation which plate bound anti-CD3 in the presence of increasing concentrations enhances signalling [13]. In the case of the BTLA-HVEM of plate-bound SECTM1A-Fc. We showed that SECTM1A-Fc interaction it has been shown that a 1:1 stoichiometry can exist increases the proliferation induced by anti-CD3 of T cells from all between extracellular domains of BTLA and HVEM however three mice. Thus SECTM1A can costimulate via CD7, GITR BTLA exists as oligomers on the cell surface which may be capable and/or possible other unidentified ligands. of clustering HVEM to enhance signalling [14,15]. Human GITRL has also been shown to adopt a homotrimeric conforma- Discussion tion [16] inducing homotrimeric clusters of GITR on the cell In this study we have demonstrated a novel mode of immune surface. Mouse and human GITRL differ in their propensity to form trimers in solution with mGITRL forming stable dimers [17]. regulation via the opposing actions of two murine immunoglobulin superfamily proteins SECTM1A and SECTM1B. These widely The stoichiometry of the interaction between GITR and SECTM1A seen in our studies is currently unknown. Despite expressed plasma membrane proteins modulate activation of CD4+ T cells. We have demonstrated binding of both proteins to our demonstration that both SECTM1A-Fc and GITR-Fc fusion proteins are active in biochemical and cell binding experiments we CD7 with surface plasmon resonance; however, they can exhibit in vitro functions independently of CD7. In the case of SECTM1A did not detect a specific interaction between them by surface plasmon resonance. this may be explained by its ability to bind to GITR in the absence Whether binding to CD7 or to GITR it is possible that ‘reverse’ of CD7. We observed significant differences in transcript expression signalling occurs within the cells expressing cell surface SECTM1A or SECTM1B, which include epithelial, endothelial between tissues. SECTM1B had a more restricted distribution than SECTM1A. SECTM1B transcripts were undetectable in and myeloid cells. Both proteins have short cytoplasmic tails containing tyrosine residues which do not conform to known bone marrow, heart, lymph nodes, brain, muscle, pancreas and skin whereas SECTM1A transcripts were detectable in these signaling motifs. The possibility of reverse signalling remains to be excluded. tissues although there were differences between SECTM1A and the spliced form lacking exon IV. It may be that that the presence Functionally it has been reported that murine SECTM1B of only SECTM1A in lymph nodes might help to promote T cell inhibits ConA-induced lymph node cell proliferation but not priming whereas the balance of SECTM1A/B in peripheral tissues lymph node cell proliferation induced by anti-ab TCR antibodies could promote or inhibit T cell responses. Analysis of potential [4]. We consistently observe inhibition of anti-CD3 induced T cell peptidase sites in the exon IV region of the SECTM1A protein proliferation and IL-2 production with SECTM1B, and the reveals four potential cleavage consensus sites for glutamyl and converse with SECTM1A. These differences may be due to aspartic endopeptidases which may generate soluble forms of the differences in cell preparation as we used highly purified negatively protein from the full length precursor (data not shown). It remains selected CD4+ cells compared to the previously published study. to be shown whether the spliced transcript of SECTM1A lacking The SECTM proteins join a large group of ligands used by exon IV could serve to provide a stable membrane-anchored form tissues to co-stimulate or diminish T cell responses [18,19]. of the protein whilst the full length form could act as a precursor of [1,20,21,22,23,24,25,26] [27]. Co-expression of the SECTM a soluble form of the protein. molecules in tissues may have alternate outcomes depending on Our Biacore data clearly show that SECTM1B has a higher the receptors expressed by different T cells. A degree of tissue affinity for CD7 than SECTM1A and this hierarchy of binding regulation of SECTM1 has been shown by Lam and colleagues who demonstrated up-regulation of SECTM1 expression in may also extend to the alternative SECTM receptors on T cells. Differences in functional effects suggest that the differences in response to IFNc by thymic epithelium [28]. affinity for CD7 may apply to binding to these alternative In conclusion we have demonstrated opposite functional receptors. Although we were unable to identify the alternative outcomes of SECTM1A and SECTM1B, widely expressed tissue SECTM1B receptor in this study it is possible that both ligands, binding to T cells. We have shown that SECTM1A PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 6 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation SECTM1A-Fc-APC binding CHO CHO 1A GITR CHO CHO CHO 1B PDL1 GITR KDa *** ** *** ** *** *** Figure 6. SECTM1A binds to GITR. A. SECTM1A binds to the surface of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Flow cytometry of SECTM1A-Fc binding 2/2 to 48 hour concanavalin A-activated CD7 splenocytes. Cells were double stained for the indicated markers (CD4, CD8, CD19, NK1.1, GR1 and MHCII) and APC-conjugated SECTM1A-Fc. Filled histograms represent background staining with a control human IgG1 aglycosyl Fc region conjugated to APC. Clear histograms represent staining with SECTM1A-Fc conjugated to APC. Results representative of two experiments. B. 2/2 Coomassie blue stained SDS-PAGE gel showing immunoprecipitation eluates from Lauryl maltoside lysates of concanavalin A-activated CD7 splenocytes bound to hIL7R-Fc (negative control) and SECTM1A-Fc/protein-G agarose columns. Major bands at 76kDa (IL7R-Fc) and 55 kDa (SECTM1A-Fc) are Fc fusion proteins eluted off the immunoprecipiatation column. C. Identities of proteins eluted from the gel in (B) with a MASCOT 2/2 score of .90. D. APC conjugated SECTM1A-Fc binding to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 activated CD7 CD4+ T cells. Clear histogram, negative control; binding to cells pre-incubated for 1 hour with Rat IgG2b (isotype control). Shaded histogram, binding to cells preincubated with rat anti-GITR (YGITR- 2/2 765). Results representative of two separate experiments. E. APC conjugated SECTM1A-Fc binding to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 activated CD7 CD4+ T cells. Clear histogram, binding to cells pre-incubated for 1 hour with hIL7R-Fc (negative control). Shaded histogram, binding to cells preincubated with GITRL-Fc. Results representative of two separate experiments. F. SECTM1A binds to CHO cells expressing cell surface GITR. Binding of APC conjugated SECTM1A-Fc to CHO cells expressing plasma membrane-targetted SECTM1A, SECTM1B, PDL1 or GITR driven by pDISPLAY constructs. Top left panel indicates the level of cell surface GITR expression by the CHO-GITR cells, staining with YGITR765 (thin line), thick line represents isotype staining control. Dot plots represent SECTM1A-Fc binding. Text on dot plots indicates the cell type being stained. G. SECTM1A costimulates CD4+ T 2/2 2/2 cells lacking GITR expression. CD4+ T cells from C57BL/6, CD7 and GITR mice were activated for 48 hours in the presence of plate-bound anti- CD3 (145-2C11) and the indicated amounts of plate-bound SECTM1A-Fc. Cell division was measured using tritiated thymidine incorporation. *=p,0.05, ** = p,0.005, *** = p,0.0005by Student’s t test. