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Effects of Anisakis simplex on nitric oxide production in J774 macrophages.

Effects of Anisakis simplex on nitric oxide production in J774 macrophages. Since nitric oxide (NO) was recognized as a potent microbicidal agent, its role in host defence against intracellular parasites has been widely demonstrated. Recent evidence suggests a role for NO in combating extracellular and multicellular pathogens. This defence activity has been demonstrated toward the larvae of Schistosoma mansoni, microfilariae of Onchocerca linealis, several stages of Brugia malayi and protoscoleces of Echinococcus multilocularis. Many parasites suppress Th1 lymphocytes and directly inhibit NO production by inducing cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Anisakis simplex, an enhancer of Th2-dominant responses, on NO production. We studied the effect of crude extracts (CE) and excretory-secretory (ES) products on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated J774 macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages by LPS (1 microg/ml) increased nitrite concentrations in the culture medium at 24 h. Co-administration of A. simplex products with LPS, dose-dependently reduced the accumulation of nitrite. Nitrite production is due to induction of iNOS, and both L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) (50 microM) and dexamethasone (10 microM) inhibited nitrite accumulation (54.2 and 92.1% inhibition, respectively). The inhibition of nitrite production by A. simplex was 42.1-97.8% in the range 4.75-76 microg/well (CE products) and 37.2-61.5% in the range 5-20 microg/well (ES products). Cell viability assayed by the mitochondrial-dependent reduction of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) verified that the inhibition was not due to general cellular toxicity. However, the effects of A. simplex, were reduced when NOS had been induced by prior exposure to LPS and any possible further induction was blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis. http://www.deepdyve.com/assets/images/DeepDyve-Logo-lg.png Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases Pubmed

Effects of Anisakis simplex on nitric oxide production in J774 macrophages.

Scandinavian journal of infectious diseases , Volume 30 (6): -596 – Jun 10, 1999

Effects of Anisakis simplex on nitric oxide production in J774 macrophages.


Abstract

Since nitric oxide (NO) was recognized as a potent microbicidal agent, its role in host defence against intracellular parasites has been widely demonstrated. Recent evidence suggests a role for NO in combating extracellular and multicellular pathogens. This defence activity has been demonstrated toward the larvae of Schistosoma mansoni, microfilariae of Onchocerca linealis, several stages of Brugia malayi and protoscoleces of Echinococcus multilocularis. Many parasites suppress Th1 lymphocytes and directly inhibit NO production by inducing cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Anisakis simplex, an enhancer of Th2-dominant responses, on NO production. We studied the effect of crude extracts (CE) and excretory-secretory (ES) products on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated J774 macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages by LPS (1 microg/ml) increased nitrite concentrations in the culture medium at 24 h. Co-administration of A. simplex products with LPS, dose-dependently reduced the accumulation of nitrite. Nitrite production is due to induction of iNOS, and both L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) (50 microM) and dexamethasone (10 microM) inhibited nitrite accumulation (54.2 and 92.1% inhibition, respectively). The inhibition of nitrite production by A. simplex was 42.1-97.8% in the range 4.75-76 microg/well (CE products) and 37.2-61.5% in the range 5-20 microg/well (ES products). Cell viability assayed by the mitochondrial-dependent reduction of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) verified that the inhibition was not due to general cellular toxicity. However, the effects of A. simplex, were reduced when NOS had been induced by prior exposure to LPS and any possible further induction was blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis.

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ISSN
0036-5548
DOI
10.1080/00365549850161179
pmid
10225390

Abstract

Since nitric oxide (NO) was recognized as a potent microbicidal agent, its role in host defence against intracellular parasites has been widely demonstrated. Recent evidence suggests a role for NO in combating extracellular and multicellular pathogens. This defence activity has been demonstrated toward the larvae of Schistosoma mansoni, microfilariae of Onchocerca linealis, several stages of Brugia malayi and protoscoleces of Echinococcus multilocularis. Many parasites suppress Th1 lymphocytes and directly inhibit NO production by inducing cytokines, such as IL-4, IL-10 and TGF-beta. In this study, we have investigated the effects of Anisakis simplex, an enhancer of Th2-dominant responses, on NO production. We studied the effect of crude extracts (CE) and excretory-secretory (ES) products on the induction of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated J774 macrophages. Stimulation of macrophages by LPS (1 microg/ml) increased nitrite concentrations in the culture medium at 24 h. Co-administration of A. simplex products with LPS, dose-dependently reduced the accumulation of nitrite. Nitrite production is due to induction of iNOS, and both L-NAME (N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) (50 microM) and dexamethasone (10 microM) inhibited nitrite accumulation (54.2 and 92.1% inhibition, respectively). The inhibition of nitrite production by A. simplex was 42.1-97.8% in the range 4.75-76 microg/well (CE products) and 37.2-61.5% in the range 5-20 microg/well (ES products). Cell viability assayed by the mitochondrial-dependent reduction of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) verified that the inhibition was not due to general cellular toxicity. However, the effects of A. simplex, were reduced when NOS had been induced by prior exposure to LPS and any possible further induction was blocked by cycloheximide, an inhibitor of protein synthesis.

Journal

Scandinavian journal of infectious diseasesPubmed

Published: Jun 10, 1999

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