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The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption Policy & practice The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption a b c d e Thomas E Novotny, Stella Aguinaga Bialous, Lindsay Burt, Clifton Curtis, Vera Luiza da Costa, c f g g Silvae Usman Iqtidar, Yuchen Liu, Sameer Pujari & Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses. centage of arable land devoted to tobacco growing has recently in- Introduction creased. For example, it has almost doubled in China, Malawi and e h Th uman health impacts of tobacco use are well-documented. the United Republic of Tanzania since the 1960s. Deforestation for e W Th orld Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there will tobacco growing has many serious environmental consequences – be more than 8 million tobacco-related deaths a year by 2030, including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and degradation, water amounting to 10% of annual deaths worldwide. pollution and increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The impact that tobacco has on the environment is less Tobacco growing usually involves substantial use of chemi- well recognized. e Th WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco cals – including pesticides, fertilizers and growth regulators. Control (FCTC) addresses the environmental concerns regarding e Th se chemicals may ae ff ct drinking water sources as a result of tobacco in Article 18, which states that: run-off from tobacco growing areas. Research has also shown that tobacco crops deplete soil nutrients by taking up more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than other major crops. This deple - “In carrying out their obligations under this Convention, the Parties agree to have due regard to the protection of the tion is compounded by topping and de-suckering plants, which increase the nicotine content and leaf yields of tobacco plants. environment and the health of persons in relation to the en- vironment in respect of tobacco cultivation and manufacture Land used for subsistence farming in low- and middle-income countries may be diverted to tobacco as a cash crop. Intensive lob- within their respective territories.” bying and investments by multinational tobacco companies (e.g. In response, a series of policy options and recommendations Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco and Japan were agreed at the sixth Conference of the Parties to the FCTC Tobacco International) and leaf buyers (e.g. Universal Corporation in 2014. The meeting identified key sources of environmental and Alliance One International) along with market liberalization concern and recommended environmental impact studies on measures have encouraged the expansion of tobacco agriculture in tobacco growing. Given the environmental and occupational low- and middle-income countries. Many of these countries have health concerns associated with tobacco growing, the FCTC also limited legislative and economic capacities to resist multinational addresses the need for alternative livelihoods for tobacco growers tobacco companies’ inu fl ence and investments. As a consequence in Article 17. of expanded tobacco agriculture, there are short-term economic e e Th nvironmental lifecycle of tobacco can be roughly divided benets f fi or some farmers, but there will be long-term social, into four stages: (i) tobacco growing and curing; (ii) product economic, health and environmental detriments for many others. manufacturing and distribution; (iii) product consumption; and Due to widespread concerns about unfair labour practices (iv) post-consumption waste. Here, we describe the environmental in tobacco agriculture, tobacco control advocates have recently and health concerns at each of these stages and propose recom- been working with tobacco farmers and farm workers to ensure mendations for policy-makers. the right to collective bargaining and to receive living wages and fair leaf prices. Given the agricultural labour practices in both Tobacco growing and curing low- and middle-income countries and more developed countries, In 2011, around 4 200 000 hectares of land were devoted to tobacco attention is also needed to ensure the safety of children involved growing, representing less than 1% of total arable land globally; in tobacco farming. Farm workers, especially child labourers, however, in several low- and middle-income countries, the per- minorities and migrant workers are at risk of nicotine toxicity Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, United States of America (USA). School of Nursing, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA. Maxwell School Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse, New York, USA. The Cigarette Butt Pollution Project, Washington, USA. Secretariat for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Geneva, Switzerland. Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. Tobacco Free Initiative, World Health Organization, avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Correspondence to Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet (email: tursandespaignet@who.int). (Submitted: 17 January 2015 – Revised version received: 17 September 2015 – Accepted: 25 September 2015 – Published online: 22 October 2015 ) Bull World Health Organ 2015;93:877–880 | doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.152744 877 Policy & practice Thomas E Novotny et al. Environmental impacts of tobacco (green tobacco illness), caused by handling Post-consumption waste dioxide and about 5 200 000 tonnes of tobacco leaves without protection during methane. Data from 66 low- and middle- Cigarette butts are the most commonly dis- harvest and processing. income countries showed that tobacco carded piece of waste globally and are the growing and curing caused significant Manufacturing and distribution most frequent item of litter picked up on deforestation between 1990 and 1995, beaches and water edges worldwide. The In 1995, it was estimated that global tobac- amounting to approximately 2000 hect- non-biodegradable cellulose acetate filter co manufacturing produced over 2 000 000 ares – on average, 5% of each country’s attached to most manufactured cigarettes tonnes of solid waste, 300 000 tonnes of estimated deforestation during that five- is the main component of cigarette butt non-recyclable nicotine-containing waste year period. Worldwide, approximately waste and trillions of filter-tipped butts are and 200 000 tonnes of chemical waste. If 13 000 000 hectares of forest are lost due discarded annually. Assuming that each l fi - annual cigarette production had remained to agriculture or natural causes each year, ter weighs 170 milligrams, the weight of all constant for the past 20 years (output has and of this, at least 200 000 hectares are for tobacco-attributable non-biodegradable actually increased from 5 to 6.3 trillion tobacco agriculture and curing. Defores- (filter) waste discarded annually is about cigarettes annually), tobacco factories tation is the second largest anthropogenic 175 200 tonnes. would have deposited a total of 45 000 000 source of carbon dioxide to the atmo- Hazardous substances have been tonnes of solid wastes, 6 000 000 tonnes of sphere (approximately 20%), after fossil identified in cigarette butts – including nicotine waste and almost 4 000 000 tonnes fuel combustion. One estimate of the arsenic, lead, nicotine and ethyl phenol. of chemical wastes during this time. Other impact of deforestation in tobacco agri- These substances are leached from dis - toxic by-products of tobacco manufactur- culture and curing is that it causes almost carded butts into aquatic environments ing or chemicals used in manufacturing 5% of global greenhouse gas production. and soil. Although the environmental include ammonia, hydrochloric acid, Despite their now well-known ef- impact of this waste has not yet been quan- toluene and methyl ethyl ketone. forts to sow doubt among the public tified, the large quantity of discarded butts and policy-makers about anthropogenic Product consumption may allow leachates to ae ff ct the quality of climate change, tobacco companies drinking water. Other post-consumption e h Th ealth impacts of environmental to - have advertised their efforts to reduce wastes, such as medicines, pesticides and bacco smoke exposure include lung cancer, carbon emissions. British American To- plastic microbeads from cosmetics, have cardiovascular disease and pulmonary bacco estimated in 2006 that production 15–17 been found in drinking water sources. disease. Exposure to residual chemicals of one million cigarettes produces 0.79 It is possible that tobacco product waste in environments where smoking has taken tonnes of carbon dioxide. According to may also prove to be a significant environ - place may also have human health impacts, this estimate, 4 740 000 tonnes of carbon mental contaminant and potential human though these impacts have not yet been dioxide would be emitted annually by health hazard through bioaccumulation in quantified. Most cigarettes are lit using global cigarette manufacturing. Other the food-chain. matches or gas-filled lighters. If, for ex - analyses assert that this is a gross under- With 6 trillion cigarettes manufac- ample, one wooden match is used to light estimate of the greenhouse gas burden tured annually, about 300 billion pack- two cigarettes, the six trillion cigarettes due to tobacco growing, manufacturing ages (assuming 20 cigarettes per pack) smoked globally each year would require and transport. No estimates are as yet are made for tobacco products. Assuming the destruction of about nine million available on the extent of carbon diox- each empty pack weighs about six grams, trees to produce three trillion matches. ide emissions due to tobacco product this amounts to about 1 800 000 tonnes There are also environmental impacts transport. of packaging waste, composed of paper, of manufacturing and disposing of the ink, cellophane, foil and