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g006 represents a new CD7 ligand in mice in addition to binding to Materials and Methods GITR and we raise the possibility that alternative receptors for Mice both SECTM1A and SECTM1B exist on T cells. A1(M).RAG2/2, CBA/Ca, C57BL/6 and C57BL/6.CD72/2 mice were bred and maintained in SPF conditions at the Sir William PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 7 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 hIL7R-F SECTM1A-Fc SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation Dunn School of Pathology. CD72/2 mice were the kind gift of Dr. ELISA Barton Haynes, Duke University. All procedures were conducted in IL-2 was measured by ELISA using a paired antibody set from accordance with the Home Office Animals (Scientific Procedures) BD Biosciences and recombinant IL-2 from R&D Systems to Act of 1986 and received approval from the local ethical review construct standard curves. panel at the University of Oxford. Flow cytometry Cells and antibodies Fc fusion proteins used for FACS were labelled with ‘Untouched’ splenic CD4+ T cells were isolated by negative allophycocyanin using a Lynx rapid conjugation kit (AbdSerotec) selection via magnetic sorting using commercial kits (Miltenyi according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cells were incubated Biotech). Anti-CD4, CD25, CD8, CD19, NK1.1, GR1, MHCII, with fusion proteins at 10 ug/ml in PBS with 0.5% bovine serum CD69 and CD62L were obtained from BD Biosciences. FITC albumin and 2 mM EDTA for 1 hour at 4C followed by three conjugated anti-Myc (9E10) was purchased from Sanatacruz PBS washes and fixation in 2% paraformaldehyde. Biotechnology. Anti-CD3 (145.2C11), anti-CD28 (37.51) anti- GITR (YGITR765.4.2), anti MHCII (YTA94.8.10) and neutral- Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis izing anti-TGFb (1D11) were produced from hybridoma super- For surface plasmon resonance experiments a BIAcore 3000 natants in house. instrument was used at 25uC. Rabbit anti-mouse antibody BR- CHO cells stably transfected with MHC class II (IE ) were a 1000-57 (BIAcore) was directly immobilized by amine coupling in kind gift from Prof Neil Barclay, Sir William Dunn School of 10 mM NaAc buffer, pH 5.5 onto CM5 chips. This was followed Pathology Oxford. by binding of mouse anti human IgG (SBH2, a kind gift from Alison Tutt, Tenovus, Southampton) to all cells. CAMPATH-1H, Quantitative real-time RT-PCR mCD7-Fc, hIL7R-Fc, SECTM1A-Fc, SECTM1B-Fc, GITR-Fc Taqman RT-PCR was performed essentially as described [29]. and GITRL-Fc were bound to separate flow cells. Fc-fusion Primers and probes were purchased from Eurogentech: protein-containing solutions at 25 mM were injected in HEPES- SECTM1B, 59-AAGCAGCTGGGTTCTTCGGT-39,59- buffered saline, pH 7.4, over the immobilized capture antibody-Fc TGGACACCA TGATCAGATGACAA-3 and FAM-59- fusion protein containing flow cells at a rate of 5 ml per minute. TGAACTGAATGGGAAGAAGAGAACA GAGCATTC-39- TAMRA. Primers spanning the junction of SECTM1A exons Immunoprecipitation of SECTM1A interactors 3–4 were assayed using a commercial primer/probe set(Applied 5 mg of SECTM1A-Fc or hIL7R-Fc negative control fusion Biosystems Mm00520313_g1). SECTM1A exons 3–5 junction protein were incubated in PBS with 1 ml of protein G agarose was assayed using 59-GACGACCACACAGGGATATACTTG- (Invitrogen) for 1 hour at 4C. The agarose was then washed with 39,59-CTCTTCGCGTGATCTAAGATATTC AG-39 AND PBS followed by 50 mM sodium borate and the fusion proteins FAM-59-CATGGACGCCAGAGATGCTACAAAAACA-39-TA- cross-linked to the protein G with dimethyl pimelimidate at 7 mg/ MRA. ml in 0.2 M triethanolamine for 1 hour at room temperature. The columns were washed with 5 column volumes of 0.2 M Production of SECTM1 Fusion proteins triethanolamine followed by blocking with 5 column volumes of Fc fusion protein expression plasmids were constructed using an 0.1 M ethanolamine. Un-cross-linked fusion proteins were eluted expression vector pEE12(CMV/T7)CD5Lhc1 encoding a CMV from the column with 0.2 M glycine pH2.0. 2610 concanavilin- 2/2 promoter and CD5 leader sequence directly 59 to the human IgG1 A-activated CD7 splenocytes were lysed on ice with 0.5% aglycosyl Fc coding region. cDNAs were cloned between the CD5 lauryl maltoside prior to clearing by centrifugation. Lysates were leader sequence and hIgG1 fragment. incubated with the columns for 2 hours at 4C followed by washing Fusion proteins were produced in CHO-S cells and purified with 5 column volumes of PBS and elution with 0.2 M glycine. with protein G agarose with elution using glycine at pH 2.0. Eluates were concentrated with Centricon 10,000 molecular weight cutoff dialysis spin columns (Millipore) and run on SDS Protein N glycosidase F digestions PAGE gels. 20 mg of Fc fusion proteins were denatured and subjected to digestion with 1000 units of protein N glycosidase F (New England Mass Spectroscopy Biolabs) for 2 hours at 37uC according to the manufacturers SDS-PAGE gel slices were digested with trypsin and desalted on instructions. Digested and un-digested fusion proteins were run on a C18 packed pipette tip. Samples were injected onto an Ultimate SDS PAGE, coomassie stained and western blotted for human Ig- 3000 nano HPLC (Dionex) system coupled to an Orbitrap mass Fc to assess their level of N-linked glycosylation. spectrometer (Thermo Electron). Samples were resolved on a 5 cm by 100 micron inner diameter picotip column (New Objective) Proliferation assays which was packed in house with reprosil-Pur C18-AQ phase. A CD4+ T cells were stimulated with plate-bound anti-CD3 40 minute gradient was used to separate the peptides. The mass (145.2C11) and IL-2 or anti CD28 where indicated. SECTM1A, spectrometer was operated in data dependent acquisition mode. Precursor scans were performed in the orbitrap at a resolving 1A-ExIV, SECTM1B-Fc fusion proteins or Campath-1H as an Fc control with identical human IgG1 aglycosyl Fc region were power of 60,000, from which five precursor ions were selected and immobilised by air-drying onto 96 well culture plates as described fragmented in the linear ion trap. Charge state +1 ions were rejected. Peak lists were generated using DTAsupercharge and by Stebbings et al [30]. 16105 CBA/Ca CD4+ T cells were used per well. Tritiated thymidine at 0.5 mCi per well was added sixteen searched using Mascot (Matrixscience). Data were searched against MSDB database, restricting the taxonomy to mus musculus. hours before harvesting the cultures onto glass fibre filters and Precursor mass accuracy tolerance was set at 10 ppm and MS/MS scintillation counting using standard techniques. at 0.5 Da. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 8 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation Acknowledgments Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: DH HW. Performed the The authors would like to thank the staff of the Dunn School PSB for experiments: DH HGR MHB. Analyzed the data: DH HGR MHB HW. animal husbandry, Mark Frewin for technical assistance, Dr Kathleen Nolan for suggestions on Sectm1a alignments, Prof. Barton Haynes for Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MHB. Wrote the paper: 2/2 providing CD7 mice and Drs Ben Thomas and Gabriela Ridlova for DH HW. their mass spectroscopy expertise. References 1. Tone M, Tone Y, Adams E, Yates SF, Frewin MR, et al. (2003) Mouse induced TNF receptor ligand: Implications for function. Proceedings of the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor ligand is costimulatory for National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 19452– T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 15059–15064. 19457. 2. Rabinowich H, Pricop L, Herberman RB, Whiteside TL (1994) Expression and 17. Chattopadhyay K, Ramagopal UA, Brenowitz M, Nathenson SG, Almo SC function of CD7 molecule on human natural killer cells. J Immunol 152: 517– (2008) Evolution of GITRL immune function: murine GITRL exhibits unique 526. structural and biochemical properties within the TNF superfamily. Proceedings 3. Sempowski GD, Cross SJ, Heinly CS, Scearce RM, Haynes BF (2004) CD7 and of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 635– CD28 are required for murine CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cell homeostasis and 640. prevention of thyroiditis. J Immunol 172: 787–794. 18. McAdam AJ, Schweitzer AN, Sharpe AH (1998) The role of B7 co-stimulation in activation and differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [In Process 4. Lyman SD, Escobar S, Rousseau AM, Armstrong A, Fanslow WC (2000) Identification of CD7 as a cognate of the human K12 (SECTM1) protein. J Biol Citation]. Immunol Rev 165: 231–247. Chem 275: 3431–3437. 19. Sharpe AH, Freeman GJ (2002) The B7-CD28 superfamily. Nat Rev Immunol 5. Wang T, Huang C, Lopez-Coral A, Slentz-Kesler KA, Xiao M, et al. (2012) 2: 116–126. K12/SECTM1, an interferon-gamma regulated molecule, synergizes with 20. Keir ME, Liang SC, Guleria I, Latchman YE, Qipo A, et al. (2006) Tissue CD28 to costimulate human T cell proliferation. Journal of leukocyte biology expression of PD-L1 mediates peripheral T cell tolerance. J Exp Med 203: 883– 91: 449–459. 895. 