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Characterization of disinfection byproduct precursors based on hydrophobicity and molecular size.

Characterization of disinfection byproduct precursors based on hydrophobicity and molecular size. Natural organic matter (NOM) from five water sources was fractionated using XAD resins and ultrafiltration membranes into different groups based on hydrophobicity and molecular weight (MW), respectively. The disinfection byproduct formation from each fraction during chlorination and chloramination was studied. In tests using chlorination, hydrophobic and high MW (e.g., >0.5 kDa) precursors produced more unknown total organic halogen (UTOX) than corresponding hydrophilic and low MW (e.g., <0.5 kDa) precursors. Trihaloacetic acid (THAA) precursors were more hydrophobic than trihalomethane (THM) precursors. The formation of THM and THAA was similar among different fractions for a water with low humic content. Hydrophilic and low MW (<0.5 kDa) NOM fractions gave the highest dihaloacetic acid (DHAA) yields. No significant difference was found for DHAA formation among different NOM fractions during chloramination. Increasing pH from 6 to 9 led to lower TOX formation for hydrophobic and high MW NOM fractions but had little impact on TOX yields from hydrophilic and low MW fractions. Bromine and iodine were more reactive with hydrophilic and low MW precursors as measured by THM or HAA formation than their corresponding hydrophobic and high MW precursors. However, hydrophobic and high MW precursors produced more UTOX when reacting with bromine and iodine. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Environmental Science & Technology Pubmed

Characterization of disinfection byproduct precursors based on hydrophobicity and molecular size.

Environmental Science & Technology , Volume 41 (9): -3293 – Jun 29, 2007

Characterization of disinfection byproduct precursors based on hydrophobicity and molecular size.


Abstract

Natural organic matter (NOM) from five water sources was fractionated using XAD resins and ultrafiltration membranes into different groups based on hydrophobicity and molecular weight (MW), respectively. The disinfection byproduct formation from each fraction during chlorination and chloramination was studied. In tests using chlorination, hydrophobic and high MW (e.g., >0.5 kDa) precursors produced more unknown total organic halogen (UTOX) than corresponding hydrophilic and low MW (e.g., <0.5 kDa) precursors. Trihaloacetic acid (THAA) precursors were more hydrophobic than trihalomethane (THM) precursors. The formation of THM and THAA was similar among different fractions for a water with low humic content. Hydrophilic and low MW (<0.5 kDa) NOM fractions gave the highest dihaloacetic acid (DHAA) yields. No significant difference was found for DHAA formation among different NOM fractions during chloramination. Increasing pH from 6 to 9 led to lower TOX formation for hydrophobic and high MW NOM fractions but had little impact on TOX yields from hydrophilic and low MW fractions. Bromine and iodine were more reactive with hydrophilic and low MW precursors as measured by THM or HAA formation than their corresponding hydrophobic and high MW precursors. However, hydrophobic and high MW precursors produced more UTOX when reacting with bromine and iodine.

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ISSN
0013-936X
DOI
10.1021/es062178c
pmid
17539542

Abstract

Natural organic matter (NOM) from five water sources was fractionated using XAD resins and ultrafiltration membranes into different groups based on hydrophobicity and molecular weight (MW), respectively. The disinfection byproduct formation from each fraction during chlorination and chloramination was studied. In tests using chlorination, hydrophobic and high MW (e.g., >0.5 kDa) precursors produced more unknown total organic halogen (UTOX) than corresponding hydrophilic and low MW (e.g., <0.5 kDa) precursors. Trihaloacetic acid (THAA) precursors were more hydrophobic than trihalomethane (THM) precursors. The formation of THM and THAA was similar among different fractions for a water with low humic content. Hydrophilic and low MW (<0.5 kDa) NOM fractions gave the highest dihaloacetic acid (DHAA) yields. No significant difference was found for DHAA formation among different NOM fractions during chloramination. Increasing pH from 6 to 9 led to lower TOX formation for hydrophobic and high MW NOM fractions but had little impact on TOX yields from hydrophilic and low MW fractions. Bromine and iodine were more reactive with hydrophilic and low MW precursors as measured by THM or HAA formation than their corresponding hydrophobic and high MW precursors. However, hydrophobic and high MW precursors produced more UTOX when reacting with bromine and iodine.

Journal

Environmental Science & TechnologyPubmed

Published: Jun 29, 2007

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