glue. The waste plastic, metal and butane used in making from cartons and boxes used for distribu- Proposed next steps cigarette lighters. tion and packing brings the total annual Cigarettes remain an important cause e FCT Th C recommendations encompass solid post-consumption waste to at least of accidental fires and resulting deaths. In all aspects of the livelihoods of tobacco 2 000 000 tonnes. This compares with an the United Kingdom of Great Britain and growers and workers – including health, estimated 1 830 000 tonnes annually of Northern Ireland, cigarettes caused 7% of economic, social, environmental and food plastic waste from mineral water bottles fires in 2013–2014, making them the single security concerns. The recommendations (estimation method available from the most important cause of deaths related to re-emphasized the need to confront the corresponding author). fires (34 deaths/1000 fires). In the United vested interests of tobacco companies. Electronic cigarettes may contain States of America, cigarettes have been e Th se companies have promoted policies batteries that require special disposal as responsible for 8–10% of all fires over the that avoid all environmental responsibility well as chemicals, packaging and other past 10 years (on average 90 000 fires per of the producer, and they attempt to divert non-biodegradable materials. The US year); they also remain the single most im- public attention away from their environ- Federal Emergency Management Agency portant cause of deaths related to fires (540 mental responsibilities through corpo- (FEMA) has expressed concerns about 12 26 of 2855 total deaths in 2011). These fires rate social responsibility programmes. the flammability and lack of product were responsible for 621 million United Protecting the public against the tobacco regulation of electronic cigarettes and their States dollars in direct property damage industry’s environmental impact is aligned components. and 1640 civilian injuries. Regulations with FCTC Article 5.3 and its guidelines, requiring cigarettes to self-extinguish in which remind Parties that: Carbon dioxide emissions Canada and the USA were associated with a 30% decline in fire-related deaths from Tobacco smoking leads directly to the “There is a fundamental and irrecon - 2003 to 2011. emission of 2 600 000 tonnes of carbon cilable conflict between the tobacco 878 Bull World Health Organ 2015;93:877–880| doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.152744 Policy & practice Environmental impacts of tobacco Thomas E Novotny et al. industry’s interests and public health mental hazards created by the tobacco agriculture to prevent deforestation and policy interests.” industry, the demand for tobacco products land degradation. Fourth, implement will be further reduced. With strength- extended producer responsibility regula- The FCTC recommendations also ened environmental policies, there will tions on the tobacco industry to reduce, propose conducting an analysis of the be increased costs for tobacco products, mitigate and prevent manufacturing and main barriers and existing opportunities decreased social acceptance of tobacco use post-consumption tobacco product waste. for Article 18 implementation. and changes in the most commonly used Fifth, extend tobacco product sales regula - A community of concern needs to tobacco products. tion to eliminate single-use filters – includ - be established among multiple sectors – Policy options and recommendations on ing any biodegradable varieties – to reduce including health, agriculture, trade and alternatives to tobacco growing involve post-consumption waste. Sixth, engage environment – to address the environ- comprehensive, environmentally-oriented litigation and economic interventions to mental impacts of tobacco production tobacco control interventions for both recover the costs of industry misconduct and use. The FCTC Parties may consider tobacco growing and non-growing coun- and environmental damages. Seventh, such a broad approach as a new way to tries. We propose seven recommendations innovate, improve and enforce new and include academia, nongovernmental for Parties to the FCTC to consider. First, existing environmental regulations and organizations and non-party countries. identify, prevent, treat and monitor health agreements that may apply to tobacco It is clear that tobacco control intersects ee ff cts related to tobacco growing among manufacturing, transport and manage- with other pressing global issues such as farmers and workers. Second, develop ment of post consumption waste. ■ sustainable development, environmental strategies to free tobacco farmers and espe- policy, climate change, trade agreements cially their children from unfair and unsafe Competing interests: None declared. and human rights. By taking broad-based agricultural and labour-related practices. but ee ff ctive action against the environ - Third, strengthen regulation of tobacco صخلم اهكلاهتساو رئاجسلا ةعانصو غبتلا ةعارزل ةيحصلاو ةيئيبلا تايرثأتلا ينتللاو 18 ، و 17 ينتدالما في ةيئيبلا فواخلما غبتلا ةحفاكمب ةينعلما ةفرعلما نكلو ،ا د ً يج ةفورعم غبتلا مادختسلا ةيحصلا راثلآا نإ ةيماحلل 3-5 ةدالما وعدتو .