6. Slentz-Kesler KA, Hale LP, Kaufman RE (1998) Identification and character- 21. Latchman Y, Wood CR, Chernova T, Chaudhary D, Borde M, et al. (2001) PD- ization of K12 (SECTM1), a novel human gene that encodes a Golgi-associated L2 is a second ligand for PD-1 and inhibits T cell activation. Nat Immunol 2: protein with transmembrane and secreted isoforms. Genomics 47: 327–340. 261–268. 7. Huyton T, Gottmann W, Bade-Doding C, Paine A, Blasczyk R (2011) The T/ 22. Freeman GJ, Long AJ, Iwai Y, Bourque K, Chernova T, et al. (2000) NK cell co-stimulatory molecule SECTM1 is an IFN ‘‘early response gene’’ that Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family is negatively regulated by LPS in human monocytic cells. Biochimica et member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation. J Exp Med 192: biophysica acta 1810: 1294–1301. 1027–1034. 8. Daley SR, Ma J, Adams E, Cobbold SP, Waldmann H (2007) A key role for 23. Piconese S, Valzasina B, Colombo MP (2008) OX40 triggering blocks TGF-beta signaling to T cells in the long-term acceptance of allografts. Journal suppression by regulatory T cells and facilitates tumor rejection. J Exp Med of immunology 179: 3648–3654. 205: 825–839. 9. Koch C, Staffler G, Huttinger R, Hilgert I, Prager E, et al. (1999) T cell 24. Takeda I, Ine S, Killeen N, Ndhlovu LC, Murata K, et al. (2004) Distinct roles activation-associated epitopes of CD147 in regulation of the T cell response, and for the OX40-OX40 ligand interaction in regulatory and nonregulatory T cells. their definition by antibody affinity and antigen density. Int Immunol 11: 777– J Immunol 172: 3580–3589. 786. 25. Zheng G, Wang B, Chen A (2004) The 4-1BB costimulation augments the 10. Sedy JR, Gavrieli M, Potter KG, Hurchla MA, Lindsley RC, et al. (2005) B and proliferation of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol 173: 2428–2434. T lymphocyte attenuator regulates T cell activation through interaction with 26. Ji HB, Liao G, Faubion WA, Abadia-Molina AC, Cozzo C, et al. (2004) Cutting herpesvirus entry mediator. Nature immunology 6: 90–98. edge: the natural ligand for glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein 11. Murphy KM, Nelson CA, Sedy JR (2006) Balancing co-stimulation and abrogates regulatory T cell suppression. J Immunol 172: 5823–5827. inhibition with BTLA and HVEM. Nature reviews Immunology 6: 671–681. 27. Wing K, Onishi Y, Prieto-Martin P, Yamaguchi T, Miyara M, et al. (2008) 12. Sarrias MR, Whitbeck JC, Rooney I, Ware CF, Eisenberg RJ, et al. (2000) The CTLA-4 control over Foxp3+ regulatory T cell function. Science 322: 271–275. three HveA receptor ligands, gD, LT-alpha and LIGHT bind to distinct sites on 28. Lam GK, Liao HX, Xue Y, Alam SM, Scearce RM, et al. (2005) Expression of HveA. Molecular immunology 37: 665–673. the CD7 ligand K-12 in human thymic epithelial cells: regulation by IFN- 13. Locksley RM, Killeen N, Lenardo MJ (2001) The TNF and TNF receptor gamma. J Clin Immunol 25: 41–49. superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology. Cell 104: 487–501. 29. Cobbold SP, Castejon R, Adams E, Zelenika D, Graca L, et al. (2004) Induction 14. Compaan DM, Gonzalez LC, Tom I, Loyet KM, Eaton D, et al. (2005) of foxP3+ regulatory T cells in the periphery of T cell receptor transgenic mice Attenuating lymphocyte activity: the crystal structure of the BTLA-HVEM tolerized to transplants. J Immunol 172: 6003–6010. complex. The Journal of biological chemistry 280: 39553–39561. 30. Stebbings R, Findlay L, Edwards C, Eastwood D, Bird C, et al. (2007) ‘‘Cytokine 15. Nelson CA, Fremont MD, Sedy JR, Norris PS, Ware CF, et al. (2008) Structural storm’’ in the phase I trial of monoclonal antibody TGN1412: better determinants of herpesvirus entry mediator recognition by murine B and T understanding the causes to improve preclinical testing of immunotherapeutics. lymphocyte attenuator. Journal of immunology 180: 940–947. J Immunol 179: 3325–3331. 16. Chattopadhyay K, Ramagopal UA, Mukhopadhaya A, Malashkevich VN, 31. Clamp M, Cuff J, Searle SM, Barton GJ (2004) The Jalview Java alignment Dilorenzo TP, et al. (2007) Assembly and structural properties of glucocorticoid- editor. Bioinformatics 20: 426–427. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 9 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png PLoS ONE Pubmed Central

Secreted and Transmembrane 1A Is a Novel Co-Stimulatory Ligand

PLoS ONE , Volume 8 (9) – Sep 10, 2013

Loading next page...
 
/lp/pubmed-central/secreted-and-transmembrane-1a-is-a-novel-co-stimulatory-ligand-ABkLsZ9xzp

References (63)

Publisher
Pubmed Central
Copyright
© 2013 Howie et al
ISSN
1932-6203
eISSN
1932-6203
DOI
10.1371/journal.pone.0073610
Publisher site
See Article on Publisher Site

Abstract

Most T cell responses to pathogens or self antigens are modulated through the action of regulatory T cells and tissue- specific inhibitory mechanisms. To this end, several receptor-ligand pairs have evolved which either augment or diminish T cell function. Here we describe the tissue ligand SECTM1A (Secreted and transmembrane1A) as an alternative murine CD7 ligand. We show that SECTM1A, like SECTM1B, binds strongly to CD7, and that SECTM1B was able to compete with SECTM1A for CD7 binding. SECTM1A is ubiquitously expressed and has two major alternative transcripts which differ in expression between tissues. Both immobilised soluble forms of SECTM1A and SECTM1B and cell surface anchored forms demonstrated opposing effects on CD4+ T cell activation. Whereas SECTM1A acted as a co-stimulator of T cells, enhancing IL-2 production and proliferation, SECTM1B proved inhibitory to TCR mediated T cell activation. Surprisingly, both functional outcomes proved to be CD7-independent, indicating the existence of alternative receptors for both ligands. We used a 2/2 SECTM1A-Fc fusion protein to immunoprecipitate potential alternative ligands from detergent lysates of CD7 T cells and, using mass spectrometry, identified GITR as a SECTM1A binder. SECTM1A was found to bind to activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells as well as to CHO cells expressing cell surface GITR. Binding of SECTM1A to activated primary T cells was inhibited by either GITRL-Fc or anti GITR antibodies. Thus SECTM1A and SECTM1B represent novel reciprocal alternative ligands which may function to modulate the activation of effector and regulatory T cells. The ability of SECTM1A to activate T cells may be explained by its ability to bind to GITR. Citation: Howie D, Garcia Rueda H, Brown MH, Waldmann H (2013) Secreted and Transmembrane 1A Is a Novel Co-Stimulatory Ligand. PLoS ONE 8(9): e73610. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610 Editor: Barry I. Hudson, University of Miami, United States of America Received June 14, 2013; Accepted July 19, 2013; Published September 10, 2013 Copyright:  2013 Howie et al. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Funding: This work was funded by two programme grants from the Medical Research Council www.mrc.ac.uk G0400808 (MHB) and G7904009 (HW). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: duncan.howie@path.ox.ac.uk whilst up regulating activation markers on activated NK cells. The Introduction human genome contains only one SECTM gene, SECTM1 which T cell responses to antigen are controlled at multiple levels. is situated in close proximity to CD7 on chromosome 17q25. As These include control of the cells’ anatomical location, local described here the mouse genome contains two SECTM genes in MHC-antigen concentration on APCs, intracellular signalling close proximity to the CD7 gene. Mouse SECTM1A shares the changes, inhibition by regulatory T cells and soluble and cell greatest homology to human SECTM1. SECTM1-Fc fusion surface regulatory ligand molecules expressed by antigen present- proteins were shown by Lyman and colleagues to increase surface ing cells. Examples of the latter group include receptor/ligand activation markers on human NK cells [4]. Wang et al reported pairs such as GITR and GITR ligand, previously described by our SECTM1-Fc fusion proteins co-stimulated IL-2 and interferon laboratory to control activation of effector and regulatory T cells gamma production by human CD4+ and CD8+ cells [5]. [1] PD1/PDL, CTLA4/B71&2, 41BB/41BBL, ICOS/ICOS SECTM1 is predicted to be a type 1A transmembrane protein ligand and CD7/SECTM1B (Secreted and transmembrane1B). with extracellular N terminus and cleaved signal peptide. CD7 is a T cell and NK cell expressed 40 kD transmembrane Depending on the experimental system used, SECTM1 