غبتلا ةعارز لىع سياسأ لكشب ناقبطنت ردقلا تاذب تسيل همادختساو غبتلا جاتن لإ ىبركلا ةيئيبلا تايرثأتلاب قلعتي مايف غبتلا ةعانص عاطق بناج نم تاسايسلا في لخدتلا ؛ نم هتلجاعمو غبتلا ةعارز لىع غبتلل ةيئيبلا راثا لآ لمتشتو .راشتنا لا نم ليصفتلاب لوانتن نحنو .همادختساو غبتلا جاتنلإ ةيئيبل دعب ا رااب لأضر ةتجانلا تايافنلاو ؛اهكلاهتساو اهعيزوتو تاجتنلما ةعانصو .ةيسايسلا تاباجتسلاا حترقن ماك غبتلا ةايح ةرودل ةيئيبلا تايرثأتلا ةيلماعلا ةحصلا ةمظنلم ةيراطا لإ ةيقافتا لا لوانتتو .كلاهتسا لا 摘要 烟草农业、香烟制造和消费对环境和健康造成的影响 使用烟草对健康造成的后果已经众所周知,但是生产 的环境问题主要适用于烟草农业。关于烟草生产和使 和使用烟草对环境产生的重大影响却鲜为人知。烟草 用对环境造成的伤害,第  5.3 款中呼吁烟草行业采取 对环境的影响包括:烟草种植和烘焙、产品制造和分 政策干预来保护环境。我们将会详细探讨烟草在其生 销、产品消费和消费后产生的垃圾。世界卫生组织发 命周期内对环境造成的影响,同时建议政策应对。 布的《烟草控制框架公约》第  17 条和第  18 条中强调 Résumé Impacts environnementaux et sanitaires de la culture du tabac, de la fabrication de cigarettes et de leur consommation Les conséquences du tabagisme sur la santé sont notoires. En revanche, dans ses Articles 17 et 18, qui s’appliquent avant tout à la culture du les impacts environnementaux considérables de la production et tabac. L’Article 5.3 préconise de ne pas laisser l’industrie du tabac de la consommation de tabac sont moins connus. Ces impacts influencer les mesures politiques en ce qui concerne les effets négatifs environnementaux sont liés à la culture et au séchage du tabac, à la de la production et de la consommation du tabac sur l’environnement. fabrication des produits du tabac et à leur distribution, au tabagisme Nous détaillons dans ce dossier les impacts environnementaux sur tout et aux déchets générés après consommation. La Convention-cadre de le cycle de vie du tabac et formulons plusieurs suggestions en termes l’OMS pour la lutte antitabac évoque ces problèmes environnementaux de réponse politique. Резюме Влияние сельскохозяйственного производства табака, промышленного производства и потребления сигарет на окружающую среду и здоровье Влияние табака на здоровье изучено хорошо, но куда менее изготовления, распределения и потребления табачных изделий; известно значительное воздействие производства и потребления также влияние на окружающую среду оказывают отходы табака на окружающую среду. Воздействие табака на окружающую потребления. В Рамочной конвенции Всемирной организации среду происходит во время выращивания и сушки табака, здравоохранения по борьбе против табака проблемам Bull World Health Organ 2015;93:877–880| doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.152744 879 Policy & practice Thomas E Novotny et al. Environmental impacts of tobacco окружающей среды посвящены статьи 17 и 18, в которых среде в результате производства и потребления табачных внимание уделяется в основном сельскохозяйственному изделий. Далее подробно описывается влияние жизненного производству табака. В статье 5.3 отмечается необходимость цикла табачных изделий на окружающую среду и предлагаются защиты от вмешательства табачной промышленности в политику ответные меры в области политики. здравоохранения в плане причинения вреда окружающей Resumen Los efectos medioambientales y sanitarios del cultivo de tabaco y la producción y consumo de cigarrillos Las consecuencias sanitarias del consumo de tabaco son bien conocidas, los Artículos 17 y 18, los cuales se aplican principalmente en el cultivo pero no tanto los significativos efectos que el cultivo y consumo de del tabaco. El Artículo 5.3 exige medidas cautelares respecto a las tabaco tienen en el medio ambiente. Los efectos medioambientales políticas de interferencia de la industria del tabaco en lo que se refiere del tabaco incluyen el crecimiento y la cura del tabaco, la producción a los daños medioambientales del cultivo y el consumo de tabaco. Se y distribución del producto, el consumo del producto y los residuos enumeran los efectos medioambientales del ciclo de vida del tabaco y resultantes de su consumo. El Convenio Marco de la OMS para el se sugieren respuestas políticas. Control del Tabaco aborda las preocupaciones medioambientales en References 1. Mathers CD, Loncar D. Projections of global mortality and burden of disease 14. Novotny TE, Slaughter E. Tobacco product waste: an environmental from 2002 to 2030. PLoS Med. 2006 Nov;3(11):e442. doi: http://dx.doi. approach to reduce tobacco consumption. Curr Environ Health Rep. org/10.1371/journal.pmed.0030442 PMID: 17132052 2014;1(3):208–16. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40572-014-0016-x PMID: 2. Report of the sixth session of the Conference of the Parties to the WHO 25152862 Framework Convention on Tobacco Control. Sixth session; 2014 Oct 13–18; 15. Eriksen M, Mason S, Wilson S, Box C, Zellers A, Edwards W, et al. Microplastic Moscow, Russian Federation. 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About fire safe cigarettes. Quincy: National Fire Protection Association; 2015. bitstream/10665/80510/1/9789241505185_eng.pdf?ua=1 [cited 2015 Oct 1]. Available from: http://www.nfpa.org/safety-information/for-consumers/ causes/smoking/coalition-for-fire-safe-cigarettes/about-fire-safe-cigarettes [cited 2015 Oct 19]. 880 Bull World Health Organ 2015;93:877–880| doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.152744 http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Bulletin of the World Health Organization Pubmed Central

The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption

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Policy & practice The environmental and health impacts of tobacco agriculture, cigarette manufacture and consumption a b c d e Thomas E Novotny, Stella Aguinaga Bialous, Lindsay Burt, Clifton Curtis, Vera Luiza da Costa, c f g g Silvae Usman Iqtidar, Yuchen Liu, Sameer Pujari & Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet Abstract The health consequences of tobacco use are well known, but less recognized are the significant environmental impacts of tobacco production and use. The environmental impacts of tobacco include tobacco growing and curing; product manufacturing and distribution; product consumption; and post-consumption waste. The World Health Organization’s Framework Convention on Tobacco Control addresses environmental concerns in Articles 17 and 18, which primarily apply to tobacco agriculture. Article 5.3 calls for protection from policy interference by the tobacco industry regarding the environmental harms of tobacco production and use. We detail the environmental impacts of the tobacco life-cycle and suggest policy responses. centage of arable land devoted to tobacco growing has recently in- Introduction creased. For example, it has almost doubled in China, Malawi and e h Th uman health impacts of tobacco use are well-documented. the United Republic of Tanzania since the 1960s. Deforestation for e W Th orld Health Organization (WHO) estimates that there will tobacco growing has many serious environmental consequences – be more than 8 million tobacco-related deaths a year by 2030, including loss of biodiversity, soil erosion and degradation, water amounting to 10% of annual deaths worldwide. pollution and increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide. The impact that tobacco has on the environment is less Tobacco growing usually involves substantial use of chemi- well recognized. e Th WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco cals – including pesticides, fertilizers and growth regulators. Control (FCTC) addresses the environmental concerns regarding e Th se chemicals may ae ff ct drinking water sources as a result of tobacco in Article 18, which states that: run-off from tobacco growing areas. Research has also shown that tobacco crops deplete soil nutrients by taking up more nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium than other major crops. This deple - “In carrying out their obligations under this Convention, the Parties agree to have due regard to the protection of the tion is compounded by topping and de-suckering plants, which increase the nicotine content and leaf yields of tobacco plants. environment and the health of persons in relation to the en- vironment in respect of tobacco cultivation and manufacture Land used for subsistence farming in low- and middle-income countries may be diverted to tobacco as a cash crop. Intensive lob- within their respective territories.” bying and investments by multinational tobacco companies (e.g. In response, a series of policy options and recommendations Philip Morris International, British American Tobacco and Japan were agreed at the sixth Conference of the Parties to the FCTC Tobacco International) and leaf buyers (e.g. Universal Corporation in 2014. The meeting identified key sources of environmental and Alliance One International) along with market liberalization concern and recommended environmental impact studies on measures have encouraged the expansion of tobacco agriculture in tobacco growing. Given the environmental and occupational low- and middle-income countries. Many of these countries have health concerns associated with tobacco growing, the FCTC also limited legislative and economic capacities to resist multinational addresses the need for alternative livelihoods for tobacco growers tobacco companies’ inu fl ence and investments. As a consequence in Article 17. of expanded tobacco agriculture, there are short-term economic e e Th nvironmental lifecycle of tobacco can be roughly divided benets f fi or some farmers, but there will be long-term social, into four stages: (i) tobacco growing and curing; (ii) product economic, health and environmental detriments for many others. manufacturing and distribution; (iii) product consumption; and Due to widespread concerns about unfair labour practices (iv) post-consumption waste. Here, we describe the environmental in tobacco agriculture, tobacco control advocates have recently and health concerns at each of these stages and propose recom- been working with tobacco farmers and farm workers to ensure mendations