appears protein of the immunoglobulin superfamily which can induce lipid either as a Golgi-associated protein which is secreted as a 20 kDa and tyrosine kinase activity and is thought to be important for T/ form, in breast carcinoma cells [6] or as a plasma membrane NK cell activation [2]. expressed surface protein in COS-1 cells transfected with A report of aberrant Treg development and function in CD7/ expression plasmids [4]. SECTM1 is predominantly expressed CD28 double knockout mice [3], and our observation of elevated by cells of the myeloid lineage and epithelia where its expression is CD7 expression by TGFb-induced regulatory T cells (unpublished enhanced by exposure to interferon gamma in a Stat-1 dependent observations) prompted us to investigate the effects of known CD7 manner [7]. It is possible that its ultimate location, secreted or on ligands on T cell responses. Human and murine CD7 have the plasma membrane, is dependent on either the cell on which it previously been shown to interact with cell surface and secreted is expressed, the tissue location or micro environmental factors members of the immunoglobulin superfamily named SECTM1 such as inflammation. (K12) and SECTM1B respectively [4]. In this study we report the function of the novel murine CD7 Murine SECTM1B identified by Lyman et al [4] had been ligand SECTM1A whose gene is located in the CD7/SECTM1B shown to inhibit proliferation of ConA-stimulated T lymphocytes PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation locus on mouse chromosome 11 with a tissue distribution differing 9 minutes bold solid and dotted lines). We then tested whether from the known CD7 ligand SECTM1B. We constructed fusion SECTM1B could block binding of SECTM1A to CD7. proteins between the extracellular domains of SECTM1A and SECTM1B-Fc was passed over solid phase CD7 and bound SECTM1B with an aglycosyl mutant Fc region of human IgG1, or rapidly (Figure 2C, solid line). When SECTM1A was passed over anchored forms expressed on the cell surface of CHO cells. These the same flow cell directly after SECTM1B no binding above were used to probe the function of these ligands in the experiments background was observed (Figure 2D, solid line). Thus SECTM1B described here. Exposure of T cells to SECTM1A or SECTM1B competes for CD7 binding with SECTM1A. In a reciprocal resulted in reciprocal modulation of T cell proliferation. Surpris- experiment, SECTM1A was passed in solution over solid phase ingly, despite SECTM1A being a ligand for CD7, all of these CD7 (Figure 2F, solid line) and binding was observed albeit with signalling events turned out to be CD7 independent. The co- less increase in response units seen for SECTM1B. Directly stimulatory functions of SECTM1A may be explained in part by following SECTM1A, SECTM1B was passed over the same flow our observation that it is able to interact, albeit weakly with GITR cell. This time binding to CD7-Fc was observed with almost as an alternative receptor. exactly the same stoichiometry as when SECTM1B bound CD7- Fc alone (Figure 2G, solid line) which is consistent with a weaker Results affinity of SECTM1A for CD7. SECTM1A and SECTM1B did not exhibit homophilic binding nor did they bind to each other The identification of mSECTM1A as a novel mCD7 ligand under these conditions. with homology to hSECTM1 and mSECTM1B The gene previously described as the murine orthologue of SECTM1B inhibits activation and IL-2 production of T cells human SECTM1, murine Sectm1b [4], and Sectm1a, a newly It is unclear what functions SECTM1A and SECTM1B serve. annotated gene encoding an uncharacterised protein, lie in a Our preliminary experiments with SECTM1B-Fc showed no 44kbp region neighbouring CD7 (Figure 1A). Alignment of the evidence for modulation of T cell responses when the fusion amino acid sequences of SECTM1A, SECTM1B and human protein was used in solution (data not shown). However solid phase SECTM1 reveals moderate homology between the three proteins SECTM1B-Fc but not CD7-Fc inhibited both IL-2 production in their extracellular regions, the greatest homology being between and proliferation of T cells activated through anti-CD3 stimulation mouse SECTM1A and human SECTM1 which share 43% amino (Figure 3 A & B). The inhibitory effect was not due to steric acid identity (Figure 1B). Cloning of Sectm1a from splenic cDNA hindrance of the anti-CD3 antibodies as equal protein was loaded revealed a major splice variant lacking exon IV (data not shown). onto each culture well using Campath-1H (anti human CD52 with Exon IV encodes a stalk region joining the immunoglobulin the same human IgG1, aglycosyl Fc fragment as the fusion domain to the transmembrane domain (Figure 1C). Tissue proteins) as an irrelevant aglycosyl human IgG1 antibody ‘filler’. distribution of Sectm1a, 1a-ExIV and Sectm1b transcripts was The effects of SECTM1B were not due to induction of apoptosis assessed by real-time RT-PCR (Figure 1D-F). Primers and probes as shown by trypan blue exclusion and annexin V staining (data used for this analysis are shown diagrammatically in figure 1C. not shown). Inhibition of T cell activation by SECTM1B occurred Sectm1b had a variable distribution with the highest expression in the presence of co-stimulation and exogenous IL-2 (Figure 3C) detectable in large and small intestine and being undetectable in and was independent of TGFb as addition of neutralising anti- bone marrow and lymph nodes (Figure 1D). Primers spanning TGFb (1D11, [8]) did not reverse this effect. We then tested exons 3 and 4 were used to measure full length Sectm1a only whether the mechanism of SECTM1B inhibition relied on soluble (Figure 1E) whereas those spanning exons 3–5 detect 1a-ExIV inhibitory factors being released into the cell culture supernatant. (Figure 1F). Sectm1a and 1a-Exon IV were more widely expressed Culture supernatants from the experiment shown in Figure 3C than sectm1b. were transferred to fresh cultures of anti-CD3 stimulated CD4+ T To probe the functions of murine SECTM1A/B we constructed cells (Figure 3D) showing equivalent proliferation of T cells grown fusion proteins between the extracellular domains of SECTM1A, for 48 hours in the presence of each supernatant. Thus this does SECTM1A-ExIV, SECTM1B and CD7 with the aglycosyl not appear to be a major mechanism, however we cannot exclude mutated Fc portion of human IgG1. Full length SECTM1A-Fc the possibility that soluble inhibitory factors may be produced fusion proteins were relatively labile therefore SECTM1A-ExIV which immediately bind to the T cells, effectively sequestering was used in most subsequent investigations (termed ‘‘SECTM1A’’ them out of the culture supernatants. from now on). SECTM1A, SECTM1B and CD7, are predicted to have 4, 3 and 3 N-linked glycosylation sites respectively. Digestion SECTM1A is co-stimulatory for T cell activation with peptide N-glycosidase F revealed a shift in migration by SDS We compared the effects of SECTM1A and SECTM1B on T PAGE confirming that the Fc-fusion proteins were indeed cell activation. First we compared the level of the activation glycosylated (Figure 2A). marker CD69 expressed on the surface of CD4+ T cells following We used surface plasmon resonance to test the functionality of 48 hours of stimulation with immobilised anti-CD3 in the the SECTM fusion proteins and to test the hypothesis that presence of immobilised SECTM1A or SECTM1B. Following SECTM1A might be an alternative ligand for CD7. CD7, activation in this manner SECTM1B reduced the percentage of SECTM1A and SECTM1B-Fc-fusion proteins were immobilised cells expressing cell-surface CD69 (Figure 3E). Surprisingly CD4+ onto BIAcoreTM CM5 chips and the same proteins were injected T cells activated in the presence of SECTM1A showed an increase over the flow cells in solution to test binding. CD7-Fc in solution caused a rapid increase in response units indicating fast binding to of CD69 over those cultured in the presence of the control protein. Thus the cell surface phenotype of cells stimulated in the presence both SECTM1A and SECTM1B in a reproducible manner (bold of SECTM1B or SECTM1A was consistent with inhibitory or co- solid and dotted lines, Figure 2B &E). Thus SECTM1A represents a novel alternative ligand for mouse CD7. stimulatory signalling respectively. CD7-Fc dissociated from SECTM1A more rapidly than Both splice variants of SECTM1A, full length and