for policy-makers. the right to collective bargaining and to receive living wages and fair leaf prices. Given the agricultural labour practices in both Tobacco growing and curing low- and middle-income countries and more developed countries, In 2011, around 4 200 000 hectares of land were devoted to tobacco attention is also needed to ensure the safety of children involved growing, representing less than 1% of total arable land globally; in tobacco farming. Farm workers, especially child labourers, however, in several low- and middle-income countries, the per- minorities and migrant workers are at risk of nicotine toxicity Graduate School of Public Health, San Diego State University, San Diego, United States of America (USA). School of Nursing, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, USA. Maxwell School Citizenship and Public Affairs, Syracuse, New York, USA. The Cigarette Butt Pollution Project, Washington, USA. Secretariat for the WHO Framework Convention on Tobacco Control, Geneva, Switzerland. Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, Canada. Tobacco Free Initiative, World Health Organization, avenue Appia 20, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland. Correspondence to Edouard Tursan d’Espaignet (email: tursandespaignet@who.int). (Submitted: 17 January 2015 – Revised version received: 17 September 2015 – Accepted: 25 September 2015 – Published online: 22 October 2015 ) Bull World Health Organ 2015;93:877–880 | doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.152744 877 Policy & practice Thomas E Novotny et al. Environmental impacts of tobacco (green tobacco illness), caused by handling Post-consumption waste dioxide and about 5 200 000 tonnes of tobacco leaves without protection during methane. Data from 66 low- and middle- Cigarette butts are the most commonly dis- harvest and processing. income countries showed that tobacco carded piece of waste globally and are the growing and curing caused significant Manufacturing and distribution most frequent item of litter picked up on deforestation between 1990 and 1995, beaches and water edges worldwide. The In 1995, it was estimated that global tobac- amounting to approximately 2000 hect- non-biodegradable cellulose acetate filter co manufacturing produced over 2 000 000 ares – on average, 5% of each country’s attached to most manufactured cigarettes tonnes of solid waste, 300 000 tonnes of estimated deforestation during that five- is the main component of cigarette butt non-recyclable nicotine-containing waste year period. Worldwide, approximately waste and trillions of filter-tipped butts are and 200 000 tonnes of chemical waste. If 13 000 000 hectares of forest are lost due discarded annually. Assuming that each l fi - annual cigarette production had remained to agriculture or natural causes each year, ter weighs 170 milligrams, the weight of all constant for the past 20 years (output has and of this, at least 200 000 hectares are for tobacco-attributable non-biodegradable actually increased from 5 to 6.3 trillion tobacco agriculture and curing. Defores- (filter) waste discarded annually is about cigarettes annually), tobacco factories tation is the second largest anthropogenic 175 200 tonnes. would have deposited a total of 45 000 000 source of carbon dioxide to the atmo- Hazardous substances have been tonnes of solid wastes, 6 000 000 tonnes of sphere (approximately 20%), after fossil identified in cigarette butts – including nicotine waste and almost 4 000 000 tonnes fuel combustion. One estimate of the arsenic, lead, nicotine and ethyl phenol. of chemical wastes during this time. Other impact of deforestation in tobacco agri- These substances are leached from dis - toxic by-products of tobacco manufactur- culture and curing is that it causes almost carded butts into aquatic environments ing or chemicals used in manufacturing 5% of global greenhouse gas production. and soil. Although the environmental include ammonia, hydrochloric acid, Despite their now well-known ef- impact of this waste has not yet been quan- toluene and methyl ethyl ketone. forts to sow doubt among the public tified, the large quantity of discarded butts and policy-makers about anthropogenic Product consumption may allow leachates to ae ff ct the quality of climate change, tobacco companies drinking water. Other post-consumption e h Th ealth impacts of environmental to - have advertised their efforts to reduce wastes, such as medicines, pesticides and bacco smoke exposure include lung cancer, carbon emissions. British American To- plastic microbeads from cosmetics, have cardiovascular disease and pulmonary bacco estimated in 2006 that production 15–17 been found in drinking water sources. disease. Exposure to residual chemicals of one million cigarettes produces 0.79 It is possible that tobacco product waste in environments where smoking has taken tonnes of carbon dioxide. According to may also prove to be a significant environ - place may also have human health impacts, this estimate, 4 740 000 tonnes of carbon mental contaminant and potential human though these impacts have not yet been dioxide would be emitted annually by health hazard through bioaccumulation in quantified. Most cigarettes are lit using global cigarette manufacturing. Other the food-chain. matches or gas-filled lighters. If, for ex - analyses assert that this is a gross under- With 6 trillion cigarettes manufac- ample, one wooden match is used to light estimate of the greenhouse gas burden tured annually, about 300 billion pack- two cigarettes, the six trillion cigarettes due to tobacco growing, manufacturing ages (assuming 20 cigarettes per pack) smoked globally each year would require and transport. No estimates are as yet are made for tobacco products. Assuming the destruction of about nine million available on the extent of carbon diox- each empty pack weighs about six grams, trees to produce three trillion matches. ide emissions due to tobacco product this amounts to about 1 800 000 tonnes There are also environmental impacts transport. of packaging waste, composed of paper, of manufacturing and disposing of the ink, cellophane, foil and glue. The waste plastic, metal and butane used in making from cartons and boxes used for distribu- Proposed next steps cigarette lighters. tion and packing brings the total annual Cigarettes remain an important cause e FCT Th C recommendations encompass solid post-consumption waste to at least of accidental fires and resulting deaths. In all aspects of the livelihoods of tobacco 2 000 000 tonnes. This compares with an the United Kingdom of Great Britain and growers and workers – including health, estimated 1 830 000 tonnes annually of Northern Ireland, cigarettes caused 7% of economic, social, environmental and food plastic waste from mineral water bottles fires in 2013–2014, making them the single security concerns. The recommendations (estimation method available from the most important cause of deaths related to re-emphasized the need to confront the corresponding author). fires (34 deaths/1000 fires). In the United vested interests of tobacco companies. Electronic cigarettes may contain States of America, cigarettes have been e Th se companies have promoted policies batteries that require special disposal as responsible for 8–10% of all fires over the that avoid all environmental responsibility well as chemicals, packaging and other past 10 years (on average 90 000 fires per of the producer, and they attempt to divert non-biodegradable materials. The US year); they also remain the single most im- public attention away from their environ- Federal Emergency Management Agency portant cause of deaths related to fires (540 mental responsibilities through corpo- (FEMA) has expressed concerns about 12 26 of 2855 total deaths in 2011). These fires rate social responsibility programmes. the flammability and lack of product were responsible for 621 million United Protecting the public against the tobacco regulation of electronic cigarettes and their States dollars in direct property damage industry’s environmental impact is aligned components. and 1640 civilian injuries. Regulations with FCTC Article 5.3 and its guidelines, requiring cigarettes to self-extinguish in which remind Parties that: Carbon dioxide emissions Canada and the USA were associated with a 30% decline in fire-related deaths from Tobacco smoking leads directly to the “There is a fundamental and irrecon - 2003 to 2011. emission of 2 600 000 tonnes of carbon cilable conflict between the tobacco 878 Bull World Health Organ 2015;93:877–880| doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.152744 Policy & practice Environmental impacts of tobacco Thomas E Novotny et al. industry’s interests and public health mental hazards created by the tobacco agriculture to prevent deforestation and policy interests.” industry, the demand for tobacco products land degradation. Fourth, implement will be further reduced. With strength- extended producer responsibility regula- The FCTC recommendations also ened environmental policies, there will tions on the tobacco industry to reduce, propose conducting an analysis of the be increased costs for tobacco products, mitigate and prevent manufacturing and main barriers and existing opportunities decreased social acceptance of tobacco use post-consumption tobacco product waste. for Article 18 implementation. and changes in the most commonly used Fifth, extend tobacco product sales regula - A community of concern needs to tobacco products. tion to eliminate single-use filters – includ - be established among multiple sectors – Policy options and recommendations on ing any biodegradable varieties – to reduce including health, agriculture, trade and alternatives to tobacco growing involve post-consumption waste. Sixth, engage environment – to address the environ- comprehensive, environmentally-oriented litigation and economic interventions to mental impacts of tobacco production tobacco control interventions for both recover the costs of industry misconduct