lacking exon SECTM1B suggesting that CD7 binds with higher affinity to IV, enhanced T cell activation. CD4+ T cells activated in the SECTM1B than SECTM1A (Figure 2B and 2E, dissociation at 8– presence of the full length ligand or the truncated isoform lacking PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation Figure 1. Location, identity and tissue distribution of SECTM1A. A. Chromosomal organisation of the Cd7, Sectm1b and Sectm1a genes. B. Alignment of Sectm1a, Sectm1b and human SECTM1 was performed in the Jalview program using the MUSCLE algorithm [31]. Shading indicates the degree of amino acid identity between the human SECTM1 and mouse SECTM1A and SECTM1B. Dark grey indicates a residue conserved in all three sequences. Light grey indicates a residue shared by only two sequences. No shading indicates areas of divergent sequence. The boxed region within the extracellular region of SECTM1A indicates the peptide encoded by exon IV C. Positions of the taqman primers and probes used to quantify expression of the different splice variants of SECTM1A. D. Tissue distribution of Sectm1b, E. Sectm1a (full length) F. Sectm1a –ExIV transcripts. mRNA was quantified using the taqman primers and probes illustrated in Figure 1A. Samples were normalised to the level of Sectm1b in brain which was given an arbitrary value of 1. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g001 exon IV also showed enhanced proliferation with increasing or PDL-1 in this case, to the plasma membrane via the concentrations of plate-bound SECTM1A (Figure 3F). transmembrane domain of the platelet derived growth factor We then investigated whether SECTM1A and B are co- receptor (PDGFR, Figure 4B). CD4+ T cells from female 2/2 A1.RAG TCR transgenic mice, whose T cells recognise the stimulatory or co-inhibitory respectively when situated on the male antigen, were cultured in the presence of CHO.IE cells plasma membrane of an antigen presenting cell. In order to reduce expressing the SECTM1 constructs pulsed with male antigen. the contribution from other co-stimulation molecules we used 2/2 Following 48 hours of culture A1.RAG T cells stimulated in CHO cells which were stably transfected with MHC class II (IE ). the presence of CHO cells expressing SECTM1A secreted We transfected these cells with membrane targeted constructs in significantly more IL-2 and those cultured in the presence of the vector pDISPLAY (Figure 4A) which targets Myc and HA CHO cells expressing SECTM1B significantly less IL-2 tagged fusion proteins, the extracellular domains of SECTM1A, B (Figure 4C). Thus SECTM1A and B represent co-stimulatory and inhibitory receptors in the context of MHCII/peptide mediated T cell activation. One explanation for opposing functional outcomes from SECTM1A and B is that although both bind CD7, as detected by BIAcore, they may have additional alternative receptors on T cells. To test this hypothesis we used CD4+ T cells from C57BL/6 2/2 PNGaseF - + - + - + CD7 mice and found (Figure 5) that remarkably, in in vitro CD7 CP1H SECTM1B SECTM1A stimulation assays, both SECTM1A-mediated co-stimulation and SECTM1B mediated inhibition of T cell proliferation occur in the absence of CD7. This indicates that there must indeed be additional receptors, other than CD7, for both these ligands on T cells. To identify potential alternative SECTM1 ligands we first determined the cell types expressing the ligands. To this end we used allophycocyanin-labelled SECTM1A and SECTM1B Fc 80 80 2/2 fusion proteins in FACS to stain CD7 resting and conA -40 -40 -40 activated splenocytes. Despite its potent inhibitory effects on T cell 1 23 4 5 67 8 9 10 1 23 4 5 67 8 9 10 1 23 9 4 5 67 8 10 Time (min) Time (min) Time (min) activation in the solid phase, SECTM1B-Fc did not bind 2/2 E F G detectably to wt or CD7 resting or activated splenocytes in 800 800 this FACS assay (data not shown). However SECTM1A-Fc was 680 680 680 shown to bind to activated CD4+, CD8+ and to a lesser extent NK 560 560 560 2/2 cells and granulocytes from CD7 mice (Figure 6A). 440 440 As we were able to demonstrate binding of SECTM1A to 320 320 320 2/2 activated CD7 CD4+ T cells by FACS, we used lauryl 200 200 2/2 maltoside lysates of concanavalin A-activated CD7 splenocytes 80 80 to immunoprecipitate the potential ligand(s) as described in -40 -40 -40 methods. Eluates from SECTM1A-Fc/protein G agarose columns 1 1 23 4 9 1 23 4 5 67 8 9 10 23 4 5 67 8 9 10 5 67 8 10 Time (min) Time (min) Time (min) contained multiple proteins of different molecular weights (figure 6B). Coomassie stained gel slices containing the eluted Figure 2. SECTM1A binds to CD7. A. Western blot of mSECTM1A, proteins were tryptically digested and subjected to MS/MS mass SECTM1B and CD7 Fc fusion proteins digested with protein N spectroscopy for identification. Peptides with a MASCOT score glycosidase F (PNGaseF). Biotinylated anti-human Fc antibody was used to western blot the resultant digested proteins. Representative greater than 90 are shown in figure 6C. The only protein with a blot of two shown. B. Analysis of mSECTM1A and mSECTM1B Fc fusion plasma membrane transmembrane segment other than proteins binding to mCD7-Fc. CD7-Fc was passed over flow cells coated SECTM1A-Fc itself which was derived from the immunoprecip- with CD7-Fc, SECTM1B-Fc, SECTM1A-Fc and CAMPATH-1H in a itation procedure was TNFRSF18 (GITR). BIAcoreTM. Results in B-G representative of three separate experiments. To confirm the SECTM1A/GITR interaction we tested C. SECTM1B-Fc binds solid phase CD7-Fc. SECTM1B-Fc was passed over 2/2 whether binding of SECTM1A to activated CD7 CD4+ T CD7-Fc. D. SECTM1A-Fc was passed over the same flow cell as in (C) directly after SECTM1B-Fc to detect binding to CD7-Fc after binding to cells could be inhibited by pre-incubation of the cells with either SECTM1B-Fc. E. On a separate CM5 chip CD7-Fc was passed over flow anti-GITR antibodies or GITRL. As shown in figure 6D and 6E cells coated with CD7-Fc, SECTM1B-Fc, SECTM1A-Fc and CAMPATH-1H both anti-GITR and soluble GITRL led to a reduced intensity as in 2B F. SECTM1A-Fc binds solid phase CD7-Fc. SECTM1A-Fc was staining of cells by SECTM1A-Fc. The specificity of the passed over CD7-Fc. G. SECTM1B-Fc was passed over the same flow cell interaction was confirmed by utilising CHO cells expressing as in (F) directly after SECTM1A-Fc to detect binding to CD7-Fc after SECTM1A, SECTM1B, PDL-1 or GITR as targets for FACS binding to SECTM1A-Fc. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g002 staining with SECTM1A-Fc (Figure 6F). Only CHO cells PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 4 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 Response units Response units Response units Response units Response units Response units SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation representative of two separate experiments. Differences not significant by Student’s t test. E. Left panel; Cell surface expression of CD69 on CD4+ T cells (approximately 85% pure) cultured for 48 hours on 2C11(1 ug/ml) coated 96 well plates in the presence of plate-bound * * CP1H, SECTM1B-Fc or SECTM1A-Fc. All fusion proteins coated at 10 ug/ ml. Results representative of three separate experiments. Right Panel; ** Pooled data from three experiments showing percentage change in ** CD69 on activated CD4+ T cells. Cells were cultured as above in the ** presence of 10 ug/ml plate bound fusion proteins and the percentage C D change in mean fluorescence intensity for CD69 above or below the CP1H control is shown. Statistical significance was measured using Student’s T test. F. Proliferation assay with CD4+ T cells cultured on 2C11 coated plates in the presence of solid-phase mSECTM1A-Fc fusion protein or SECTM1A-ExIV-Fc. Proliferation was measured at 48 hours. Results representative of five separate experiments. * = p,0.05, ** ** = p,0.005 by Student’s t test. ** * ** doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g003 expressing GITR gave a substantial signal in this FACS assay. Finally, we tested whether SECTM1A costimulates T cells predominantly via GITR, or CD7. We activated splenic CD4+ SECTM1A aa 26-164 SECTM1B aa 33-157 CP1H PDGFR.TM Myc HA p<0.05 A. PDL1 aa 24-239 60 SECTM1A SECTM1B B. SECTM1B CHO-IE SECTM1A -20 SECTM1A -40 SECTM1B PDL-1 CD4 ** ** ** SECTM1A-Fc SECTM1A -Ex4-Fc ** MYC C. IL-2 pg/ml Figure 3. SECTM1A costimulates whereas SECTM1B inhibits T CHO-IE cell activation. A. 48 hour proliferation assay with CD4+ T cells cultured on 2C11 coated plates in the presence of solid-phase mCD7-Fc SECTM1A or mSECTM1B-Fc fusion protein. Campath-1H antibody was used to equilibrate each well to an equal protein concentration. Results SECTM1B representative of five separate experiments. * = p,0.05, ** = p,0.005 by Student’s t test. B. ELISA for IL-2 in supernatants of CBA/Ca CD4+ T PDL-1 cells stimulated for 48 hours in the presence of plate-bound 2C11 and solid phase SECTM1B-Fc, CD7-Fc or Campath-1H. Results are represen- tative of three experiments. SECTM1B inhibition significant at 20,50 and Figure 4. Cell surface targetted SECTM1A enhances IL-2 100 ug plated fusion protein assessed by Student’s t test. C. production by antigen specific T cells. A. Diagram of the structure Proliferation assay with CD4+ T cells cultured on 2C11 coated plates of pDISPLAY based constructs for cell surface expression of SECTM1A/B in the presence of solid-phase mSECTM1B-Fc fusion protein or and PDL1 on CHO cells expressing MHC class II ‘CHO-IE ’. The regions of Campath-1H as control. Anti-mCD28 or neutralising anti-TGFb (1D11) SECTM1A/B and PDL1 between the leader sequence and plasma was added to some wells at 1 ug/ml. Where indicated, IL-2 was added membrane transmembrane sequence were used. B. Flow cytometry for at 10 U/mL. * = p,0.05, ** = p,0.005 by Student’s t test. Results are MHC class II and Myc (to detect cell surface SECTM1A/B or PDL1) on representative of two experiments. D. Proliferation assay with CD4+ T CHO-IE cells. C. ELISA measurement of IL-2 in 48 hour co-culture of cells. The supernatants from the cell cultures described in ‘Figure C’ male peptide-pulsed CHO-IE cells and A1.RAG T cells. Representative of were added to fresh cultures of CBA.CA CD4+ T cells cultured with two separate experiments. * = p,0.05 by Student’s t test. plate-bound 2C11. Proliferation was assessed at 48 hours. Results doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g004 PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 5 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 CD69 %change in MFI MHC-II SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation SECTM1A and B share other unidentified alternative receptors. An alternative explanation for the reciprocal effects of SECTM1A CP1H and B may be due to differences in efficacy of blocking rather than p<0.05 crosslinking of the same receptor. Monovalent binding by the higher affinity reagent SECTM1B-Fc would result in blocking SECTM1B-Fc p<0.05 whereas the lower affinity SECTM1A-Fc would be an effective crosslinking reagent resulting in activation. Similar effects of affinity and valency have been noted before and quantitatively SECTM1A-Fc analyzed [9]. SECTM1A is an immunoglobulin-like receptor whereas GITR is a member of the TNFR superfamily and is known to bind GITRL, a member of the TNF superfamily ligand group. All other TNFR superfamily members bind to ligands of the TNF superfamily. The only known exception to this rule is that of Figure 5. Modulation of T cell proliferation by SECTM1A and SECTM1B occurs independently of CD7. Proliferation assay with Herpes virus entry mediator (HVEM, TNFRSF14) which was 2/2 C57BL/6 (black bars) and CD7 (white bars) CD4+ T cells cultured on shown to bind to B and T Lymphocyte Attenuator (BTLA, 2C11 coated plates in the presence of 10 mg solid-phase mSECTM1A-Fc CD272) [10,11] an immunoglobulin superfamily member, on T fusion protein or SECTM1B-Fc. Proliferation was measured at 48 hours. cells, in addition to four other ligands, LIGHT, CD160, Results representative of five separate experiments. Statistical signifi- lymphotoxina and Herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D [12]. cance determined by Student’s t test. The binding of HVEM to BTLA on T cells is inhibitory to T cell doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g005 activation [10]. 2/2 2/2 TNF family ligands form non-covalent homotrimers which T cells isolated from wild type, CD7 and GITR mice with induce the receptor to adopt a trimeric conformation which plate bound anti-CD3 in the presence of increasing concentrations enhances signalling [13]. In the case of the BTLA-HVEM of plate-bound SECTM1A-Fc. We showed that SECTM1A-Fc interaction it has been shown that a 1:1 stoichiometry can exist increases the proliferation induced by anti-CD3 of T cells from all between extracellular domains of BTLA and HVEM however three mice. Thus SECTM1A can costimulate via CD7, GITR BTLA exists as oligomers on the cell surface which may be capable and/or possible other unidentified ligands. of clustering HVEM to enhance signalling [14,15]. Human GITRL has also been shown to adopt a homotrimeric conforma- Discussion tion [16] inducing homotrimeric clusters of GITR on the cell In this study we have demonstrated a novel mode of immune surface. Mouse and human GITRL differ in their propensity to form trimers in solution with mGITRL forming stable dimers [17]. regulation via the opposing actions of two murine immunoglobulin superfamily proteins SECTM1A and SECTM1B. These widely The stoichiometry of the interaction between GITR and SECTM1A seen in our studies is currently unknown. Despite expressed plasma membrane proteins modulate activation of CD4+ T cells. We have demonstrated binding of both proteins to our demonstration that both SECTM1A-Fc and GITR-Fc fusion proteins are active in biochemical and cell binding experiments we CD7 with surface plasmon resonance; however, they can exhibit in vitro functions independently of CD7. In the case of SECTM1A did not detect a specific interaction between them by surface plasmon resonance. this may be explained by its ability to bind to GITR in the absence Whether binding to CD7 or to GITR it is possible that ‘reverse’ of CD7. We observed significant differences in transcript expression signalling occurs within the cells expressing cell surface SECTM1A or SECTM1B, which include epithelial, endothelial between tissues. SECTM1B had a more restricted distribution than SECTM1A. SECTM1B transcripts were undetectable in and myeloid cells. Both proteins have short cytoplasmic tails containing tyrosine residues which do not conform to known bone marrow, heart, lymph nodes, brain, muscle, pancreas and skin whereas SECTM1A transcripts were detectable in these signaling motifs. The possibility of reverse signalling remains to be excluded. tissues although there were differences between SECTM1A and the spliced form lacking exon IV. It may be that that the presence Functionally it has been reported that murine SECTM1B of only SECTM1A in lymph nodes might help to promote T cell inhibits ConA-induced lymph node cell proliferation but not priming whereas the balance of SECTM1A/B in peripheral tissues lymph node cell proliferation induced by anti-ab TCR antibodies could promote or inhibit T cell responses. Analysis of potential [4]. We consistently observe inhibition of anti-CD3 induced T cell peptidase sites in the exon IV region of the SECTM1A protein proliferation and IL-2 production with SECTM1B, and the reveals four potential cleavage consensus sites for glutamyl and converse with SECTM1A. These differences may be due to aspartic endopeptidases which may generate soluble forms of the differences in cell preparation as we used highly purified negatively protein from the full length precursor (data not shown). It remains selected CD4+ cells compared to the previously published study. to be shown whether the spliced transcript of SECTM1A lacking The SECTM proteins join a large group of ligands used by exon IV could serve to provide a stable membrane-anchored form tissues to co-stimulate or diminish T cell responses [18,19]. of the protein whilst the full length form could act as a precursor of [1,20,21,22,23,24,25,26] [27]. Co-expression of the SECTM a soluble form of the protein. molecules in tissues may have alternate outcomes depending on Our Biacore data clearly show that SECTM1B has a higher the receptors expressed by different T cells. A degree of tissue affinity for CD7 than SECTM1A and this hierarchy of binding regulation of SECTM1 has been shown by Lam and colleagues who demonstrated up-regulation of SECTM1 expression in may also extend to the alternative SECTM receptors on T cells. Differences in functional effects suggest that the differences in response