and use. The FCTC Parties may consider tobacco growing and non-growing coun- and environmental damages. Seventh, such a broad approach as a new way to tries. We propose seven recommendations innovate, improve and enforce new and include academia, nongovernmental for Parties to the FCTC to consider. First, existing environmental regulations and organizations and non-party countries. identify, prevent, treat and monitor health agreements that may apply to tobacco It is clear that tobacco control intersects ee ff cts related to tobacco growing among manufacturing, transport and manage- with other pressing global issues such as farmers and workers. Second, develop ment of post consumption waste. ■ sustainable development, environmental strategies to free tobacco farmers and espe- policy, climate change, trade agreements cially their children from unfair and unsafe Competing interests: None declared. and human rights. By taking broad-based agricultural and labour-related practices. but ee ff ctive action against the environ - Third, strengthen regulation of tobacco صخلم اهكلاهتساو رئاجسلا ةعانصو غبتلا ةعارزل ةيحصلاو ةيئيبلا تايرثأتلا ينتللاو 18 ، و 17 ينتدالما في ةيئيبلا فواخلما غبتلا ةحفاكمب ةينعلما ةفرعلما نكلو ،ا د ً يج ةفورعم غبتلا مادختسلا ةيحصلا راثلآا نإ ةيماحلل 3-5 ةدالما وعدتو .غبتلا ةعارز لىع سياسأ لكشب ناقبطنت ردقلا تاذب تسيل همادختساو غبتلا جاتن لإ ىبركلا ةيئيبلا تايرثأتلاب قلعتي مايف غبتلا ةعانص عاطق بناج نم تاسايسلا في لخدتلا ؛ نم هتلجاعمو غبتلا ةعارز لىع غبتلل ةيئيبلا راثا لآ لمتشتو .راشتنا لا نم ليصفتلاب لوانتن نحنو .همادختساو غبتلا جاتنلإ ةيئيبل دعب ا رااب لأضر ةتجانلا تايافنلاو ؛اهكلاهتساو اهعيزوتو تاجتنلما ةعانصو .ةيسايسلا تاباجتسلاا حترقن ماك غبتلا ةايح ةرودل ةيئيبلا تايرثأتلا ةيلماعلا ةحصلا ةمظنلم ةيراطا لإ ةيقافتا لا لوانتتو .كلاهتسا لا 摘要 烟草农业、香烟制造和消费对环境和健康造成的影响 使用烟草对健康造成的后果已经众所周知,但是生产 的环境问题主要适用于烟草农业。关于烟草生产和使 和使用烟草对环境产生的重大影响却鲜为人知。烟草 用对环境造成的伤害,第  5.3 款中呼吁烟草行业采取 对环境的影响包括:烟草种植和烘焙、产品制造和分 政策干预来保护环境。我们将会详细探讨烟草在其生 销、产品消费和消费后产生的垃圾。世界卫生组织发 命周期内对环境造成的影响,同时建议政策应对。 布的《烟草控制框架公约》第  17 条和第  18 条中强调 Résumé Impacts environnementaux et sanitaires de la culture du tabac, de la fabrication de cigarettes et de leur consommation Les conséquences du tabagisme sur la santé sont notoires. En revanche, dans ses Articles 17 et 18, qui s’appliquent avant tout à la culture du les impacts environnementaux considérables de la production et tabac. L’Article 5.3 préconise de ne pas laisser l’industrie du tabac de la consommation de tabac sont moins connus. Ces impacts influencer les mesures politiques en ce qui concerne les effets négatifs environnementaux sont liés à la culture et au séchage du tabac, à la de la production et de la consommation du tabac sur l’environnement. fabrication des produits du tabac et à leur distribution, au tabagisme Nous détaillons dans ce dossier les impacts environnementaux sur tout et aux déchets générés après consommation. La Convention-cadre de le cycle de vie du tabac et formulons plusieurs suggestions en termes l’OMS pour la lutte antitabac évoque ces problèmes environnementaux de réponse politique. Резюме Влияние сельскохозяйственного производства табака, промышленного производства и потребления сигарет на окружающую среду и здоровье Влияние табака на здоровье изучено хорошо, но куда менее изготовления, распределения и потребления табачных изделий; известно значительное воздействие производства и потребления также влияние на окружающую среду оказывают отходы табака на окружающую среду. Воздействие табака на окружающую потребления. В Рамочной конвенции Всемирной организации среду происходит во время выращивания и сушки табака, здравоохранения по борьбе против табака проблемам Bull World Health Organ 2015;93:877–880| doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.2471/BLT.15.152744 879 Policy & practice Thomas E Novotny et al. Environmental impacts of tobacco окружающей среды посвящены статьи 17 и 18, в которых среде в результате производства и потребления табачных внимание уделяется в основном сельскохозяйственному изделий. Далее подробно описывается влияние жизненного производству табака. В статье 5.3 отмечается необходимость цикла табачных изделий на окружающую среду и предлагаются защиты от вмешательства табачной промышленности в политику ответные меры в области политики. здравоохранения в плане причинения вреда окружающей Resumen Los efectos medioambientales y sanitarios del cultivo de tabaco y la producción y consumo de cigarrillos Las consecuencias sanitarias del consumo de tabaco son bien conocidas, los Artículos 17 y 18, los cuales se aplican principalmente en el cultivo pero no tanto los significativos efectos que el cultivo y consumo de del tabaco. El Artículo 5.3 exige medidas cautelares respecto a las tabaco tienen en el medio ambiente. Los efectos medioambientales políticas de interferencia de la industria del tabaco en lo que se refiere del tabaco incluyen el crecimiento y la cura del tabaco, la producción a los daños medioambientales del cultivo y el consumo de tabaco. 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