to IFNc by thymic epithelium [28]. affinity for CD7 may apply to binding to these alternative In conclusion we have demonstrated opposite functional receptors. Although we were unable to identify the alternative outcomes of SECTM1A and SECTM1B, widely expressed tissue SECTM1B receptor in this study it is possible that both ligands, binding to T cells. We have shown that SECTM1A PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 6 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation SECTM1A-Fc-APC binding CHO CHO 1A GITR CHO CHO CHO 1B PDL1 GITR KDa *** ** *** ** *** *** Figure 6. SECTM1A binds to GITR. A. SECTM1A binds to the surface of activated CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Flow cytometry of SECTM1A-Fc binding 2/2 to 48 hour concanavalin A-activated CD7 splenocytes. Cells were double stained for the indicated markers (CD4, CD8, CD19, NK1.1, GR1 and MHCII) and APC-conjugated SECTM1A-Fc. Filled histograms represent background staining with a control human IgG1 aglycosyl Fc region conjugated to APC. Clear histograms represent staining with SECTM1A-Fc conjugated to APC. Results representative of two experiments. B. 2/2 Coomassie blue stained SDS-PAGE gel showing immunoprecipitation eluates from Lauryl maltoside lysates of concanavalin A-activated CD7 splenocytes bound to hIL7R-Fc (negative control) and SECTM1A-Fc/protein-G agarose columns. Major bands at 76kDa (IL7R-Fc) and 55 kDa (SECTM1A-Fc) are Fc fusion proteins eluted off the immunoprecipiatation column. C. Identities of proteins eluted from the gel in (B) with a MASCOT 2/2 score of .90. D. APC conjugated SECTM1A-Fc binding to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 activated CD7 CD4+ T cells. Clear histogram, negative control; binding to cells pre-incubated for 1 hour with Rat IgG2b (isotype control). Shaded histogram, binding to cells preincubated with rat anti-GITR (YGITR- 2/2 765). Results representative of two separate experiments. E. APC conjugated SECTM1A-Fc binding to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 activated CD7 CD4+ T cells. Clear histogram, binding to cells pre-incubated for 1 hour with hIL7R-Fc (negative control). Shaded histogram, binding to cells preincubated with GITRL-Fc. Results representative of two separate experiments. F. SECTM1A binds to CHO cells expressing cell surface GITR. Binding of APC conjugated SECTM1A-Fc to CHO cells expressing plasma membrane-targetted SECTM1A, SECTM1B, PDL1 or GITR driven by pDISPLAY constructs. Top left panel indicates the level of cell surface GITR expression by the CHO-GITR cells, staining with YGITR765 (thin line), thick line represents isotype staining control. Dot plots represent SECTM1A-Fc binding. Text on dot plots indicates the cell type being stained. G. SECTM1A costimulates CD4+ T 2/2 2/2 cells lacking GITR expression. CD4+ T cells from C57BL/6, CD7 and GITR mice were activated for 48 hours in the presence of plate-bound anti- CD3 (145-2C11) and the indicated amounts of plate-bound SECTM1A-Fc. Cell division was measured using tritiated thymidine incorporation. *=p,0.05, ** = p,0.005, *** = p,0.0005by Student’s t test. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0073610.g006 represents a new CD7 ligand in mice in addition to binding to Materials and Methods GITR and we raise the possibility that alternative receptors for Mice both SECTM1A and SECTM1B exist on T cells. A1(M).RAG2/2, CBA/Ca, C57BL/6 and C57BL/6.CD72/2 mice were bred and maintained in SPF conditions at the Sir William PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 7 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 hIL7R-F SECTM1A-Fc SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation Dunn School of Pathology. CD72/2 mice were the kind gift of Dr. ELISA Barton Haynes, Duke University. All procedures were conducted in IL-2 was measured by ELISA using a paired antibody set from accordance with the Home Office Animals (Scientific Procedures) BD Biosciences and recombinant IL-2 from R&D Systems to Act of 1986 and received approval from the local ethical review construct standard curves. panel at the University of Oxford. Flow cytometry Cells and antibodies Fc fusion proteins used for FACS were labelled with ‘Untouched’ splenic CD4+ T cells were isolated by negative allophycocyanin using a Lynx rapid conjugation kit (AbdSerotec) selection via magnetic sorting using commercial kits (Miltenyi according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Cells were incubated Biotech). Anti-CD4, CD25, CD8, CD19, NK1.1, GR1, MHCII, with fusion proteins at 10 ug/ml in PBS with 0.5% bovine serum CD69 and CD62L were obtained from BD Biosciences. FITC albumin and 2 mM EDTA for 1 hour at 4C followed by three conjugated anti-Myc (9E10) was purchased from Sanatacruz PBS washes and fixation in 2% paraformaldehyde. Biotechnology. Anti-CD3 (145.2C11), anti-CD28 (37.51) anti- GITR (YGITR765.4.2), anti MHCII (YTA94.8.10) and neutral- Surface Plasmon Resonance Analysis izing anti-TGFb (1D11) were produced from hybridoma super- For surface plasmon resonance experiments a BIAcore 3000 natants in house. instrument was used at 25uC. Rabbit anti-mouse antibody BR- CHO cells stably transfected with MHC class II (IE ) were a 1000-57 (BIAcore) was directly immobilized by amine coupling in kind gift from Prof Neil Barclay, Sir William Dunn School of 10 mM NaAc buffer, pH 5.5 onto CM5 chips. This was followed Pathology Oxford. by binding of mouse anti human IgG (SBH2, a kind gift from Alison Tutt, Tenovus, Southampton) to all cells. CAMPATH-1H, Quantitative real-time RT-PCR mCD7-Fc, hIL7R-Fc, SECTM1A-Fc, SECTM1B-Fc, GITR-Fc Taqman RT-PCR was performed essentially as described [29]. and GITRL-Fc were bound to separate flow cells. Fc-fusion Primers and probes were purchased from Eurogentech: protein-containing solutions at 25 mM were injected in HEPES- SECTM1B, 59-AAGCAGCTGGGTTCTTCGGT-39,59- buffered saline, pH 7.4, over the immobilized capture antibody-Fc TGGACACCA TGATCAGATGACAA-3 and FAM-59- fusion protein containing flow cells at a rate of 5 ml per minute. TGAACTGAATGGGAAGAAGAGAACA GAGCATTC-39- TAMRA. Primers spanning the junction of SECTM1A exons Immunoprecipitation of SECTM1A interactors 3–4 were assayed using a commercial primer/probe set(Applied 5 mg of SECTM1A-Fc or hIL7R-Fc negative control fusion Biosystems Mm00520313_g1). SECTM1A exons 3–5 junction protein were incubated in PBS with 1 ml of protein G agarose was assayed using 59-GACGACCACACAGGGATATACTTG- (Invitrogen) for 1 hour at 4C. The agarose was then washed with 39,59-CTCTTCGCGTGATCTAAGATATTC AG-39 AND PBS followed by 50 mM sodium borate and the fusion proteins FAM-59-CATGGACGCCAGAGATGCTACAAAAACA-39-TA- cross-linked to the protein G with dimethyl pimelimidate at 7 mg/ MRA. ml in 0.2 M triethanolamine for 1 hour at room temperature. The columns were washed with 5 column volumes of 0.2 M Production of SECTM1 Fusion proteins triethanolamine followed by blocking with 5 column volumes of Fc fusion protein expression plasmids were constructed using an 0.1 M ethanolamine. Un-cross-linked fusion proteins were eluted expression vector pEE12(CMV/T7)CD5Lhc1 encoding a CMV from the column with 0.2 M glycine pH2.0. 2610 concanavilin- 2/2 promoter and CD5 leader sequence directly 59 to the human IgG1 A-activated CD7 splenocytes were lysed on ice with 0.5% aglycosyl Fc coding region. cDNAs were cloned between the CD5 lauryl maltoside prior to clearing by centrifugation. Lysates were leader sequence and hIgG1 fragment. incubated with the columns for 2 hours at 4C followed by washing Fusion proteins were produced in CHO-S cells and purified with 5 column volumes of PBS and elution with 0.2 M glycine. with protein G agarose with elution using glycine at pH 2.0. Eluates were concentrated with Centricon 10,000 molecular weight cutoff dialysis spin columns (Millipore) and run on SDS Protein N glycosidase F digestions PAGE gels. 20 mg of Fc fusion proteins were denatured and subjected to digestion with 1000 units of protein N glycosidase F (New England Mass Spectroscopy Biolabs) for 2 hours at 37uC according to the manufacturers SDS-PAGE gel slices were digested with trypsin and desalted on instructions. Digested and un-digested fusion proteins were run on a C18 packed pipette tip. Samples were injected onto an Ultimate SDS PAGE, coomassie stained and western blotted for human Ig- 3000 nano HPLC (Dionex) system coupled to an Orbitrap mass Fc to assess their level of N-linked glycosylation. spectrometer (Thermo Electron). Samples were resolved on a 5 cm by 100 micron inner diameter picotip column (New Objective) Proliferation assays which was packed in house with reprosil-Pur C18-AQ phase. A CD4+ T cells were stimulated with plate-bound anti-CD3 40 minute gradient was used to separate the peptides. The mass (145.2C11) and IL-2 or anti CD28 where indicated. SECTM1A, spectrometer was operated in data dependent acquisition mode. Precursor scans were performed in the orbitrap at a resolving 1A-ExIV, SECTM1B-Fc fusion proteins or Campath-1H as an Fc control with identical human IgG1 aglycosyl Fc region were power of 60,000, from which five precursor ions were selected and immobilised by air-drying onto 96 well culture plates as described fragmented in the linear ion trap. Charge state +1 ions were rejected. Peak lists were generated using DTAsupercharge and by Stebbings et al [30]. 16105 CBA/Ca CD4+ T cells were used per well. Tritiated thymidine at 0.5 mCi per well was added sixteen searched using Mascot (Matrixscience). Data were searched against MSDB database, restricting the taxonomy to mus musculus. hours before harvesting the cultures onto glass fibre filters and Precursor mass accuracy tolerance was set at 10 ppm and MS/MS scintillation counting using standard techniques. at 0.5 Da. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 8 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610 SECTM1 Proteins in T Cell Activation Acknowledgments Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: DH HW. Performed the The authors would like to thank the staff of the Dunn School PSB for experiments: DH HGR MHB. Analyzed the data: DH HGR MHB HW. animal husbandry, Mark Frewin for technical assistance, Dr Kathleen Nolan for suggestions on Sectm1a alignments, Prof. Barton Haynes for Contributed reagents/materials/analysis tools: MHB. Wrote the paper: 2/2 providing CD7 mice and Drs Ben Thomas and Gabriela Ridlova for DH HW. their mass spectroscopy expertise. References 1. Tone M, Tone Y, Adams E, Yates SF, Frewin MR, et al. (2003) Mouse induced TNF receptor ligand: Implications for function. Proceedings of the glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor ligand is costimulatory for National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 104: 19452– T cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 100: 15059–15064. 19457. 2. Rabinowich H, Pricop L, Herberman RB, Whiteside TL (1994) Expression and 17. Chattopadhyay K, Ramagopal UA, Brenowitz M, Nathenson SG, Almo SC function of CD7 molecule on human natural killer cells. J Immunol 152: 517– (2008) Evolution of GITRL immune function: murine GITRL exhibits unique 526. structural and biochemical properties within the TNF superfamily. Proceedings 3. Sempowski GD, Cross SJ, Heinly CS, Scearce RM, Haynes BF (2004) CD7 and of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 105: 635– CD28 are required for murine CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cell homeostasis and 640. prevention of thyroiditis. J Immunol 172: 787–794. 18. McAdam AJ, Schweitzer AN, Sharpe AH (1998) The role of B7 co-stimulation in activation and differentiation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells [In Process 4. Lyman SD, Escobar S, Rousseau AM, Armstrong A, Fanslow WC (2000) Identification of CD7 as a cognate of the human K12 (SECTM1) protein. J Biol Citation]. Immunol Rev 165: 231–247. Chem 275: 3431–3437. 19. Sharpe AH, Freeman GJ (2002) The B7-CD28 superfamily. Nat Rev Immunol 5. Wang T, Huang C, Lopez-Coral A, Slentz-Kesler KA, Xiao M, et al. (2012) 2: 116–126. K12/SECTM1, an interferon-gamma regulated molecule, synergizes with 20. Keir ME, Liang SC, Guleria I, Latchman YE, Qipo A, et al. (2006) Tissue CD28 to costimulate human T cell proliferation. Journal of leukocyte biology expression of PD-L1 mediates peripheral T cell tolerance. J Exp Med 203: 883– 91: 449–459. 895. 6. Slentz-Kesler KA, Hale LP, Kaufman RE (1998) Identification and character- 21. Latchman Y, Wood CR, Chernova T, Chaudhary D, Borde M, et al. (2001) PD- ization of K12 (SECTM1), a novel human gene that encodes a Golgi-associated L2 is a second ligand for PD-1 and inhibits T cell activation. Nat Immunol 2: protein with transmembrane and secreted isoforms. Genomics 47: 327–340. 261–268. 7. Huyton T, Gottmann W, Bade-Doding C, Paine A, Blasczyk R (2011) The T/ 22. Freeman GJ, Long AJ, Iwai Y, Bourque K, Chernova T, et al. (2000) NK cell co-stimulatory molecule SECTM1 is an IFN ‘‘early response gene’’ that Engagement of the PD-1 immunoinhibitory receptor by a novel B7 family is negatively regulated by LPS in human monocytic cells. Biochimica et member leads to negative regulation of lymphocyte activation. J Exp Med 192: biophysica acta 1810: 1294–1301. 1027–1034. 8. Daley SR, Ma J, Adams E, Cobbold SP, Waldmann H (2007) A key role for 23. Piconese S, Valzasina B, Colombo MP (2008) OX40 triggering blocks TGF-beta signaling to T cells in the long-term acceptance of allografts. Journal suppression by regulatory T cells and facilitates tumor rejection. J Exp Med of immunology 179: 3648–3654. 205: 825–839. 9. Koch C, Staffler G, Huttinger R, Hilgert I, Prager E, et al. (1999) T cell 24. Takeda I, Ine S, Killeen N, Ndhlovu LC, Murata K, et al. (2004) Distinct roles activation-associated epitopes of CD147 in regulation of the T cell response, and for the OX40-OX40 ligand interaction in regulatory and nonregulatory T cells. their definition by antibody affinity and antigen density. Int Immunol 11: 777– J Immunol 172: 3580–3589. 786. 25. Zheng G, Wang B, Chen A (2004) The 4-1BB costimulation augments the 10. Sedy JR, Gavrieli M, Potter KG, Hurchla MA, Lindsley RC, et al. (2005) B and proliferation of CD4+ CD25+ regulatory T cells. J Immunol 173: 2428–2434. T lymphocyte attenuator regulates T cell activation through interaction with 26. Ji HB, Liao G, Faubion WA, Abadia-Molina AC, Cozzo C, et al. (2004) Cutting herpesvirus entry mediator. Nature immunology 6: 90–98. edge: the natural ligand for glucocorticoid-induced TNF receptor-related protein 11. Murphy KM, Nelson CA, Sedy JR (2006) Balancing co-stimulation and abrogates regulatory T cell suppression. J Immunol 172: 5823–5827. inhibition with BTLA and HVEM. Nature reviews Immunology 6: 671–681. 27. Wing K, Onishi Y, Prieto-Martin P, Yamaguchi T, Miyara M, et al. (2008) 12. Sarrias MR, Whitbeck JC, Rooney I, Ware CF, Eisenberg RJ, et al. (2000) The CTLA-4 control over Foxp3+ regulatory T cell function. Science 322: 271–275. three HveA receptor ligands, gD, LT-alpha and LIGHT bind to distinct sites on 28. Lam GK, Liao HX, Xue Y, Alam SM, Scearce RM, et al. (2005) Expression of HveA. Molecular immunology 37: 665–673. the CD7 ligand K-12 in human thymic epithelial cells: regulation by IFN- 13. Locksley RM, Killeen N, Lenardo MJ (2001) The TNF and TNF receptor gamma. J Clin Immunol 25: 41–49. superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology. Cell 104: 487–501. 29. Cobbold SP, Castejon R, Adams E, Zelenika D, Graca L, et al. (2004) Induction 14. Compaan DM, Gonzalez LC, Tom I, Loyet KM, Eaton D, et al. (2005) of foxP3+ regulatory T cells in the periphery of T cell receptor transgenic mice Attenuating lymphocyte activity: the crystal structure of the BTLA-HVEM tolerized to transplants. J Immunol 172: 6003–6010. complex. The Journal of biological chemistry 280: 39553–39561. 30. Stebbings R, Findlay L, Edwards C, Eastwood D, Bird C, et al. (2007) ‘‘Cytokine 15. Nelson CA, Fremont MD, Sedy JR, Norris PS, Ware CF, et al. (2008) Structural storm’’ in the phase I trial of monoclonal antibody TGN1412: better determinants of herpesvirus entry mediator recognition by murine B and T understanding the causes to improve preclinical testing of immunotherapeutics. lymphocyte attenuator. Journal of immunology 180: 940–947. J Immunol 179: 3325–3331. 16. Chattopadhyay K, Ramagopal UA, Mukhopadhaya A, Malashkevich VN, 31. Clamp M, Cuff J, Searle SM, Barton GJ (2004) The Jalview Java alignment Dilorenzo TP, et al. (2007) Assembly and structural properties of glucocorticoid- editor. Bioinformatics 20: 426–427. PLOS ONE | www.plosone.org 9 September 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 9 | e73610

Journal

PLoS ONEPubmed Central

Published: Sep 10, 2013

There are no references for this article.